A brief introduction to the Qin Dynasty and an overview of its history

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Starting year

Year of termination

Imperial Chronicle


Imperial Chronicle


Qin Zhong ? Zhuang Gong ? Xiang Gong ? Wen Gong ? Ning Gong ? outgoing Gong ? Wu Gong ? De Gong ? Xuan Gong ? Cheng Gong ? Mu Gong ? Kang Gong ? Gong Gong Gong ? Huan Gong ? Jing Gong ? AI Gong ? Hui Gong ? mourn Gong ? Li Gong ? manic Gong ? Huai Gong ? Ling Gong ? Jian Gong ? Hui Gong ? outgoing son ? Xian Gong ? Xiao Gong ? King Huiwen ? King Wu ? King Zhao ? King Xiaowen ? King Zhuang Xiang ?

founder of imperial China

Qinshihuang 26

two hundred and twenty-one

Qinshihuang 37

two hundred and ten

259-210 BC), the first founding emperor of the Qin Dynasty to complete the reunification of China. Later generations called it “one emperor through the ages”. The surname is Ying and the name is Zheng. The son of Ying Yiren, King Zhuang Xiang of Qin Dynasty. Born in Handan, the capital of Zhao state (now Handan City, Hebei Province), Han nationality. Therefore, the surname Zhao (in the pre Qin period, the surnames were not unified. The men were surnamed and the women were surnamed, so the first emperor of Qin was called Zhaozheng). In 247 B.C., when King Zheng of Qin was 13 years old, he became the king. Because of his youth, the government of Qin was under the control of the Empress Dowager and the prime minister lvbuwei and Pei. In 238 B.C. (the ninth year of the reign of King Qin), at the age of 22, the first emperor of Qin held an adult coronation ceremony in Yongcheng, the former capital of Qin, and officially ascended the throne. He removed Lu, Gu and others, and put Lisi and Wei Liao in high position. From 230 B.C. to 221 B.C., he successively destroyed the six kingdoms of Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi, completing the great cause of unifying China, The Qin Dynasty, the first powerful multi-ethnic feudal empire with the early Han nationality as the main body, was established. The capital is Xianyang. King Zheng of Qin thought that his contribution was better than that of the previous three emperors and five emperors, and changed the title agreed by the ministers to “emperor”.

Second Emperor of the Qin dynasty

Qinshihuang 27 (July)

two hundred and ten

The third year of the second Emperor

two hundred and seven

Qin II Ying huhai (230-207 BC), also known as emperor II. He is the younger brother of Ying Fusu, the twenty sixth son of Qinshihuang. When the first emperor of Qin died of illness on his way to the south, with the help of zhaogao and Lisi, he killed his brother Fusu as the second emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Hu Hai had only been emperor for three years. He was led by Yan Le, Zhao Gao’s son-in-law, and pretended to arrest thieves. He rushed into Hu Hai’s palace and forced him to pull a sword and commit suicide. He was only 23 years old when he died.

Child and infant

Second year of the second year (August)

two hundred and seven

The third year of the second reign (October)

two hundred and six

Ying Ziying (? Years – 206 B.C.) reigned for 47 days. Character forbears weakness. His life background is unknown. Hu Hai was killed. Zhao Gaoying made Ziying succeed to the throne. At that time, the territory of Qin was smaller than that before reunification, so zhaogaorang Ziying could not be called the emperor, only the king, but the king of Qin. Five days after Ziying ascended the throne, he designed to kill Zhao Gao and immediately executed all his family members. According to the historical records, Zhao Gao tried to invite the rebels to Xianyang and promised to kill all the Qin clans. Ziying knew about it and killed him first. Liu Bang first entered Guanzhong. After arriving at Bashang, he persuaded Ziying to surrender and got Ziying’s consent. Ziying tied himself with a rope and went to Liu Bangjun to surrender with the emperor’s jade seal and amulet. The Qin Dynasty officially ended at the moment Ziying surrendered. Liu Bang did not execute his son, but handed him over to the accompanying officials. Before long, Xiang Yu also led a large army to Guanzhong. Liu Bang retreated because he was unable to fight. After Xiangyu entered Xianyang City, he immediately killed his son and baby, and carried out a massacre. The accumulation of the Qin Dynasty has been burned up.


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When Qinshihuang was named the “first emperor”, he wanted to extend the Qin Dynasty for thousands of generations, but he never thought that the Qin Dynasty would perish when it was spread to the second emperor only 15 years later. Although he has taken various measures to consolidate his rule, his autocracy and excessive collection have already laid the root of his evil. He enlisted more than 700000 people to build the Afang palace and spent a lot of human and financial resources to build the Lishan mausoleum. The story of Meng Jiangnu crying over the Great Wall is an indictment of his cruel taxes and servitude. Frequent wars, huge bureaucracies and continuous construction have shaken the foundation of rule, and the people are overwhelmed and in extreme pain. In 209 BC, the peasant uprising of Chen Sheng, Wu Guang broke out; In 206 BC, the Qin Dynasty was overthrown.

