Brief introduction of Xia Dynasty

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The Xia Dynasty was founded by Yu, the great grandson of emperor Zhuanxu, the fourth generation grandson of the ancient Emperor Huangdi, and the son of shuiguangui at the time of Emperor Yao. The Xia Dynasty was the first slavery country with complete imperial lineage records during the transition from primitive society to slave society in China, and Yu was the last tribal alliance leader at the end of primitive society.

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Zhuanxu

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Yu

Dayu’s surname is Si, his name is Wenming, and his name is Gaomi. On June 6 of the lunar calendar in 2166 BC, he was born in yuxuegou ? Erping, Jiulong Mountain (shinu mountain) in today’s Yuli Qiang Autonomous Township, Beichuan County, Mianyang, Sichuan Province. The mother is the daughter of the Xin family (now Cao County, Shandong Province), whose name is nvxi.

According to the document “origin of Chinese surnames”, in the 77th year of the Yellow Emperor (2355 BC), Chang Yi, his second son, was granted the title of marquis in Ruoshui (now Yalong River in Sichuan), married Chang Fu, a female of Shushan, and had a son Zhuanxu. Later, due to natural and living conditions, Chang Yi moved north to the Central Plains with his family and settled in the northwest of Nanle County, Puyang City, Henan Province. His son Zhuanxu followed his uncle SHAOHAO to become the tribal leader.

Zhuanxu’s grandson Gu was a minister when Emperor Zhi was the eldest son of emperor Hu. After emperor Hu died, Shang Zhi succeeded to the throne. Emperor Zhi was fatuous and weak. He was in power for nine years and gave way to his half brother Yao. At that time, Emperor Zhi granted him the surname Si in Chong (now Song County, Luoyang, Henan Province), so he also weighed Bo.

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The flood control of Yu is the most famous flood myth in China

He is a very capable person, because Xia tribe lives in the Yellow River Basin and is often disturbed by floods. He has accumulated rich experience in water control in leading the people to fight against floods.

Because of water control, he invented Chengguo (that is, on the basis of blocking the long dike, he raised the dike and surrounded the tribe. In this way, one can prevent the invasion of the enemy, and the other can be waterproof). However, he is upright, arrogant, autocratic, and has a bad relationship with other tribal leaders. Therefore, other tribal leaders often accuse him of bad morality. He was also confused with a descendant of the Yellow Emperor; A descendant of SHAOHAO is poor and strange; Taotie, a descendant of the Minister of the Yellow Emperor, formed a gang, disobeyed orders, committed evil deeds and became the enemy of Yao, which was called the “four evils”. Fortunately, he knew himself clearly and left Emperor Yao on an excuse. However, he did not return to the fief of Chongguo, but returned to his hometown Shiniu (today’s Shiniu mountain in Beichuan, Sichuan) with his wife nuxi, where he cultivated his mind and mind and did not care about world affairs. After his son Wenming was born, he devoted himself to raising his son.

Yu is famous for his successful flood control. Late Yao and early Shun, when Yao reigned for 61 years, the Yellow River Basin was often flooded, houses were destroyed, and people were displaced. Therefore, Yao summoned the ministers to discuss the search for flood control people. Because he lived in the Yellow River Basin and had experience in water control, the ministers recommended him. But Yao thought that he could not be used because he was a man who killed his family (disobeying orders and destroying the same kind). The ministers said: there is no better candidate now, so let him try. So Yao followed everyone’s advice.

After nine years of water control, he was beheaded by Shun for improper water control methods, and asked his son Wen to take over from his father to continue water control.

Yu had accumulated a lot of practical experience in flood control with his ancestors since childhood, and he was also well aware of the lessons of his father’s failure. After accepting the order, he changed his father’s previous negative method of building embankments and dams, focusing on prevention, and changed to dredging the river and opening channels for drainage, so as to divert the flood. In the days of Yu’s flood control, he led the people through mountains and rivers, scattered rivers, and worked with the people through the stars and the moon, braved the wind and snow, carried stones and earth, and grinded on his shoulders and back. It is said that at the critical moment of the project, he passed the house three times and didn’t enter. Even later, his wife gave birth to his first son, Qi, and he didn’t enter the house with a hard heart.

