A short-lived Lingnan Kingdom: a brief history of Nanyue in the Western Han Dynasty

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Lingnan refers to the land south of the five ridges and north of the South China Sea. The five ridges are on today’s Hunan Jiangxi and Guangdong Guangxi borders. Specifically, from east to west, they are Dayu ridge, Qitian ridge, Mengzhu ridge, dupang ridge, and Yuecheng ridge, which are the watershed of the Yangtze River system and the Pearl River system. Lingnan has a warm climate and abundant rainfall, and there have been traces of human activities since ancient times. In 1958, a human skull fossil was found in shiziyan, Qujiang County, Guangdong Province, which has been determined to be 100000 years ago. The ancient human represented by this skull was named MABA people, which shows that human beings have multiplied and lived here in Lingnan region at least 100000 years ago.

About 10000 years ago, the ancestors of Lingnan lived in natural caves, collecting plant roots, fruits and hunting for a living, using stone tools. Archaeology calls this stage the “Paleolithic Age”. By fourorfive thousand years ago, people had known to further grind the beaten stone tools to make them sharper and more practical. In archaeology, the age of grinding stone tools is called “Neolithic Age”. At this time, people chose to live near the water source, mainly on the high platforms on both sides of rivers and sunny hillsides.

Due to the different living environment, the ancestors had different ways of making a living. People living in the northern and central mountains or Plains mainly live by collecting plant roots and fruits, hunting animals, and also catching various aquatic products in the river as food. The coastal residents mainly salvage all kinds of shellfish and other marine organisms in the sea. They used a special stone tool, called “Oyster peck”, to break the shells of oysters to eat their meat, so they left shell deposits in the place where they lived, which is called “shell mound site”.

But no matter where they lived, people at this time had learned to cook pottery, including utensils for holding water, cooking utensils for cooking, and so on, for daily life. They have been able to build houses and no longer live in cold and humid caves. They have created a house suitable for the humid environment in the south, that is, they first drive wooden stakes on the ground, put up supports, and then build houses on the frames. This kind of house is called “pole and fence house”.

Lingnan area entered the bronze age around 2000 BC, and bronzes have been smelted and cast in this area. At present, archaeologists have found bronze buckets for drinking water and a shoe shaped Yue (Yu è), which are all products with local characteristics. Before Qin Shihuang unified Lingnan, most of the Yue people here were still at the end of primitive society or just stepped into the threshold of class society, and had not formed a country, only the monarchs of tribes and tribal alliances.

There are sporadic records about this in historical books. For example, according to the yuejueshu: in 333 BC, King Wei of Chu destroyed the state of Yue. The Marquis of the boundless son of the king of Yue led the Yue people to disperse into Lingnan and joined the Yue people in Lingnan. The Marquis claimed to be the monarch. According to the records of Huainan Zi human training, xizajun once translated Xu Song in Guangxi, and Qin army killed him when they attacked Lingnan. The Luoyue people who lived in present Vietnam were also the rulers of the tribal alliance.

After the Qin Dynasty unified Lingnan, it set up counties in Lingnan and implemented the feudal system, which immediately changed the development process of the Yue society. Before its slavery really developed, it slowly turned into the development stage of the feudal society. The unification of Lingnan in Qin Dynasty is an extremely important page in the history of Lingnan development.