The Qin Dynasty was a unified dynasty developed from the Qin State in the late Warring States period. It was the first multi-ethnic unified centralized empire in Chinese history. Qinshihuang completed the cause of unifying the six major feudal states and realized the transformation from the enfeoffment system to the prefecture and county system. The centralized system he established and the measures he took (to consolidate unity) were used by later emperors.

The Qin Dynasty’s brutal expedition led to quick death. The peasant uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang in the last years was the first peasant uprising in Chinese history and had a far-reaching impact. Due to the influence of the past separatist regime, the trend of division reappeared in the process of anti Qin. In the ensuing struggle between Chu and Han (207-202 BC), Han defeated Chu, controlled the separatist situation and unified the country, thus establishing a centralized Dynasty

Interpretation of country name

According to the historical records, this was an ancient tribe. Feizi, the leader of the tribe, was meritorious in herding horses by King Xiao of Zhou. He was given the surname “Ying” by King Xiao of Zhou and a small piece of land Qin (today’s Qinting in shuilongxi county is the name of Qingshui County in Qinzhou). Later, Duke Xiang of Qin made meritorious efforts to save Zhou and was granted the title of vassal. The first emperor of Qin unified the six countries and began to build the “Qin” Dynasty.

In the 17th year (230 B.C.) of the reign of King Qin, Shi Teng led his troops to destroy South Korea, captured king an of South Korea, and acquired the land of South Korea, which was set as Yingchuan county. South Korea died.

In the 19th year of the reign of the king of Qin (228 BC), the Qin army invaded Handan, the capital of the state of Zhao (before that, it killed 400000 troops of the state of Zhao). Zhao Wang Qian was forced to surrender to Qin, and Zhao broke.

In the 20th year of the reign of the king of Qin (227 BC), Prince Dan of the state of Yan sent Jing Ke to assassinate the king of Qin. The king of Qin immediately sent Wang Jian to lead the attack on Yan.

In the 21st year of the reign of the king of Qin (226 BC), Wang Jian broke through the thistle of Yandu. The king of Yan killed Prince Dan for peace and Yan broke through.

In the 22nd year of the reign of King Qin (225 B.C.), Wang Ben led 600000 troops to attack the state of Wei, surrounded Daliang, the capital of Wei, and diverted the Yellow River gap to irrigate Daliang. Three months later, the city of Daliang was broken, the king of Wei pretended to surrender, and Wei died.

In the 23rd year of the reign of the king of Qin (224 BC), Wang Jian led 100000 troops to attack the state of Chu. He stationed troops to practice martial arts, built walls and waited for work. A year later, the Chu army was demoralized and short of food and grass, so it withdrew from the front line. Wang Jian took the opportunity to pursue and destroy the main force of Chu army, occupied Shouchun, the capital of Chu, captured the king of Chu, and killed himself.

In the 25th year of the reign of King Qin (222 BC), Wang Ben fought in Liaodong and captured King Yan Xi; Then he laid down Daicheng and captured Daiwang Jia. Yan and Zhao completely perished. Wang Jian led his troops across the Yangtze River, pacified the south of the Yangtze River, destroyed the state of Yue and set up Kuaiji Prefecture.

In the 26th year of the reign of King Qin (221 BC), Wang Ben led his army south to attack the state of Qi. Wang Jian of Qi surrendered and Qi died.

The establishment of authoritarian centralism

In 221 B.C., Ying Zheng, the king of Qin (reigned from 246 to 210 B.C.), unified the six states, ended the long-term separation of vassal states, and established a vast country with Xianyang as its capital. The territory of this country extends to the sea in the East, Longxi in the west, Lingnan in the south, Hetao, Yinshan and Liaodong in the north. The king of Qin adopted the title of “Three Emperors and five emperors” in the legend and declared himself the first emperor of the country, that is, the first emperor. Later generations inherited it from generation to generation and passed it on to the second and third emperors. He believed that the system of taking the emperor’s behavior as his posthumous title after his death was “the son discusses the father, and the minister discusses the king”, which was detrimental to the dignity of the emperor, so he announced the cancellation. He stipulated that the emperor called himself “Zhen” and formulated a system of courtship and paperwork that respected the monarch and restrained the ministers. All these are to show the supreme authority of the emperor and to show that Qin’s rule will last forever.