The footprints of Yu’s flood control reached Huiji (now Zhejiang and Shaoxing); South to Hengyue (now Hunan and central Hunan); West to the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River; North to the Great Wall. After decades of efforts, the river was finally unblocked, the disaster subsided, and the people lived and worked in peace and contentment. Because Yu succeeded in governing the water, he established prestige in the hearts of the people, and the surrounding tribes supported him very much. Shun also made him a vassal, and the fief was in Xiayi (now Yuzhou, Xuchang, Henan Province).

In the late years of Shun, Yu was recommended as the tribal leader. When Yu was king of the Xia Dynasty, he had five kinds of percussion instruments set up at the entrance of the court hall to receive people from all directions. He said, “those who make me understand with righteousness, please ring the bell; those who enlighten me with morality, please hit the drum; those who tell me about politics, please wave the priest; those who inspire me with sorrow, please strike the bell; those who come to complain, please shake the drum.”. He also often said, “I’m not worried that the wise men in the world will stay on the road, but that they will stay in front of my door. If so, it means that I have made many mistakes.”.

Sometimes, Yu had a meal and had to get up ten times to receive visitors; Wash your hair once, pull up your hair many times, and stop to receive visitors. Once, when Yu was on patrol, he saw a sinner, asked him what crime he had committed, and wept for him. People around Yu asked him why the king still mourned for sinners who did not abide by the laws of the country? Yu replied, “people in the Yao and Shun era took the kindness of Yao and Shun as their kindness, but as the king of the world, the people acted according to their own thoughts, so I mourned for it.”.

Another said that Shun was forced to abdicate by Yu and was driven to Jiuyi mountain to die. “Xunzi Zhenglun” said: “my husband said that Yao and Shun abdicated, which is an empty word, a legend of the shallow, and a saying of the humble”. According to the historical book Han Feizi Shuo Yi, “Shun forced Yao, Yu forced Shun, Tang Fang Jie, and King Wu attacked Zhou. These four kings were also killed by their ministers”. Liu Zhiji of the Tang dynasty recorded in Shi Tong Ji Jia SuoYu that Shun was driven to Cangwu by Yu and died.

About the death of Emperor Shun, Bo Yang, a Taiwanese scholar, said: “Think about it. Thousands of years ago, the place of Cangwu was sparsely populated, which was neither a political and economic center nor a key border area. Why did Shun go to the south to patrol? He was 100 years old at that time, and could he walk thousands of miles away from Cangwu? Why was there no family to take care of him when he went away at such an old age? Since he didn’t bring his family, why did two concubines drown for him later? Therefore, Shun was either escorted by armed escort, or chased behind, Blind escape. “

According to legend, Yu succeeded Shun and soon became king. He subdued the disobedient tribe by force, owned the property of the subdued tribe, and took the captives as slaves. He also asked his tribe to pay tribute to him regularly every year. One year, Yu summoned the leaders of all tribes to attend the meeting and the meeting. Everyone who attended the meeting had to bring jade and silk (tribute). Fang Feng, the leader of one tribe, came late, and Yu arbitrarily executed him. Yu took the initial fief of successful flood control as the national name, which was called Xia. Later, he assisted Emperor Shun to govern in Yangcheng (now Dengfeng town in Henan Province), and established the capital Anyi (now yuncheng county in Shanxi Province) after the founding of the people’s Republic of China.

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When the Xia Dynasty was strong and prosperous, the territory roughly began in the West from the west of today’s Henan Province and the south of Shanxi Province; East to the junction of Henan Province and Shandong Province; North to Hebei Province; It connects Hunan Province to the south. It is 700 kilometers long from east to west and 600 kilometers wide from north to south, covering an area of about 500000 square kilometers. The area is not very large, and it cannot be compared with the unified dynasty of later generations, but it may be the largest independent Dynasty in the world about 4000 years ago.

