A brief account of the transition from Emperor Shun of Han Dynasty to Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty

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Emperor Shundi of Han Dynasty

In AD 125, Emperor Han’an died on his way to the south. At that time, empress Yan, Yan Xian and other ministers who were afraid of the capital took the opportunity to make Jiyin King Liubao emperor, so they hurried back to Luoyang without any loss. When they arrived in Luoyang, empress Yan and her family decided to mourn emperor Han’an. Empress Yan plans to face the imperial court by herself and select a young child Liu Yi (the son of liushou, king of Jibei, the grandson of emperor Zhang of Han Dynasty, and the Marquis of BEIXIANG) as the emperor. She has become the Empress Dowager herself.

When empress Yan came to the imperial court, Yan Xian became a general in charge of chariots and horses. Yan Xian replaced Sangong (Taiwei, situ and Sikong) and executed Geng Bao, a senior general, FanFeng, Xiehui, Zhou Guang and Wang Sheng, a wild king, on charges of forming a party for personal gain. Yan Jing, Yan Xian’s brother, became a guard, Yan Yao became a city gate captain, and Yan Yan became the ruler of Jinwu. The Yan Family suddenly dominated the court.

A few months later, the infant emperor Liu Yi died of illness. Empress dowager Yan and Yan Xian had not yet discussed which prince to set up. Sun Cheng, the standing Minister of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, had secretly contacted ten eunuchs. One night, he suddenly launched a campaign to kill the internal servants Jiang Jing, Liu An and Chen Da, and captured Li run alive. Li Ran surrendered. That night, they made Liu Bao, the 11 year old king of Jiyin, the emperor of Han Shun. Then sun Cheng put all the Yanxian brothers in prison and put them to death. He put empress dowager Yan under house arrest and left the palace. Within a few days, Empress Dowager Yan also died. Sun Cheng and his 19 eunuchs were all marquees. The regime of the Eastern Han Dynasty was suddenly transferred from relatives to eunuchs.

In the Han Dynasty, Emperor he only made Zhengzhong, a eunuch, a marquis. Now, the 19 eunuchs who have been made Marquis have been making the imperial court restless. Sun Cheng had some insight. He asked Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty to worship Zuo Xiong as the minister, and still appointed a group of ministers. The 19 eunuchs who had been granted marques returned to their own fiefs. Zuo Xiong also asked Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty to issue an imperial edict to recruit famous scholars. Chen fan, Li Ying, Chen Qiu, Li Gu, Ma Rong, Zhang Heng and others were successively called. These people were all highly valued by Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty. Among them, Zhang Heng is not only a famous writer, but also a famous scientist. The seismograph (AD 132) invented by him is the earliest instrument in the world to determine the orientation of earthquakes. It was not until 1700 that the first seismograph appeared in Europe.

In 132 ad, when Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty was 18 years old, he established the noble Liang family as the empress. The father of the empress Liang Shang became zhijinwu, and her brother Liang Ji and brother Liang Buyi also became officials. Later, Liang Shang became a general. He used to learn from the fate of his relatives. He dared not be too authoritarian and kept in touch with eunuchs.

After sun Cheng’s death, Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty made an exception to allow sun Cheng’s adopted son, sun Shou, to inherit the title and the fief. In this way, a bad start was made. Eunuchs vied for the adopted son. After sun Cheng, Cao Jie, Cao Teng, Meng Ben and other eunuchs were favored by Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty.

In 141 ad, Liang Shang, a top general, died of illness. Liang Ji became a top general, and Liang Buyi succeeded his brother as Henan Yin. Unlike his father, Liang Ji is a dissolute and cruel man. When he was Yin of Henan Province, he sent people to assassinate LV Fang and implicated more than 100 people because Luoyang ordered him to speak disrespectfully to him. After he became a general, he did what he wanted, and the people were forced to revolt one after another.