The feudal system of establishing vassal states since the Zhou Dynasty is incompatible with the autocracy of imperial power and the unification of the country, so it must be changed. In the 26th year of the first emperor (221 BC), the Prime Minister Wang Wan asked the princes to be crowned king of Yan, Qi and Chu, which was approved by all the ministers. Li Sili, a member of the imperial court, held that the system of enfeoffment of princes should be abolished and the system of prefectures and counties should be fully implemented. Qin Shihuang accepted Lisi’s proposal and divided the country into 36 counties, which were successively added to more than 40 counties. These counties are completely controlled by the central government and the emperor. They are local administrative units under the central government. The system of centralized power was established from then on. In the twenty eighth year of the first emperor’s reign, the stone inscription of Yishan said: “remember the troubled times, divide the civil States, and strive for reason”; “This is the royal family, one family and the world, and the soldiers will never rise again.”. This shows that Qinshihuang believed that abolishing the enfeoffment of counties and counties was necessary to eliminate military disputes in various regions.

Based on the official system of the state of Qin in the Warring States period, Qinshihuang adjusted and expanded the official system and built a new set of government institutions to meet the needs of unifying the country. In this institution, the central government set up prime ministers, Taiwei and censor doctors. The prime minister has two members, left and right, who are in charge of political affairs. Taiwei is in charge of military affairs and does not often set it up. The censor is the second deputy to the prime minister, who is in charge of the Secretary of the books and oversees all officials. The prime minister, Taiwei, and censor doctor are the various secretaries in charge of specific affairs, including the doctor’s order in charge of the palace gate, the guard’s lieutenant in charge of the palace gate guard, the lieutenant in charge of the Jingji guard, the Tingwei in charge of the criminal court, the internal history of grain crops, the tax of mountains, lakes, lakes, and official handicrafts manufacturing to supply the Royal Shaofu. The one in charge of the palace will be the Shaofu, the customer in charge of domestic ethnic affairs and foreign affairs, and the ritual of the ancestral temple, Zongzheng, who was in charge of the royal family, the imperial servant who was in charge of the horse, etc. The prime minister, Taiwei, and the censor discussed government affairs with the ministers, and the emperor made a ruling.

Local administrative bodies are divided into county and county levels. The county has guards, captains and supervisors (the censor). A sheriff rules his county. The sheriff assists the sheriff and acts as a pawn. The county supervisor supervises. In the county, the order shall be set for those above 10000 households, and the director shall be set for those below 10000 households. County Magistrates and chiefs have Cheng, Wei and other subordinates. The main officials of counties and counties shall be appointed and removed by the central government. There are townships below the county level. In the townships, there are three elders who are in charge of education. Misers are in charge of litigation and taxes, and tourists are in charge of public security. The rural areas have Li, which is the most basic administrative unit. There was a canon in Li, and the descendants called Li Zheng and Li Kui as &\8221; Haoshuai &\8221; That is, those who are strong will do it. In addition, there is a special organization for public security and the prohibition of thieves, called kiosks. Kiosks have a long history. The two pavilions are about ten li apart.

As early as the tenth year of Qin Xiangong (375 B.C.), the state of Qin established “Yi &\8221”; Accuse a traitor &\8221; For the purpose of &\8221; Registered residence Xiangwu &\8221; System. Later, Shang Yang stipulated that both men and women should be listed in registered residence after birth and removed after death; Also &\8221; Make the people do what they want;, Guilt ridden. According to the Qin law, migrants should transfer their registered residence as visiting officials, which is called &\8221; Change &\8221;. During the reign of King Qin, the registered residence system became more and more complete. In the 16th year of Emperor Qin’s reign (231 BC), men were asked to declare their age, which was called &\8221; Book year &\8221;. According to the presumption of Yunmeng Qin Bamboo Slips, the 15th year of the reign of Qin Zhinan (another calculation is the 17th year) specifies the registered residence for public corvee, which is called &\8221; Fu Ji;. The book year and the book of Fu are the basis for the state to collect and issue labor service. Thirty first year of the first emperor &\8221; Make the head of Guizhou go to the field;, That is to say, the people are required to declare the land themselves. The land is contained in the registered residence, which provides the main basis for the state to levy and issue tax. Registered residence includes age, land and other items, and the registered residence system is far more than &\8221; Accuse a traitor &\8221; And become a fundamental system for the state to rule the people. Qin set a rank of twenty to reward military merit. The state grants farmland and houses according to people’s rank, and those with high rank can also get food cities and other privileges (see the rank system). The rank of nobility is recorded in the registered residence, so the registered residence is also the certificate of people’s identity.

Ruling a big country requires a consistent and relatively complete legal system. The unearthed Yunmeng Qin Bamboo Slips provide part of the Qin laws that have been developed from the time of Qin Xiaogong to the time of Qin Shihuang, including the legal texts and explanations of the criminal law, various other legal texts, as well as cases and legal documents on Prison Administration (see Yunmeng Qin law). After the first emperor of Qin unified the six kingdoms, he formulated laws for the passage of the whole territory based on the laws of Qin and referring to the laws of the six kingdoms. After the profits and losses of the Han Dynasty, Qin law became the blueprint of the laws of previous dynasties before the Tang Dynasty.