Qin Shihuang unified Lingnan and Zhao Tuo established the country

In 221 BC, Emperor Qinshihuang unified the Central Plains, established the capital Xianyang, and established a unified feudal country. However, he did not stop at this point, and set his eyes on the rich land of Lingnan. In 219 BC, the first emperor of Qin sent Tu Sui, a general, to lead 500000 Qin troops, who marched south in five routes. According to historians’ research, two of the five armies are in Hunan, two in Jiangxi and one in Panyu. Later, Zhao Tuo, the first king of Nanyue, was a general of the Qin army at that time. However, the war of the Qin army to conquer the Yue nationality was not smooth, and was doggedly resisted by the Yue people. The Yue people did not want to become prisoners of the Qin army, and fled into the mountains and forests. They gave full play to their advantages of being good at mountains and rivers, and often sneaked attacks on the Qin army, which made the Qin army tired of running, and even the commander Tu Sui was killed. The war entered the stalemate stage, and the Qin army fell into the dilemma of being unable to defeat the attack and having no backup. In the thirtieth year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (217 BC), Shi Lu, the emperor’s supervisor, ordered him to dig the Lingqu, the Qin canal that connects north and south water transportation. Lingqu connected the water systems of Xiangjiang River and Lijiang River, solved the major problem of grain transportation of the Qin army, and also played a great role in the development of Lingnan area after the unification of Lingnan. After the completion of Lingqu, Emperor Qinshihuang immediately redeployed the war to unify Lingnan. At the end of the thirty second or the beginning of the thirty third year of the first emperor (215-216 BC), Qin Wei Ren Xiao and Zhao Tuo were sent to “attack the people of the building ship south to Baiyue”. The Qin army was supplemented by human and material resources, and soon defeated the resistance of the people of Western Ou Yue, killed its monarch, Yixu song, and occupied the Western Ou area. Then he sent his troops South and occupied Luoyue residence. After six years of hard fighting, in the 35th year of Emperor Qinshihuang (214 BC), Qin finally unified Lingnan.

After the Qin Dynasty unified Lingnan, it also implemented the county system in Lingnan area, setting up Guilin, Xiangjun and Nanhai. The jurisdiction of Guilin county is now Guangxi, and the capital is Bushan (now Guixian County, Guangxi); The area under the jurisdiction of Nanhai county is mainly today’s Guangdong region, with the capital located in Panyu (today’s Guangzhou); The jurisdiction of Xiangjun is generally believed to be in today’s Vietnam. The lieutenant of Nanhai county was Ren Xiao, the former general of the Qin army, and Zhao Tuo was the magistrate of Longchuan County.

In 213 BC, the second year after the first emperor of Qin unified Lingnan, he began to build “Qin Suo Tongyue road”, which is called “new road”. According to expert research, there are four new roads: one is from Nan’an, Jiangxi Province, across Dayu ridge into Nanxiong, Guangdong Province; All the way from Chenzhou in Hunan to Lianzhou in Guangdong; All the way from Daozhou in Hunan to He county in Guangxi; All the way from Quanzhou, Hunan (now Guangxi) to Jingjiang, Guangxi. These new roads are all expanded from the original ancient roads, which are often the most convenient and quickest roads to cross the Wuling north and South at that time. On this basis, Qin broadened it into a new way, which not only saved time and effort, but also achieved good results.

In order to ensure the smoothness of the new road and strengthen the military control over South Vietnam, Qin built the Qinguan pass at the Lingkou pass and some strategic places where the new road passed. Along the Lingqu River in Guangxi, there are Qincheng and Yanguan, while in Guangdong, there are “Hengpu pass”, “Oupu pass”, “Yangshan pass” and “Huangxi pass” and other Qinguan.

In order to maintain and consolidate his rule, Emperor Qinshihuang left part of his army to guard the prefecture and the Qinguan pass. In addition, merchants, redundant sons-in-law and criminals who migrated to the Central Plains waited in the south of the five ridges to mix with the Vietnamese. The arrival of these immigrants has brought advanced production technology and culture to the Central Plains, which has played a great role in promoting the economic and cultural development of Lingnan.

The Qin Dynasty’s cause of unifying China was great, but its cruel and tyrannical rule aroused the resistance of the people. In July, 209 BC, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang rose to the occasion and initiated the world. Heroes from all over the world responded one after another, and nobles from the six countries also took advantage of the situation. In the same year, the Qin Dynasty was overthrown, and various separatist forces fought for the world.

