A brief introduction to the history of King Ping’s eastward migration_ The time when Ping Wang moved eastward_ History of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties

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King Ping’s eastward move was a historical event in the early Eastern Zhou Dynasty when the Zhou royal family moved the capital from Haojing to Luoyi.



During the reign of king you of Zhou Dynasty, empress Shen and Prince Yi Jiu were abolished, and his beloved Baosi was made queen, and Bofu was the prince. In 771 BC, Shen Hou, the father of the empress Shen, collaborated with Gongrong to break the ho capital. King Youwang of Zhou lit a beacon for help, and the princes ignored it because they had been teased by the beacon before. King you of Zhou was finally killed in Lishan, and the Western Zhou Dynasty perished. Later, the princes established the crown prince Yijiu as king, which was king of Zhou Ping. Due to the damage caused by the earthquake in Haojing, which was extremely dilapidated and close to the threat of foreign invasion such as Rong and Di, King Ping moved the capital to Luoyi in the second year after he ascended the throne (770 BC), under the protection of princes such as Zheng, Qin and Jin, and began the history of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

The eastward migration of King Ping was an important event for historians to divide time periods, and it was also a turning point in the national power of the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty after King Ping moved its capital was called the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, while the period from the establishment of King Wu of Zhou to the murder of king you of Zhou was called the Western Zhou Dynasty. After King Ping moved eastward, the throne of the prince of Zhou began to decline, and he could not bear the responsibility of the Communist Party, and the vassal forces continued to grow. Because King Ping was supported by Duke Shen and indirectly committed the crime of killing his father, he was not respected by the princes at the beginning. Moreover, the emperor of Zhou was unable to protect himself and resist foreign invasion, and had to rely on the protection of the vassal states, resulting in the continuous decline of the status of the emperor of Zhou, and finally formed the situation of hegemony in the spring and Autumn period.


Royal civil strife

At the end of the Western Zhou Dynasty, there were many contradictions within the royal family. In 781 BC, Prince Xuan you ascended the throne. You Wang was so lucky to praise Si that he didn’t even hesitate to tease the princes with the beacon fire and make them laugh. All the princes were very dissatisfied. In order to please Baosi, the king ignored the opposition of the royal family, abolished the crown prince Yijiu and established Baosi’s son Bofu, and abolished the queen Shen and established Baosi as the queen. Baosi was the daughter of the Si surname of the Baoguo state, Shenhou was the daughter of Shenhou, and Shenhou was the Jiang surname, which triggered a fierce struggle between the Si surname and the Jiang surname, and laid a curse for the destruction of the Western Zhou Dynasty.

Peripheral foreign aggression

There is also the frequent invasion of foreign enemies. Zongzhou Haojing, bordering on the nomadic tribes in the northwest, is often invaded by nomadic tribes. In 771 BC, Shen Hou contacted with Gongrong to attack the Youwang, but the princes did not come to rescue him. Hourong and Shen Hou quickly attacked Haojing. The king hurried to Lishan and was killed by Rong of Lishan. At this time, Guanzhong was full of Rong people, the palace was looted, and the land was deserted.

Frequent disasters

Another important reason for Pingwang’s eastward move was that natural disasters were serious at that time. According to historical records, in the late years of King Xuan, the northwest Guanzhong area suffered from years of drought, and the Luo, Jing and Wei rivers dried up, seriously affecting agricultural production. At the same time, earthquakes and landslides occurred in Qishan area, which seriously threatened the production and life of the people. According to the theory of Yin-Yang and five elements, Bo Yang, the founder of Zhou Tai Shi, believed that this was a sign that Zhou would perish. In addition, in the early years of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Duke of Zhou Yingluo also created good conditions for moving eastward.


Only after King Youwang of Zhou “played with the princes in the flames of war” did the princes all over the country know that it turned out that Gou Rong had really entered the capital. So they came to Beijing with a large group of people to rescue. The princes beat back the soldiers, made the original crown prince Yijiu the son of heaven, that is, King Ping of Zhou, and then returned to their respective fiefs.

I didn’t expect that as soon as these princes left the front foot, the Hourong came in again, and they often invaded. At that time, the capital palace was burned down, the National Treasury was in deficit, and a lot of land in the West was occupied by soldiers, and the border flames continued year after year. So the king of Ping negotiated with his ministers to move the capital to Luoyi (now Luoyang). The Duke of Zhou objected, “no! Although Luoyi lives in the world, it is attacked on all sides; as for Haojing, there are Gushan and Hangu pass on the left, and Longguo and Shuguo on the right, and there are thousands of miles of fertile fields, which can definitely be called the land of abundance. Now, if the king wants to abandon Haojing and move his capital to Luoyi, his ministers think it is impossible!” King Ping did not listen to the advice of Duke Zhou and moved the capital to Luoyi. When King Ping moved eastward, there was no migration of the people of Feng and Hao. Therefore, when Luoyi was founded, it could only rely on the power of the princes, and from then on it fell into the control of the princes. The princes, each dominating the other side, launched more than 500 years of carnage.

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