Maintaining the unity of a big country also requires a strong army. With the power of destroying the six countries, the Qin army stationed in the whole country, the north and south frontier fortresses, and was a key area for garrisoning troops. The Qin system used a bronze tiger amulet to send troops. The tiger amulet was cut in half. The right half was controlled by the emperor, and the left half was in the hands of the leader. Only when the left and right matched, could the army be mobilized. This is an important system to ensure the military power in the hands of the emperor. The Qin army is an unprecedented deterrent force. Among the Terra Cotta Warriors pits excavated in recent years at the side of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, it is estimated that there are 7000 warrior figurines, 100 chariots and 100 war horses in two pits. The warrior figurines are as tall as real people, and the weapons they hold are real objects rather than bright objects. This large military array composed of vehicles, infantry and cavalry is a symbol of the strength of the Qin army.

Qinshihuang not only established a set of authoritarian and centralized governing institutions and systems, but also adopted the theory of “Five Virtues” of yin and Yang School in the Warring States period to defend the legal system of the Qin Dynasty. According to the theory of five virtues at the beginning, each successive dynasty ruled in the order of five virtues, such as earth, wood, gold, fire and water. Qin got water virtue, and water virtue was black, so Qin’s dresses and banners were all black; The number corresponding to shuide is six, so the length of the symbol and the height of the crown are six inches and the width of the rail is six feet; Shui De is the chief murderer, so the political rule is harsh and does not pay attention to &\8221; Benevolence and righteousness &\8221;; Corresponding to Shui De, the calendar begins with October, which is the month of January, and so on. Qinshihuang also determined a set of complex sacrifices and Fengchan ceremonies that were appropriate to the emperor’s status, and carried out activities at the right time. Qinshihuang built many palaces near Xianyang in imitation of the palaces of the states in Eastern Shaanxi, and built the magnificent Afang palace in the south of the Wei River. The layout of Xianyang palace is based on the purple micro palace in the sky, which seems to be the residence of God on earth and the symbol of the unification of the world. Qinshihuang also built a pre built mausoleum in Lishan. In the mausoleum, mercury was used as the source of all rivers, rivers and seas. It was imbued with mechanism, with astronomy on the top and geography on the bottom. He took these measures, just as he used the name of the emperor, to show that his power on earth was equivalent to that of God in heaven, so as to instill the mysterious concept of imperial power in his subjects. The mysterious concept of imperial power is the ideological basis of the totalitarian system.

The strengthening and deification of imperial power, the full implementation of the system of prefectures and counties, the establishment of bureaucrats and various systems that embody the autocratic imperial power, the perfection and unification of laws, the strengthening of the emperor’s control over the army, and so on, are the main contents of the autocratic centralized power system. Autocratic centralism was an indispensable condition for maintaining feudal unity under the conditions at that time. But this kind of political system has great restrictions on the people; And its promoting effect on economic and cultural development can also be transformed into a blocking effect, which is more significant in the late feudal society.

The measures to prevent feudal separatism caused by the long-term separatist situation of burning books and pitching Confucianism, so that Qinshihuang was very concerned about the movements in the old lands of the six countries and worried about the old nobles’ attempt to restore the six countries. In order to prevent the reappearance of the separatist regime, the first emperor of Qin moved 120000 rich and powerful families from the six countries to Xianyang, and the rest to Bashu, Nanyang, Sanchuan and Zhaodi, so that they could be separated from their native land for surveillance. He destroyed the seized and confiscated weapons and cast twelve bronze men in Xianyang. Also ordered &\8221; Destroy the city walls, make sure to pass through the Sichuan defense, and wipe out the dangers &\8221;, As far as possible, we should eliminate the means by which feudal nobles relied on separatist regimes. In order to control the vast territory, especially the old territory of the six countries, Qinshihuang also built a gallop road from the capital Xianyang to all parts of the country. The East was poor in Yanqi and the South Pole in Wu and Chu. He has toured counties and counties along the chidao road for many times and carved stones in many places to show his strength. In order to strengthen the defense of the north, in the 35th year of Emperor Qinshihuang (212 B.C.), a straight road from Xianyang to Yunyang (now the northwest of Chunhua, Shaanxi) to Jiuyuan (now the west of Baotou, Inner Mongolia) was built, cutting mountains and valleys for thousands of miles. In the southwest, Wuchi road from the south of Yibin, Sichuan Province to Zhaotong, Yunnan Province was also built, and officials were set nearby to rule.