In this situation, Ren Xiao, a South China Sea lieutenant, analyzed the situation at that time and believed that there was a chance to divide the land into kings and dominate one side when the weather was right, the place was right, and people were friendly. But at that time, he was seriously ill, so Zhao Tuo, who was the magistrate of Longchuan County, was summoned to talk to him about his plan and instructed Zhao Tuo to close the new road pass and wait for the change. Ren Xiao falsely claimed that he had received the imperial edict from the emperor, appointed Zhao Tuo as a lieutenant in the South China Sea, and transferred power to Zhao Tuo. Soon, Ren Xiao died of illness, and Zhao Tuo began to act according to Ren Xiao’s idea. He issued a document, informing the garrison of Hengpu, Yangshan and Huangxi, saying that the thieves in the central plains were coming soon, and ordered the garrison to cut off the new road and strictly guard all the checkpoints. At the same time, he killed a number of officials appointed by the Qin Dynasty and replaced them with his confidants. In this way, he eradicated his dissidents, consolidated his position, controlled the military forces in the South China Sea, and implemented a military separatist regime in the south of the five ridges. At this time, the Central Plains region was still in the scuffle of various separatist forces. Zhao Tuo took control of Nanhai County, guarded himself according to the mountains, and watched the changes, so that the Lingnan region at that time was free from the disaster of war.

In 206 BC, the Qin dynasty fell. In the first month of the same year, Xiang Yu enfeoffed all kings and self styled himself as the overlord of Western Chu, capital Pengcheng. Xiang Yu wanted to use the feudal separatist regime of dividing land into kings to stabilize his hegemony, but in fact, it backfired. In August of the same year, Liu Bang, king of the Han Dynasty, secretly crossed Chencang and fought back against the “three Qin Dynasties”. The Chu Han war broke out, and the Central Plains was full of gunsmoke. This Chu Han war has been fought for several years, and Zhao Tuo took advantage of this opportunity to start the action of founding the country. In 204 BC, Zhao Tuo sent troops to attack the adjacent Guilin county and Xiang County, merged the two places, and established the state of Nanyue, calling himself King Wu of Nanyue.

The rise and fall of Nanyue

When Zhao Tuo became king in the south of the five ridges, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu competed for the Central Plains and the throne. After the establishment of the Western Han Dynasty, due to years of war, the social economy was withered, and the wealth was extremely poor. Even the emperor could not find four horses of the same color, and the prime minister and other senior officials could only take ox carts. At this time, the vassals and kings of the Western Han Dynasty were all armed with heavy troops, each dominating one side, and the regime of the Western Han Dynasty was not yet stable. On the other hand, the Huns in the north often harassed the northern border of the Western Han Dynasty and kidnapped people and animals, posing a great threat to the Western Han Dynasty. In this situation, the Western Han Dynasty was unable to raise troops to the south to cut off the king of Nanyue, so it adopted the policy of Huairou and granted Zhao Tuo the title of king of Nanyue. Speaking from Zhao Tuo, when he was recently crowned king, the local Yue people have not yet obeyed and dare not act rashly. In addition, the economy of Lingnan is backward, and it must rely on the import of advanced technologies and tools from the Central Plains. Therefore, Zhao Tuo also readily accepted the Indian relief granted by the emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty and became a vassal of the Western Han Dynasty.

But in fact, Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty was not at ease with Zhao Tuo, and built two castles on the border with South Vietnam at that time – the ancient city of Gan county and the ancient city of zero (Y ú) to defend Zhao Tuo’s army; Two generals were also sent to Changsha to monitor the movements of South Vietnam.

It can be seen that emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty implemented a strategy of superficial gentleness and practical prevention to South Vietnam. When Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty was alive, the two countries sent envoys to each other, exchanged trade, and got along well with each other.

Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty reigned for only 7 years and died in the 12th year of the Han Dynasty (195 BC), and his son Huixi ascended the throne. Emperor Hui was weak and ill, and the military and political power of the imperial court actually fell into the hands of empress Lu.