As the local people revolted one after another, Zhou Ju, the remonstrating doctor, wrote to Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty, requesting that the local officials be thoroughly investigated. Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty sent eight ministers, including Zhou Ju, Du Qiao and Zhang Gang, to inspect various places. When Zhang Gang arrived at the Luoyang capital Pavilion, he became more and more angry. He destroyed the car and buried the wheels. When others asked him, he said, “jackals are in charge. Ask the fox!” Simply, he wrote to impeach the “jackal” Liang Ji and Liang Buyi. Although Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty knew that the Liang brothers were evil, he dared not offend them, so he had to put Zhang Gang’s memorial aside. But Liang Ji hated Zhang Gang and tried to get rid of him all the time. Zhang Ying, a Guangling native, just gathered tens of thousands of people to revolt. Liang Ji took the opportunity to recommend Zhang Gang as Guangling’s prefect and asked him to die. Zhang Gang went to Guangling with a dozen attendants to see Zhang Ying and persuaded him. Zhang Ying dismissed the troops. Zhang Gang punished corrupt officials and the Guangling area soon settled down. Zhang Gang made great contributions. Emperor Han Shun planned to seal him off, but Liang Ji opposed it. A year later, Zhang Gang died at the age of 36. Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty made his son Zhang Xu a doctor.

In 144 ad, Emperor Shun died of illness. Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty ascended the throne at the age of 11 and reigned for 19 years. He was only 30 years old and was buried in Xianling after his death.

After the death of Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty, Prince Liu Bing ascended the throne, that is, Emperor Chong of the Han Dynasty, and empress Liang was honored as empress dowager. Emperor Chong of the Han Dynasty was only two years old when he ascended the throne. Within a year, he died.

After the death of emperor Chong of the Han Dynasty and the death of Emperor Shun of the Han Dynasty, the Minister of the Gongqing government proposed two people, Liu Suan, king of the Qinghe River, and Liu Zan, king of Haohai. Both of them were great grandsons of emperor Zhang of the Han Dynasty. Tai Wei Li Gu advocated the establishment of an older Liu Suan, but empress dowager Liang and Liang Ji decided to establish an 8-year-old Liu Zan, the emperor of the Han Dynasty, in order to dominate the government.

Although emperor Zhidi of Han Dynasty was only 8 years old, he was already very smart. Soon after he ascended the throne, he had seen the face of Liang Ji clearly. One day, he pointed to Liang Ji in front of all civil and military officials in the court hall and said, “this is a domineering general.” Hearing this, Liang Ji hated and was afraid. He asked the waiter to put the poison in the cake and take it up. Emperor Zhi of Han Dynasty ate the cake and soon died. Li Gu wept bitterly over the corpse. Within a year of his reign, Emperor Zhi of Han was poisoned by Liang Ji.

After the death of emperor Zhi of Han Dynasty, Li Gu, Du Qiao and other ministers advocated the establishment of liusuan, the king of Qinghe River. However, Empress Dowager Liang and Liang Ji took a fancy to Liu Zhi, the 15-year-old Marquis of Liwu, and wanted to make him emperor. Li Gu wrote against it and was dismissed by Empress Dowager Liang. In 147 ad, Liu Zhi ascended the throne and was Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty. Empress Dowager Liang was in charge of the court, and Liang Ji was in charge of the court.

In August of that year, Empress Dowager Liang married her little sister to Emperor Huan of Han Dynasty, who made her queen. In this way, one of the Liang sisters became empress dowager and the other queen. When empress Liang married, Liang Ji wanted to use the national treasury, but Du Qiao refused. Empress dowager Liang looked for an opportunity to dismiss him.

Liuwen from Ganling and liutuna from Nanjun wanted to make Liu Suan king. Liu Suan was afraid, killed them and reported to the court. After hearing the eunuch’s words, Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty demoted Liu Suan by one level and renamed him Hou. Liu Suan was so angry that she poisoned herself. Liang Ji took the opportunity to frame Li Gu, Du Qiao, Liu Wen and Liu tuna as accomplices and arrested them. Li Gu and Du Qiao committed suicide in prison.

In the first month of 150 A.D., the Empress Dowager of Liang was seriously ill. She issued an imperial edict to grant amnesty to the world and returned the imperial government to Emperor Huan of Han Dynasty. A month later, she died. When the Empress Dowager Liang died, the power of the imperial court actually fell to Liang Ji. Liang and Ji are in power and even more lawless. On the new year’s day of 151 A.D., ministers paid new year’s greetings to Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty. Liang Ji swaggered into the court hall with his sword. The minister Zhang Ling was so angry that he ordered the Yulin army to come forward and take away his sword.