Qinshihuang also fought against the ideological and political tendencies of separatist regimes. At that time, some scholars and scholars hoped to restore the situation of aristocratic separatism. They &\8221; When you enter, your mind will be at odds, and when you leave, you will have an alley discussion &\8221;, Quoting poems, books and hundreds of languages, the ancient times are not the present. In the 34th year of the first emperor, the prime minister Lisi requested to burn the poems and books and eliminate private schools. He suggested &\8221; Historians burn all the records of Qin Dynasty. He who is not a doctor’s officer and dares to have collected poems, books and hundreds of languages in the world knows how to keep them and how to cook them. Those who dare to speak poems and books will abandon the market. The past is not the present. The official who knows not to mention it is guilty of the same crime. It is ordered that the next thirty days will not be burned, and the Tsing will be the city Dan. The book of medical divination and tree planting. If you want to learn laws and regulations, take officials as your teachers;. Qinshihuang accepted this proposal, and the book burning incident occurred. The next year, Fang Shi, who was seeking immortality for the first emperor of Qin, slandered and invited him to flee. The first emperor of Qin sent his censor to spy on the Confucian alchemists in Xianyang and killed more than 460 of them who were believed to have violated the ban. Under the historical conditions of early feudal society, in the era of fierce struggle between unification and division, it is understandable that Qinshihuang used the means of burning books and burying Confucianism to combat aristocratic politics. However, it is extremely brutal to burn books, entrap scholars and destroy culture, which has caused great losses to the preservation of ancient documents and academic teaching.

[it is also said that at that time, the Qin Dynasty had to stabilize the country as soon as possible under the pressure of the Huns’ invasion. The request of Confucian scholars and scholars to restore the aristocratic separatist regime was tantamount to giving the Huns the opportunity to take advantage of the invasion of civil strife, so they suppressed the private studies of Confucian scholars]

Although the first emperor of Qin adopted the thought of yin and Yang, it was based on the thought of legalism. Burning books and pitching Confucianism and &\8221; Teaching by law &\8221&# 8221; Taking officials as teachers &\8221; And so on, which more prominently reflected his legalist thought. The first emperor of Qin took the system of the former Qin state as the standard to unify the political, economic and cultural systems of the whole country, trying to eliminate the regional differences caused by the long-term separatist regime as far as possible in order to facilitate reunification. During the Warring States period, although the basic structure of the characters in various countries was the same, the font was complex and simple, and the position of the radicals was different. Lisi was ordered to unify the characters. Based on the characters of the Qin State and referring to the characters of the six states, he formulated the small seal script, wrote it into a model, and implemented it throughout the country. At that time, there was a popular calligraphy called Lishu, which was simpler than Xiaozhuan.

Qinshihuang abolished the currency of different shapes, weights and sizes in various countries during the Warring States period. Instead, he took gold as the upper currency and Yi (twenty Liang) as the unit; Take the old round square hole copper coin of the state of Qin as the next coin. The text says half a Liang, which is as important as the text. The first emperor of Qin used the standard of weights and measures formulated by Shang Yang to unify the weights and measures of the whole country. The imperial edict of unified weights and measures issued in the 26th year of the first emperor (211 BC) is engraved on the Qin Dynasty. This kind of weight has been unearthed many times and distributed widely. It has also been found outside the Great Wall. It can be seen that the unified weights and measures are serious and effective. Qinshihuang also stipulated the allowable limit of weighing instrument error by law. He set six feet as a step and 240 steps as an acre. However, the system of 240 steps per mu only applied in the old Qin Dynasty and possibly in the old Zhao Dynasty. In many parts of the East, 100 steps per mu was still used until the period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. The unification of words, money and weights and measures has provided convenient conditions for the development of economy and culture and promoted the development of a unified country. The war against the Huns and the Vietnamese. The Huns were distributed on the Mongolian Plateau. Since the end of the Warring States period, they often invaded the south. After the reunification of the whole country, the first emperor of Qin sent Meng Tian to lead an army of 300000 to fight against the Huns. Meng Tian recovered the south of Hetao in the 32nd year of the first emperor (215 BC), which was the so-called &\8221; Henan &\8221;, In the second year, the Huns were further exiled. Qin ziyuzhong (in the east of Lanzhou, Gansu Province, but there is a different saying) went north, set up 34 counties in the east of the Yellow River and the south of Yinshan Mountain, and built a plug in a section of the Yellow River. Qin also repaired and connected the great wall of Yan, Zhao and Qin in the Warring States period, and built one of the great ancient world projects, the Great Wall, which started in Lintao (now Minxian County, Gansu Province) in the West and ended in Liaodong in the East, to protect the agricultural areas in the North. Then Qin moved tens of thousands of people to Hetao. This has played a positive role in the reclamation of border areas and the strengthening of border defense.