When empress Lu took control of the Western Han Dynasty, she changed the policy of emperor Gaozu, regarded South Vietnam as barbarians, and ordered to stop trade with South Vietnam, “do not give barbarians, horses, cattle and sheep in the gold and iron fields outside Guangdong, that is, give them to the peonies, not to the females.” It means not to send copper and iron tools, horses, cattle, sheep and other livestock to South Vietnam. Even if they are given, they are only given to males, not females. At that time, most of the copper and iron tools of Nanyue country were imported from the Central Plains, and the peony and livestock also seemed to be imported from the Central Plains. Cutting off trade exchanges would cut off the source of advanced production tools, which had a great impact on the production and life of Nanyue country. As a result, the relationship between the Western Han Dynasty and South Vietnam deteriorated rapidly. Zhao Tuo sent internal history fan, Lieutenant Gao, and imperial Shi Ping to Chang’an three times to advise empress Lu not to treat South Vietnam as barbarians and resume border trade. But empress Lu ignored it and detained three envoys of the South Vietnam. Not only that, empress Lu also sent people to Zhending, Hebei, Zhao Tuo’s hometown, to dig up the tomb of his parents’ home and kill his brother’s clan. These behaviors of empress Lu aroused Zhao Tuo’s anti Han sentiment, so in 183 BC, she proclaimed herself Emperor Wu of South Vietnam and rode the yellow house left flag (DAO) on an equal footing with the Western Han government.

After hearing the news that Zhao Tuo, the king of Nanyue, was proclaimed emperor, empress Lu was very angry and cut off the vassal status of the king of Nanyue and cut off messenger contacts with him. In this way, the friendly relationship between the Western Han Dynasty and South Vietnam established by Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty was broken. Zhao Tuo suspected that the king of Changsha had slandered empress Lu, so he sent troops north many times to attack the border towns and Nanjun of Changsha. The state of Changsha, suffering from the repeated invasion and harassment of the state of Nanyue, appealed to the Western Han Dynasty for help. Empress Lu sent long Xie Hou Zhou Zao to lead the Han soldiers, planning to climb over the Yuecheng mountains and take the way of the Lingqu strict pass to attack the South Vietnam. At that time, it was a hot and rainy season in the south. It was difficult for Northern soldiers to adapt to the water, soil and climate in the south. Many soldiers were seriously ill and many died. Zhao Tuo also sent heavy troops to guard the pass in Yuechengling against the Han soldiers. Therefore, the Han soldiers never crossed the ridge and entered the territory of Nanyue. The two sides of Han and Vietnam were in a stalemate for more than a year, and the two sides did not cease fighting until after Lu Hou died in 179 BC, when the Han army took the initiative to withdraw.

After the death of empress Lu, Zhu Lu rebelled, but was soon put down by Prime Minister Chen Ping and Taiwei Zhou Bo. In September of the same year, Chen Ping, Zhou Bo and others welcomed the establishment of the acting King Liu Heng as emperor, which was Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty.

After Emperor Wen ascended the throne, he sent envoys around to inform the vassal states and the ethnic minorities in the four directions that empress Lu was ill, had a bad mind, and did something wrong, etc. At this time, Zhao Tuo, the king of Nanyue, offered to reconcile with the Western Han Dynasty. He sent a letter to Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty through long xihou Zhou Zao, the general of the Han army who was at a stalemate in Yuechengling, asking him to help him find his brothers in service, and also requesting the recall of the two generals stationed in Changsha to monitor the South Vietnam. After receiving the letter, Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty sent people to repair Zhao Tuo’s ancestral tomb in Zhending’s hometown, and sent people to guard it and offer sacrifices regularly; He also sent people to visit Zhao Tuo’s relatives, made his brother an official, and gave him property; Chen Pei, the general of the Han Dynasty stationed in Changsha, was dismissed. Then Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty summoned Lu Jia, who had returned to his hometown, appointed him as a doctor of Taizhong, sent him to Nanyue again, and wrote a sincere letter to Zhao Tuo, king of Nanyue, replying to Zhao Tuo’s letter, asking Lu Jia to bring it with him and hand it over to Zhao Tuo in person. At the end of the letter, Zhao Tuo was persuaded to go to the emperor’s name, saying that “I am willing to part with the king and abandon the previous troubles. From now on, the messenger will remain the same”. He also gave 100 silk robes of varying thickness to the king of Nanyue as gifts.