Since Xia Yu, the hereditary system of the throne has been established. In order to consolidate his rule, Yu established the army, set up government offices, formulated penalties, and built public powers such as prisons, that is, state rights. The Xia dynasty founded by Yu marked the emergence of China’s early state. The Xia Dynasty was a dynasty that frequently moved its capital. During the 471 years from the founding of Yu to the demise of Jie, it moved its capital 14 times, The sequence is: Yudu Yangcheng (now Dengfeng town in Henan) ? once lived in Anyi (now Xixia County in Henan) ? moved to Yangqu (now Yuzhou in Xuchang, Henan) ? moved to Anyi again ? moved to Zhenguan in Taikang (now Qingfeng in Henan) ? DiQiu (now Puyang in Henan) ? Kangcheng in Shaokang (now Yuzhou in Henan) ? Zhu (help) moved to the original (now Jiyuan in Henan) ? moved to Laoqiu (now Kaifeng in Henan) ? Lin (Qin) Juxi River (now Tangyin in Henan) ? Gao Qiansheng pool (now Shengchi in Henan) ? Jie Youqian Zhenying.B.

Yu married the daughter of Tu Shan’s family (now Huaiyuan, Bengbu, Anhui Province), and had three sons. The eldest son, Qi, took his father’s surname Si, the second son, Zai, and Feng GuDi (now Yuanyang, Xinxiang, Henan Province), with the surname Hu. Yu Chuan was located in Qi. Some Hu family refused to accept it and fought against Qi in GaN (now the west of Zhengzhou, Henan Province). It was called the “battle of Gan” in history. Some Hu family was defeated and killed by Qi. Sanzihan, fengguandi (now Hebi, Henan), is called Wuguan

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When Yu passed the throne to Qi, Han also refused to accept it. He established himself as king in the fief. Qi sent troops to invade the West River, which was known as “seizing the West River”, and Han was killed. After Xia Qi consolidated his power by force, he died a few years later, and his son Taikang succeeded to the throne. Taikang believed that his grandfather Yu worked hard all his life, led the people to stabilize the soil and water, and established the Xia Dynasty. After his father Qi’s victory in the struggle to consolidate political power, he became king, and the world was peaceful, and he could enjoy it safely.

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Xia Qi liked drinking, hunting and dancing before he died. Taikang was better than his father in this aspect. He didn’t care about people’s lives, ignored political affairs, and was obsessed with hunting. Sometimes, in order to catch prey, he didn’t return from Korea for three months. What Taikang did attracted the attention of Hou Yi, a tribal leader in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and a poor monarch who had long been ambitious to usurp the throne. Once, when Taikang went out hunting, Hou Yi took the opportunity to capture the capital of Xia and drove Taikang to Xia Yang (today’s Taikang in Zhoukou, Henan Province). Finally, Taikang died there, historically known as “Taikang lost his position”.

Although Hou Yi drove away Taikang, he did not dare to replace him. In order to get the recognition and support of other tribal leaders, he is waiting for the opportunity. Hou Yi let Taikang’s younger brother Zhong Kang succeed to the throne, and he mastered and manipulated the throne himself. Soon, Zhong Kang died of fear under the power of Hou Yi. Hou Yi thought the time was right, so he drove his son Xiang, who should have inherited the throne and Zhong Kang, to live in DiQiu (now Puyang, Henan Province). Hou Yi claimed to be the king and was named poor country.

After Hou Yi became king, he was superb in archery and powerful in force. He did not kill the Xia Wang family, nor did he impose restrictions on the activities of the descendants of the Xia Wang. He also appointed some nobles and ministers of the former Xia Dynasty to serve in the court. Hou Yi, like Taikang, was also cool in hunting. He entrusted politics to a treacherous minister. Cold and short, he traveled around by himself. A few years later, Han Shu killed Hou Yi and seized the regime of the poor.