The Vietnamese in China are distributed in East and South China, and are divided into Fujian and Vietnam, [[South Vietnam]], Xi’ou and other parts. Fujian and Vietnam are in the area of Zhejiang and Fujian, South Vietnam is in the east of Guangdong and Guangxi, and West Ou is in the southwest of Guangdong, the south of Guangxi and even the southeast of Yunnan. Yueren &\8221; Haircut tattoo, wrong arm left Lapel &\8221; Close to the mountains and the sea, it is engaged in fishing, hunting and agriculture. The people of Xi’ou are mainly engaged in agricultural production.

In the 24th year of the reign of the king of Qin (223 BC), Wang Jian led the Qin army to destroy Chu, continued to move southward, captured part of the land of the Yue people, and set up Kuaiji prefecture (now Suzhou, Jiangsu). In the 26th year of the reign of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, the first emperor of Qin sent his lieutenant Tu Sui with 500000 soldiers, divided into five armies, to attack Tancheng (today’s Nanjing County in the lake), Jiuyi (today’s far south of Nanning in the lake), Panyu (today’s Guangzhou in Guangdong), Nanye (today’s Kang in the southwest of the river) and Yugan (today’s Yugan in Jiangxi), and carried out the arduous battle of not disarming the armour and not relaxing the crossbow for three years. The Qin army defeated the resistance of Fujian and Vietnam and established Minzhong prefecture (now Fuzhou, Fujian) as its territory. The Qin army that attacked South Vietnam also occupied Panyu. Only the Qin army on the Western Front met the tenacious resistance of the Western Ou people. In order to solve the difficulty of the Qin army’s pay transfer, Jian Lu led his troops to dig a Lingqu (in Xingan, Guangxi today) between the Xiangshui River and the Lishui River, connecting the traffic between the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. In the battle between the Qin army and the West Ou people, the West Ou Jun Yi Xu Song and the Qin army commander Wei Tu Sui died one after another. In the 33rd year, the first emperor of Qin Dynasty banished the fugitives, redundant sons-in-law, and merchants of fanei county to reinforce them, conquered Xi’ou, established Nanhai county (now Guangzhou, Guangdong), Xiang county (now Chongzuo, Guangxi) and Guilin county (now Guiping, Guangxi) in Nanyue, Xi’ou’s hometown and their adjacent areas, and continued to send people to garrison. In this way, hundreds of thousands of northern farmers stayed there to live with the Vietnamese and jointly develop the Pearl River Basin.

The urgent politics of the Qin Dynasty the cause of Qinshihuang was completed in a short period of more than ten years under the condition of cruelly exploiting and oppressing the people, which made the rule of Qin have the characteristics of urgent politics and tyranny. In the more than ten years after the unification of Qin, Qinshihuang maintained a huge army, established a huge bureaucracy, carried out many large-scale wars, and completed huge national defense construction and civil construction. Qinshihuang greatly increased the levy on the people. It is estimated that the population of the country at that time was about more than 10 million, and more than 2 million people served in the army, accounting for more than one third of men in their prime of life. Those who served in the army broke away from agricultural production and relied on farmers to support them. As a result, there was a serious situation that men could not plough enough to provide food and pay, and women could not spin enough to provide clothing, which greatly shook the foundation of Qin’s rule. In order to strengthen the rule of the landlord class, the Qin Dynasty implemented severe punishment and laws to suppress the people, and turned hundreds of thousands of people into prisoners of the feudal state.

The first emperor of Qin Dynasty made the head of Guizhou Province practice the land and officially recognized the private ownership of land throughout the country. By virtue of this order, the landlord class was able not only to legally occupy land, but also to annex farmers’ land by various means. Farmers whose land has been annexed have to pay &\8221; See tax Shiwu &\8221; To cultivate the land of the rich and the poor. The peasants lived a miserable life, dressed in cattle and horses, ate the food of dogs and swine, and often fled to the mountains and forests under the torture of violent officials to hold riots. This kind of situation shows that the tyranny of the urgent government intensified the social contradictions. While the first emperor of Qin completed the cause of reunification, it also caused the conditions for the overthrow of the Qin Dynasty. So Jia Shan in the Western Han Dynasty talked about the Qin Dynasty &\8221; The mountain is full of robbers &\8221; When Qin Shihuang was alive, his rule was already collapsing, although he did not know it.

The administrative region of the Qin Dynasty

I. Guanzhong plain near the capital Xianyang is directly managed by the internal history

II. At the beginning of the founding of the country, 36 counties were established. Later, the South and south of the five ridges were crossed, and the Xiang county of Guilin in the South China Sea was set, and the south of Yinshan in the North was set as Jiuyuan county. In addition, neijun has been analyzed successively: Changshan in the East China Sea, Jibei, Jiaodong, Hanoi, Hengshan, etc.