Zhao Tuo was moved by Emperor Wen’s sincere attitude. After reading Emperor Wen’s letter, he expressed his willingness to be a vassal. He ordered in the country that the Han Emperor was a wise emperor. From now on, go to the emperor’s name, the yellow house and the left flag. At the same time, he wrote a reply to Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty, saying: I have been in Vietnam for 49 years, and now I have grandchildren. But I don’t sleep well every day, I don’t eat well, I don’t want to see beautiful things, and I don’t want to listen to sweet music, just because I can’t serve the Han Dynasty. Now your majesty has restored my title of king of South Vietnam and communicated with me. I dare not be emperor again from now on. He also paid tribute to the emperor of Han Dynasty for a number of local specialties, including “a pair of white walls, a thousand kingfishers, ten rhinoceros horns, five hundred purple shells, a piece of Cinnamomum bark, forty pairs of emeralds, and two pairs of peacocks”, as a gift to Chu (zh) from the emperor of Han Dynasty ?? The return of clothes.

Since then, the relationship between South Vietnam and the Western Han Dynasty has been reconciled. After Zhao Tuo, the successor of the king of Nanyue, Zhao Tuo (m), and the king of Ming Dynasty, Ying Qi, successively sent the crown prince to Chang’an to “enter the Suwei”.

But in fact, it was only a superficial act for the king of Nanyue to submit to the Han Dynasty, and Zhao Tuo had always been wary of the Western Han Dynasty. According to the system at that time, the princes and kings would regularly go to Chang’an to see the son of heaven, but Zhao Tuo always said he was ill and did not enter the court. Moreover, Zhao Tuo appeared to be a vassal of the Western Han Dynasty, but he was still called emperor in his country. Judging from the gold seal of “Emperor Wen Xingfu” unearthed from the Nanyue King’s tomb in Xianggang, the second generation King Zhao Tuo also arrogated his emperor’s name.

The reason why Zhao Tuo and Zhao Tuo “lived in the country and stole the same name” is related to the situation at that time. At the beginning of the founding of the state, Emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty once enfeoffed some meritorious officials as princes, but emperor Gaozu was not at ease with them. Later, he stripped them of their throne one by one and granted princes to his sons with the same surname. He believed that doing so could consolidate his rule, but it backfired, and these princes were dominant, posing a great threat to the central government. In order to restrict the princes and kings, Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty implemented the policy of reducing vassals, which finally led to the “rebellion of the seven countries”. The rampant influence of the princes and kings in the Central Plains made the king of Nanyue, who had different aspirations, eager to try and be ready to claim the throne again at any time. Later, the central government of the Western Han Dynasty calmed down the “rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms”. By the time of Emperor Wu, a number of princes were stripped of their titles because of the lack of gold. Later, in the second year of Yuanshuo (127 BC), he adopted the suggestion of his father Yan and issued a “decree of mercy”, which made the vassal states smaller and smaller, and he was no longer able to compete with the central government. In this situation, the king of Nanyue never dared to be emperor again. When the third generation of Nanyue King ascended the throne, “that is, to hide the seal of his former Emperor Wendi”, his behavior was somewhat restrained.

Zhao zhe reigned for more than 10 years. After his death, the Western Han Dynasty granted him the posthumous title of King Wen. His children ascended the throne together. Yingqi once joined Chang’an as a Su Wei, married a Vietnamese woman in Vietnam, and had a son, Zhao Jiande. After entering Chang’an, he married Handan Shu family and had a son Zhao Xing. When King Wen died, he returned to Lingnan with his wife and children to inherit the throne, and wrote a letter to the Han Dynasty, requesting that the Shu family be the queen and Zhao Xing the prince. During the several years of Yingqi’s reign, the Han Dynasty sent envoys to Nanyue many times to call Yingqi into the dynasty to meet the emperor of Han. Ying Qi was worried that after entering the DPRK, “Han law should be used, and the princes of binei” would become a “short seller” who had no military and political power and could only obtain domestic economic income. Therefore, he refused to go to Chang’an and repeatedly pleaded illness. Only his son, CiGong, was sent to be the imperial palace guard. Soon, Yingqi died of illness, and the Han Dynasty conferred the posthumous title of King Ming.