Like Zhang Ling, there was another official of the Kuanshi faction named Zhu Mu. In AD 153, Zhu Mu became the governor of Jizhou. Before Zhu Mu arrived, there were more than 40 corrupt officials who tried to escape by hanging their seals. Later, many people were arrested and punished by Zhu Mu. The eunuch Zhaozhong gave his father a funeral. He was very extravagant and violated the system. Zhu Mu was punished according to law, but was arrested and imprisoned by Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty. Thousands of students led by Liu Tao went to the palace gate to appeal their grievances. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty had no choice but to release Zhu Mu.

As relatives and eunuchs controlled the imperial government, Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty only knew immorality and music, and people everywhere revolted one after another. In 156 A.D., Xianbei, which became increasingly powerful in the northeast, also invaded the south. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty appointed Li Ying as general of Du Liao, which made the northeast border stable.

In 159 ad, empress Liang died of illness, and the noble Liang Meng was favored. Liangmeng was originally surnamed Deng. Liangji and his wife took her as their daughter and sent her to the palace. Therefore, everyone thought she was Liangji’s daughter. Liangji was afraid that Liang GUI’s mother, Xuan, would reveal the secret, so he sent someone to assassinate her. Unexpectedly, the assassin was caught. Liang Guiren told emperor Huan the truth. Emperor Huan was very angry and decided to get rid of Liang Ji. He secretly contacted five eunuchs, Shan Chao, Xu Huang, Ju Yuan, Zuo Xuan and Tang Heng, and launched more than 1000 Yulin troops. They suddenly surrounded Liang Ji’s house. Liang Ji and his wife, sun Shou, took poison and committed suicide. All the members of the Liang and sun families were executed, and more than 300 officials were punished. The family property of Liangji was confiscated, worth more than 300000 yuan in total.

Because Shan Chao and other five eunuchs had made meritorious contributions to the destruction of Liang and Ji, they were all sealed as eunuchs, that is, the so-called “five eunuchs”, and the regime of the Eastern Han Dynasty was completely transferred into the hands of eunuchs. Liang Meng restored the original Deng surname, and Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty made Deng Guiren queen.

The imperial court was ruled by eunuchs. They were so angry that their cronies and minions were everywhere. There was no law. Xu Huang’s nephew, Xu Xuan, made a piling order, forcibly robbed the civilian girl, and shot her to death as an arrow target. Huang Fu, the Prime Minister of the East China Sea, was not afraid of power and beheaded Xu Xuan. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty heard Xu Huang’s slander and dismissed Huang Fu as a criminal. Baima ordered Li Yun to write a letter criticizing emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty for abusing his eunuchs. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty imprisoned him. Minister Du Zhong wrote that he would die with Li Yun. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty was so angry that he put Du Zhong in prison again. Chen fan and several other ministers jointly wrote a letter to intercede for Li Yun and Du Zhong. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty sacked them and killed Li Yun and Du Zhong.

As emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty favored eunuchs, celebrities at that time, such as Xu Zhi, Jiang humerus, Wei Zhu, Yuan Hong, Li Tan and Wei Huan, were reluctant to become officials. Guo Tai, Mao Rong, Meng min, and Shen Tupan, among others, all strive to be “famous scholars”, willing to be a student rather than an official. Talented ministers such as Li Ying, fan Pang, dumi, chen fan and Chen Shi were removed from office from time to time. So at that time, the officials, students and celebrities of the Guanzhi faction had virtually formed a united front against the eunuch group, which called them “party members”.

In 165 A.D., Li Ying became a senior colonel of Sili. Zhang Shuo, the brother of eunuch Zhang rang, was a yewang county magistrate. He committed all kinds of crimes. Li Ying wanted to arrest him. He hid in his brother Zhang rang’s house. Li Ying just found him and executed him according to law. So Zhang rang hated Li Ying. Zhang Cheng, an alchemist in Henan Province, has always made friends with eunuchs. He learned from Hou LAN, a minister of Zhongchang that an amnesty would be granted within a day, so he pretended to be in control, looked at the wind and looked at the Qi, and claimed that he had divined that an amnesty would be granted within a day. In order to test his ability, he asked his son to kill. After Li Ying caught Zhang Cheng’s son, the imperial edict of amnesty came down. When Li Ying learned of Zhang Cheng’s shameless behavior, he resolutely executed his son. Hou LAN and Zhang rang advised Zhang Cheng to send his adopted son to prison to write a letter accusing Li Ying of forming cliques for personal gain, slandering the imperial court and corrupting customs. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty immediately ordered the arrest of the party members without asking about right or wrong. In this way, Li Ying, Du MI, fan Pang, Guo Tai and other 200 people were put in prison. He also dismissed chen fan, a lieutenant who defended the party members.