Death of Qin Dynasty

In 210 BC, Hu Hai, the second of Qin Dynasty, ascended the throne. He further aggravated the exploitation and oppression of the peasants; Those who have deep taxes are Ming officials;, With &\8221; Those who kill people are loyal ministers;. He ordered the peasants to increase the supply of crops, bring their own food, and transfer it to Xianyang for the needs of officials, the army, and even dogs, horses, and animals. He continued to build the Afang palace, and continued to guard the people far away. The object of corvee was further expanded, the hardships of farmers reached the extreme, and the large-scale peasant uprising had reached the point of imminent outbreak. When the peasants were brewing anti Qin, the latent remnants of the old aristocracy in the six countries were also waiting for the opportunity to carry out separatist activities. In the 36th year of the first emperor (211 BC), & \8221 appeared in Dongjun; The first emperor died and divided the land; The inscription of “is a sign of this separatist activity.

In July of the first year of the Peasant War II (209 BC) led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, a team of 900 troops from lvzuoshu who went to Yuyang (today’s Miyun, Beijing) stayed in daze township (today’s huisu County of an) in the rain and could not reach the Yuyang garrison as scheduled. Qin FA &\8221; Loss of time;, The soldiers faced the threat of death penalty. Therefore, under the leadership of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, the banner of the first large-scale peasant uprising in Chinese history was raised in daze township. Chen Sheng, or Chen Sheh, is a native of Yangcheng (there is a heresy in today’s Henan Province) and a farm worker; Wuguang, a native of Yangxia (now Taikang, Henan), is also a farmer. They are all garrison commanders. In order to start an uprising, they wrote on silk &\8221; Chenshengwang &\8221; Three characters, placed in the belly of a fish, are said to be strange. At night, Wu Guang lit a bonfire in the Cong Temple next to the station, making a fox cry and sending out &\8221; Da Chuxing, Chen Shengwang &\8221; The voice of. Then, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang led the garrison soldiers to kill the Qin Wei who escorted them. In the name of Fu Su, the son of Qin who had been sentenced to death, and Xiang Yan, the late Chu general, they called on the farmers to fight against Qin. Nearby farmers took part in the uprising. The rebel army marched eastward, and the main force attacked westward, connecting the current counties in Eastern Henan and Northern Anhui, such as Zhu, GUI, Ku, Zhe and Qiao (which are located in Suzhou County, Anhui Province, Yongcheng, Luyi and Zhecheng of Henan Province, and Bo County of Anhui Province). When they reached Chen (now Huaiyang, Henan Province), they were already a huge team of tens of thousands of people. Under the influence of the rebel army, many farmers in counties and counties killed and obeyed orders, responding to Chen Sheng; Especially in the old Chu state, thousands of people gathered everywhere. Some old nobles, scholars and scholars from the six kingdoms who were hidden among the people also took the opportunity to return and exerted their influence in the peasant army by virtue of their old status. Tourists Zhang Er and Chen Yu even persuaded Chen Sheng to send people &\8221; After the establishment of the six kingdoms;, Chen Sheng flatly refused. Chen Sheng stands for &\8221; Zhang Chu Wang &\8221;, Three routes to attack Qin: Wu Guangwei &\8221; Fake king &\8221;, Attack Xingyang in the West; Wu Chen marched north into the land of Zhao; Wei people attacked Wei land in Zhou City. Wuguangjun was blocked in Xingyang, and chenshengjia sent Zhou Wenxi to attack Qin. Zhou Wenjun soon developed into a thousand chariots and killed hundreds of thousands of people. He entered Guanzhong Opera (now Lintong, Shaanxi Province) and approached Xianyang. The second Qin Dynasty hurriedly sent the prisoners who had repaired the Lishan Mausoleum as soldiers, led by the Shaofu Zhang Han and defeated Zhou Wenjun. After Wu Chen occupied Handan, the old capital of Zhao, he established himself as king of Zhao at the instigation of Zhang Er and Chen Yu. Chen Sheng reluctantly admitted it. Wu Chen refused to save Zhou Wen, but sent Han Guang to take Yandi. Han Guang, encouraged by the Yandi aristocrats, also established himself as king of Yan. Zhou City entered the southern part of the old Wei Dynasty and the territory of the old Qi Dynasty. Tian Dan, an aristocrat in the old Qi Dynasty, established himself as king of Qi and fought back against Zhou City. Zhou Shi established Wei Xie, an old aristocrat of Wei, as the king of Wei, as the Prime Minister of Wei, and sent people to Chen Sheng to meet Wei Xie. The old aristocracy was very active, which scattered the peasant uprising. Chen Sheng lacked experience and determination, and watched the formation of a split situation. There was also a lack of unity around Chen Sheng.