His crown prince Zhao Xing ascended the throne and became the fourth generation king of Nanyue, and his mother Yu became the Empress Dowager. Before the Empress Dowager married her baby Qi, she had an affair with a man named Anguo Shaoji in the suburbs of Chang’an. The fourth year of Yuanding of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty (113 BC). He sent Anguo Shaoji as an emissary, and brought the eloquent admonition doctor and the warrior Wei Chen to Lingnan to announce the Empress Dowager and the king of Nanyue, “Benedict Princes”, to enter the dynasty to meet the son of heaven.

People all know the relationship between empress dowager Yu and Anguo Shaoji, so they are very disgusted with empress dowager Yu. The Empress Dowager also knew that she was not popular. For fear of instability in her position, she wanted to consolidate her position with the help of the forces of the Han Dynasty. At this time, Zhao Xing was still young and had no opinions. The Empress Dowager persuaded Zhao Xing to write to Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty through Han envoys to request his internal subordinates. According to the treatment of “internal Princes”, he appeared before the emperor once every three years and removed the border checkpoints. Of course, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty would agree to such a request. He sealed Zhao Jiande, the king’s brother of Nanyue, as the Marquis of Shuyang, and gave the Prime Minister Lu Jiayin seal and the seals of senior officials such as internal history, lieutenant and Taifu. He allowed other officials of the Nanyue state to set up by themselves. At the same time, he ordered to abolish torture such as Tsing and rules and follow the laws of the Han Dynasty. He also ordered envoys to stay in Nanyue to help Zhao Xing and Empress Dowager Zhen Fu Lingnan. Zhao Xing, the king of Nanyue, and Wang Dahou, the queen of Nanyue, cleaned up their luggage day and night and prepared to enter the dynasty to meet the emperor of Han Dynasty.

Lu Jia, the Prime Minister of the state of Fu Yue, once served as the Prime Minister of three dynasties, from Zhao Mei to Zhao Yingqi to Zhao Xing. He served as the prime minister. There were more than 70 officials in his clan, and his children were also married to the royal family of South Vietnam, which had high prestige in the country. Lu Jia strongly opposed the domestic ownership of South Vietnam, and repeatedly exhorted Zhao Xing, but to no avail. Therefore, Lu Jia made the excuse that she was ill and did not see the Han envoy.

The Empress Dowager was afraid that Lu Jia would rebel and wanted to strike first and eradicate Lu Jia. So she held a banquet in the palace and invited Han envoys and Chinese ministers to the banquet, which was actually a “Hongmen banquet”. But Lu Jia also came prepared. His younger brother was a general of the South Vietnam state, leading his soldiers to guard outside the palace. While drinking, he wanted to use Han emissary to kill Lu Jia, and deliberately asked Lu Jia, “it’s a matter of national benefit in South Vietnam. Why doesn’t the prime minister agree?”? He wanted to provoke the Han emissary with Lu Jia’s words, but Lu Jia didn’t say a word. Plus, the Han emissary was indecisive and didn’t dare to start. Seeing that the situation was bad, Lu Jia immediately left the table. The banquet ended unhappily. Lu Jia borrowed some soldiers from his brother to defend the prime minister’s residence. From then on, he said he was ill and did not see either the king of Nanyue or the envoy of Han Dynasty. He secretly plotted with his brother to mobilize troops and plan to make trouble. But he knew that Zhao Xing, the king of South Vietnam, had no intention of killing himself, so he didn’t take any action for several months. He wanted to kill Lu Jia himself, but no one could use it.