In 167 A.D., Jiabiao, a native of Yingchuan, and Dou Wu, a city gate Captain (the great grandson of Dou Rong and the father of empress Dou, the newly established emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty), and Shuhuo Chen, a monk, wrote to Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty asking for the release of the party members. Chen Ying and others began to fight back in prison. They listed some eunuchs’ children, saying that they were also allies. The eunuchs were afraid and asked emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty to release them. Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty released the party members, but left their names behind. He was not allowed to be an official all his life. This incident was called the first “disaster of Party imprisonment”.

When the party members got out of prison, they went back to their hometown separately. Guotai returned to Taiyuan from Luoyang. Almost all the students went to the Bank of the Yellow River to see him off. There were thousands of cars. Fan Pang returned to Runan and passed by Nanyang. The literati of Nanyang welcomed him. There were thousands of cars.

It was in the winter of 167 that emperor Huan died. He has set up three queens. There are dozens of dignitaries and thousands of palace maids. He is a dissolute emperor. He ascended the throne at the age of 15, reigned for 21 years, died at the age of 36, and was buried in Xuanling.

Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty had no son. Empress Dou discussed with her father Dou Wu to make Liuhong, the 12-year-old great grandson of Liukai, the king of Hejian, Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty. In 168 A.D., Emperor Hanling ascended the throne and honored empress Dou as empress dowager. People all over the world hope that the Han Dynasty will prosper from then on.

Although empress dowager Dou attached great importance to Chen Fan and relied more on her father Dou Wu, she was surrounded by eunuchs Cao Jie and Wang Fu all day in the palace and regarded them as close friends. Chen fan and Dou Wu asked empress dowager Dou to destroy eunuchs, but empress dowager Dou couldn’t make up her mind. Hou LAN, Cao Jie, Wang Fu and others learned of Chen Fan’s and Dou Wu’s plans, so they started first. They took a stick and arrested chen fan and immediately killed him. He also sent soldiers to besiege Dou Wu, who committed suicide. Then they entered the Changle palace, forced empress dowager Dou to hand over the jade seal and shut her up in the Nangong. All the relatives and disciples of Chen Fan and Dou Wu were killed, and Li Ying and Du MI were dismissed from their posts.

The next year, in 169 A.D., Hou LAN and Cao Jie ordered their confidants to write a memorial, saying that the party members slandered the imperial court and attempted to revolt, asking the Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty to issue an imperial edict to arrest them. At that time, Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty was only 14 years old and was manipulated by eunuchs. Therefore, he issued an imperial edict to arrest the party members. Li Ying, Du MI and fan blasphemy knew they could not escape, and they did not want to involve others. They all took the initiative to see officials and died in prison. More than 100 people were killed with Li Ying, and sixorseven people were killed, exiled and imprisoned because of their involvement. In 171 ad, Emperor Hanling granted amnesty to the whole world, but only the party members did not. In 176 ad, under the coercion of eunuchs, Emperor Hanling ordered all Party members, such as old officials, father, son and brothers, to be freed from official imprisonment, and even the five families. This incident was called the second “disaster of Party imprisonment”.

Although Guo Tai was not killed in the disaster of Party imprisonment, he has seen that the world of the Han Dynasty will not last long. The Hanling emperor was ignorant, and the imperial power was in the hands of eunuchs. Cao Luan, the governor of Yongchang, wrote a letter asking for pardon of his followers and was condemned to death. Yi Lang Cai Yong was dissatisfied with the eunuch, and his family was exiled to Shuofang. In 178 ad, Emperor Hanling set up an organization in Xiyuan so that rich people could go there to buy official titles. After that, corrupt officials were rampant in the imperial court and all over the country. Coupled with years of famine, the common people could no longer live. Finally, the Yellow turban uprising broke out in 184. In 189 ad, Emperor Hanling died. He ascended the throne at the age of 12, reigned for 23 years, died at the age of 35, and was buried in Wenling. When later generations talk about the fatuous and decadent monarch, they mostly refer to Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty, and they are also called “huanling”. As soon as emperor Hanling died, the regime of the Eastern Han Dynasty was in fact ruined.

2 thoughts on “A brief account of the transition from Emperor Shun of Han Dynasty to Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty

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