Qin General Zhang Hanjun repeatedly defeated Zhou Wen, who committed suicide. Zhang Han forced Xingyang to the East, and Wu Guang’s Department, Tian Zang, killed Wu Guang and met Zhang Han. He was defeated in the first battle. When Zhang Hanjin arrived at Chen, Chen Shengbai retreated to xiachengfu (now the southeast of Woyang, Anhui), was killed by the traitor Zhuang Jia, and Chen County fell. Chen Sheng will lead a team led by Lvchen &\8221; Cangtoujun &\8221; He fought bravely, recovered Chen county and executed Zhuang Jia. As the pioneer of anti Qin, Chen Sheng failed to lead the uprising for only half a year, but the anti Qin tide was aroused by him and continued to attack the rule of Qin (see Chen Sheng and Wuguang uprising).

The battle of Chu and Han

After Chen Sheng’s uprising, Xiang Liang, son of Xiang Yan, a famous general of the old Chu state, and Xiang Yu, nephew of Liang, killed the governor of qinkuaiji in Wu (today’s Suzhou, Jiangsu Province) and set up troops to respond. Before long, Xiangliang led 8000 soldiers to the north of the river. The troop expanded to 60000 or 70000, and Lien Chan won. Wuzhuheyao, a nobleman in Fujian and Vietnam, led his people to follow Qin Fanyang and order Wu Rui to fight against Qin. Liu Bang, the former Pavilion chief of Pei County, and some of the prisoners fled to Shanze. They also attacked Peiling and started the incident, and were included in Xiang Liang army. Xiangliang made the grandson of King Huai of Chu king of Chu. Later, Xiang Liang was defeated at Dingtao, and the Qin Zhanghan army moved north to cross the river and attack Zhao. At this time, Wang Li, who took the place of Meng Tian to guard the Shuofang frontier fortress, also led a large army to the east from Shangjun (governing the southeast of Yulin, Shaanxi today) and surrounded Julu city (now hebeiping township) where Zhang Er and Zhao Wangxie were stationed. The king of Chu sent Song Yi and Xiang Yu to save Zhao and Liu Bang to enter Guanzhong. Song Yi went north to Anyang and stayed there. Xiang Yu killed Song Yi and led his troops across the Zhanghe River. After a fierce battle, he broke the siege of giant deer and was promoted to be a general of princes. Later, Qin General Zhang Han led 200000 people to surrender to him. Liu Bang detours into Wuguan and arrives near Xianyang. At that time, the second Qin Dynasty had been killed by Zhao Gao. Jili’s son and baby were demoted to the title of emperor, called King Qin, and surrendered to Liu Bang in October 207 BC. Liu Bang abolished the harsh laws of the Qin Dynasty and only made three rules; A murderer dies, injures, and commits theft;, It won the support of the Qin people.

After Liu Bang entered Xianyang, Xiang Yu immediately led his troops into the pass, stationed at Hongmen, and then entered Xianyang, where he burned, killed and plundered. He established himself as the overlord of the Western Chu state, capital Pengcheng, under the established situation of the coexistence of various kings. They also adjusted the lands of the former kings, resettled them on the edge of their original bases, and sealed their personal letters as kings in the good lands of various countries. In this way, eighteen kingdoms stood side by side and were subject to the overlord of the Western Chu state. Xiangyu’s move worsened the separatist regime. Soon the state of Qi was the first to attack, and the scuffle among the princes broke out again. Liu Bang, who was forced by Xiangyu to be the king of Han Dynasty in a corner of the Han Dynasty in Bashu, took the opportunity to enter Guanzhong in May of the first year of the Han Dynasty (206 BC) and defeated the three kings of Guanzhong granted by Xiangyu. Then he led the army to the East, attacked Pengcheng from afar, retreated between Xingyang and Chenggao, and held a stalemate with Xiangyu. Liu Bang consolidated the rear area of the central Shaanxi plain, contacted the forces against Xiang Yu, and turned defeat into victory. In December of the fifth year of the Han Dynasty, he joined forces with Han Xin, Peng Yue and others to attack Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu was defeated in Cuan (now the Hui Lingbi territory of an) and retreated to Wujiang (now the Anhui and county territory) to commit suicide. In June of the same year, Liu Bang was the Emperor (see Liu Bang, Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty).

The war between Chu and Han evolved directly from the peasant war in the late Qin Dynasty. Although the peasant war successfully overthrew the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, who were once leaders of the peasant war, had to gradually become contenders for feudal domination. Liu Bang knew people well and was good at their posts. He took advantage of the situation and finally defeated Xiang Yu and ascended the throne of the unified dynasty of the Western Han Dynasty.

4 thoughts on “A brief introduction to the Qin Dynasty and an overview of its history

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