This news let Emperor Hanwu know and blamed Han for his cowardice and indecision. Emperor Wu thought that both Zhao Xing, the king of Nanyue, and the queen mother of Nanyue had been attached to the Han Dynasty, and only Lv Jia was in chaos, so there was no need to mobilize the masses, so he decided to let Zhuang Shen take 2000 people to the Nanyue state to assist the Empress Dowager in pacifying the country. Zhuang can believes that if it is a friendly exchange, it is enough to bring a few people. If it is a knife and soldier meeting, 2000 people are too few to play any role. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty dismissed Zhuang Shen. A man named Han Qianqiu volunteered, saying: in the small Nanyue state, there are also Nanyue kings and empresses dowagers, and only Prime Minister Lu Jia made trouble. As long as you give me 200 men, I will definitely take Lv Jia’s head back. Therefore, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent Han Qianqiu and the younger brother of Empress Dowager Yu Le with 2000 people to South Vietnam, directly into the territory of South Vietnam.

The Han army moved south, intensifying the internal contradictions in South Vietnam, forcing Lu Jia to start a rebellion. Lu Jia put all his eggs in one basket, and his brother led his soldiers into the palace, killing Zhao Xing, the king of South Vietnam, Empress Dowager Yu, and Han Dynasty envoys. He also informed the people of the country that the king of Nanyue was young and ignorant. He placed the Empress Dowager in the Central Plains and had an ambiguous relationship with the Han envoy. He was obsessed with his own family, completely focusing on his temporary interests and ignoring Zhao’s country. I set up troops to kill the king, the Empress Dowager and the messenger of the Han Dynasty for the immortality of Zhao’s country. Zhao Jiande, the Duke of Shu Yang, the son of King Yue’s wife of Ming Dynasty, was king. This is the fifth generation king of Nanyue, Zhao Jiande. When Lu Jia rebelled, Han Qianqiu, a general of the Han Dynasty, led his troops into the territory of South Vietnam and captured several small counties. The Vietnamese deliberately let Han Qianqiu enter the country and “opened the way for food”, which made Han Qianqiu relax his vigilance. It was not until the Han Army entered Shimen, which was only 40 miles away from Panyu, that a surprise army broke out and wiped out the Han Army at one stroke. Han Qianqiu and Chen Le were both killed. Subsequently, Lu Jia sent a letter to the envoy of the Han emissary, together with a letter of apology to exonerate himself, and placed it on the border between the Han and Vietnam. At the same time, soldiers were sent to strictly guard the fortresses.

In the autumn of the fifth year of the reign of emperor Ding of the Yuan Dynasty (110 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty dispatched 100000 officers and soldiers from Guangdong and the building south of the Yangtze and Huaihe rivers to attack South Vietnam in five routes. Fubo general Lu bode set out from Guiyang, Changsha, and headed south along the Huangshui River. Yang Pu, the general of the building ship, entered Nanxiong from xiahengpu, Yuzhang County, Jiangxi Province. These two routes took the Beijiang River and went straight to Panyu, which was the main force of the five armies. Originally from Guangdong, Zheng Yan and Tian Jia, two Guiyi Hou who surrendered to the Han Dynasty, were general Ge Chuan and general xialai respectively. They set out from Lingling, followed the Lishui River all the way to today’s Yulin in Guangxi, and all the way to Cangwu. These two armies used Lingqu and Xiangjiang waterways to force Panyu. Chiyi Hou He Yi led the sinners of Bashu and the army of Yelang state along the Zhujiang River, via the Xijiang River, and met in Panyu.

The war was deadlocked for more than a year. In the winter of the second year, that is, in 111 BC, the general of the building ship, Yang Pucai, led his elite troops to first capture the two water fortresses of xunxia and Shimen in the northwest of Guangzhou City, and captured Vietnamese food ships, so that the provisions of the Han army were supplemented. Yang Pu sent people to guard the stone gate, waiting for the arrival of Fubo general Lu bode.