After hancui became king, he did not forget the Xia Dynasty family. In order to prevent the restoration of the Xia Dynasty, he asked his son to hunt down Xiang, who was chased away by Hou Yi, and finally Xiang was killed by hancui. Fortunately, some of Xiang’s wife still had to flee and gave birth to Shaokang, the posthumous son of Xiang, in her mother’s family (now Jining, Shandong). Later, Shaokang’s descendants in Shun had

Under the protection and support of the Yu family, they recruited soldiers and horses, organized forces, and United some ministers and tribal leaders loyal to the Xia Dynasty to kill hancui and retake the throne.

Shaokang experienced a difficult life of exile when he was a child. He once managed animal husbandry for the Youshang family and food for the Youyu family. He came into contact with many civilians and slaves. He was well aware of the suffering of civilians and slaves. Therefore, he realized that if he wanted to keep his ancestral property and consolidate his ruling position, he must be supported by the people; To win the support of the people, we must care about their production and life. After the restoration of Shaokang, Ji Guan and Shui Zheng, the officials who were abandoned by Taikang, Hou Yi and the cold to manage agricultural production and control flood disasters, were restored, which led to a rapid development of social production, known as the “rejuvenation of Shaokang” in history. It took 68 years from the loss of Taikang to the rehabilitation of Shaokang.

Xia Jie was the last emperor of Xia Dynasty and the first famous tyrant in history. It is said that Jie is a talented and wise man. He has brute force and can straighten the iron hook and break the iron rope. But he is irascible and cruel. He is prone to murder, and he is very good at voice and color, and likes drinking. When he was in power, he devoted himself to fighting in the East and the west, and relentlessly attacked the people, forced them to perform labor, and built palaces for him. He was bitter about Youshang’s previous opposition to his succession to the throne. In the 13th year of Xia Jie, he attacked Youshang (now Jining, Shandong), and Youshang presented a beautiful woman named Mei Xi to him. Jie liked her very much.

In order to please his sister, Xia Jie collected money everywhere. A palace decorated with jade was built for Mei Xi; Ivory Inlaid corridor; A palace built of jade. Because the palace is very tall, standing on it, you can see ten miles away. Looking up from the ground, it feels like it is about to fall, so it is called Qing palace. From then on, Xia Jie and Mei Xi had fun here day and night, indulging in adultery. It is said that he built a large wine pool in the Qing palace, which is large enough to sail on, and can accommodate 3000 people drinking by the pool at the same time. He let people hang dried meat on the trees on the Bank of the pool, piled the cooked meat into hills, made 3000 palace maids take off their clothes, and ordered them to lie down and drink when they heard a drum, and towered out their Yin utensils; With another drum, I immediately ran to the meat forest to eat dried meat, and I had to step on the ground and the tree to expose my Yin; Another drum, run to drink, another drum, go to meat mountain to eat meat. This way, like a cow, they were in a hurry. Jie and his sister Xi laughed at it. In the evening, he ordered all men and women to get along naked. Jie and his sister were very happy to watch their handover. The people hated them so much that they wanted to die with them.

One of Xia Jie’s great historians, called YONGGU, took a picture of the achievements of the former king of Xia and urged Xia Jie to cherish the people’s power and not to be extravagant. Instead of listening, Jie scolded YONGGU for being troubled. YONGGU saw that Xia Jie would soon perish, so in the 51st year of Xia Jie, he left the Xia Dynasty and went to the Shang tribe in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. After his death, Xia Jie not only did not repent, but intensified. He held an alliance meeting in youstill (now Jining, Shandong Province) and forced all tribes to pay high tribute. Finally, the resistance of the nine Yi tribes (generally referring to the tribes in the lower reaches of the Yellow River) was aroused. At this time, Guan Longfeng, one of his ministers, persuaded him, “the reason why the world was stable, the country and the ancestral temple were consolidated in the former king’s time was that the former king was modest, respectful, prudent, trustworthy, frugal, and concerned about the people. Now you are extravagant and indulgent, killing people by nature, and the people are afraid that you will die late! If people leave you, heaven will not bless you, why don’t you change a little?”? But Xia was indifferent to Guan Longfeng’s advice. Stubborn Guan Longfeng stood there and refused to leave. Jie was very angry and killed him.