After general Fubo and general louchuan joined forces, he took general louchuan as the vanguard and approached Panyu directly. Louchuan and Fubo troops were stationed in the southeast and northwest of the city respectively. Panyu city is built on the mountain and facing the water. It has been expanded and reinforced by Qin Renxiao, Zhao Tuo, king of Nanyue, and Lu Jia for many times. It is deep in the pool and high in the city. The Han army besieged the city for many days, but failed to break it. Later, the building ship general Yang Pu set fire to the city, and Fubo general Lu bode set up a camp in the army to reward the capitulators with his official seal. People in Vietnam have heard the name of general Fubo, and they don’t know how many people in the Han Army have come out to surrender to the Han army. General Fubo asked the surrendered people to enter the city again to call for surrender. So Panyu garrison collapsed and surrendered.

King Zhao Jiande and Lu Jia of South Vietnam led hundreds of their cronies to escape into the sea. Fubo asked the surrendering Vietnamese again. Knowing the escape direction of Lu Jia and others, he sent people to catch up. Sima Suhong, the captain of general Fubo, captured Zhao Jiande and was named Hai changhou. Sun Du, who was originally a “Lang” official of the state of Yue, caught Lu Jia and was named Lincai Hou.

Panyu city was broken, the king of South Vietnam was captured, and the officials of the kingdom of South Vietnam surrendered one after another. Among them, Zhao Guang, the Cangwu king, was granted the rank of Marquis suitao after his surrender. After Guilin County prison juweng surrendered, he ordered more than 400000 people of Ou Luo to surrender and was granted the title of Duke of Xiang City by the Han Dynasty. Nanhai Taishou abandoned, led the city to surrender, and his son was granted the title of Shedu Hou. Jieyang county magistrate Shi Ding was granted the title of an Daohou after he fell to the Han Dynasty. General Bi Tao led his troops to surrender and was declared marquis.

After the extermination of Nanyue, the areas under the jurisdiction of Nanyue were changed into the nine counties of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Hepu, Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, rinan, zhuya and daner, and Lingnan area became a county of the Han Dynasty again.

After Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty pacified Nanyue, he immediately won the victory in the southwest and northern regions.

The king of Kalan in Southwest China, unwilling to go out with the Han Army to invade South Vietnam, killed the Han emissary and the prefect, so the Han army sent eight captains to lead the troops to suppress the rebellion. After the fall of the Nanyue state, part of the Han army returned to the southwest to reinforce the eighth Colonel, killed LAN Junchang, and beheaded tens of thousands of people, and set up a county in the south.

Yelang Hou, who has always had a good relationship with South Vietnam, saw that the situation was wrong and hurried to Chang’an court to see the son of heaven. He was named “Yelang king” by the Han Dynasty. The Han army killed the king of Helan Deng and the Marquis of Mao, which frightened the kings of other ethnic minorities in the southwest, and they all requested to belong to the Han Dynasty and include their land into the counties of the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty successively set up four prefectures, namely, Yuezhou, Shenli, Wenshan and Wudu. In the second year of Yuanfeng (109 B.C.), the Han Army threatened the Nei family of the Dian king with troops. All the southwest areas belong to Han Dynasty.

After the collapse of Nanyue, Minyue in the southeast started a rebellion, which was pacified by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty and moved its people to the Yangtze and Huaihe rivers. Minyue’s place was empty.

The separatist forces in the southeast, southwest and southern borders of the Han Dynasty were all cut off. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty concentrated his forces on the Huns in the north and led 180000 troops to the north. The Huns were frightened by the power of the Han Army and did not dare to invade the border again. The northern border has also been temporarily tranquilized.

By about 110 BC, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty finally eradicated the separatist forces in South Vietnam, eliminated Fujian and Vietnam, subdued the southwest region, deterred the northern Xiongnu, and truly achieved the unprecedented unification of all counties within the four seas and decrees by the Han Dynasty.

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