When Xia Jie was wantonly restrained and lost popular support, Tang Xingdao, the leader of the Shang tribe in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, attacked the Xia Dynasty in the 52nd year of Xia Jie (1600 BC). The Xia and Shang armies fought fiercely in mingtiao (now Yuncheng, Shanxi Province), and the Xia army was defeated. Xia Jie was exiled to Nanchao (now Chaohu, Anhui Province) by Tang. Three years later, Xia Jie died in Ting mountain (now woniu mountain, northeast of Chaohu City).

From the founding of Yu in 2070 BC to the exile of Xia Jie in 1600 BC, the Xia Dynasty had a total of 17 kings and 471 years.

Royal tombs of the Xia Dynasty:

The royal tombs of the Xia Dynasty were not closed because of their long history and many times of capital relocation. In addition to the legendary Dayu mausoleum in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province; Taikangling and shaokangling in Taikang County, Zhoukou, Henan Province; Xiangling in Puyang, Henan; Kong Jialing and Xia Gaoling in Shengchi County, Sanmenxia City, Henan Province; Most of them have not been found outside xiajie mausoleum in waniu mountain, Chaohu City, Anhui Province.

Dayu mausoleum is located on Huiji mountain, six kilometers southeast of Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province. At the age of 17, Yu was ordered to harness the water. He has been harnessing the water for 63 years, and has traveled all over China’s mountains and rivers. At the age of 79, he succeeded in harnessing the water. He began to assist emperor Shun in ruling. Seventeen years later, after Shun became king and reigned for ten years, he died of illness and was buried in Jishan in 2260 BC when he toured the great Yue (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang).

Yu left his last words before his death and said, “after a hundred years, I will be buried in Huiji mountain. Three collars of clothes and fur, three inches (ten centimeters) of tongcoffin, seven feet (two meters and three meters) of Kuang (tomb), no spring under it, three feet high tomb, third-class Bo Shijie, don’t hurt Tian Mu.”. Because of its long history, the Yu mausoleum has long been flattened. It is impossible to find out where the great Yu mausoleum is in Huiji mountain. Later generations chose a quiet place near the mountains and rivers at the foot of the mountain to build pavilions and erect steles to worship Dayu. Dayu mausoleum faces west to the East, facing Tingshan mountain, facing Yuchi in front, carrying Huiji. In front of Yu pool, there is a bluestone archway. Entering from the corridor, the original mausoleum hall is now destroyed. Now a simple and elegant stele pavilion has been built on the original site. In the pavilion, there is a huge monument of “Da Yu mausoleum”. Each word is one meter square. It is thick and powerful. It is written by Ming Dynasty calligrapher and Shaoxing zhifunan Daji Institute in Jiajing years. On the right side of the stele Pavilion is a unique stone pavilion, called “Xianruo Pavilion”. In front of the Xianruo Pavilion on the right is the newly-built Yu stele Pavilion in recent years, including the famous “stone carving of Hui Ji” written by Ji Shi, the Prime Minister of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty during his Eastern tour, and the “stone tablet of Shan Hui Shui Ze” and “stone tablet of Dai Hu water conservancy” engraved during the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, which are very precious. Yu temple is on the left side of Dayu mausoleum. It is reported that it was built by sun Shaokang, the fourth engineer of Dayu, and was later repeatedly abandoned. Now the temple is rebuilt. The temple is two entrances in front of and behind, with three bays. The seat faces the west, with pink walls and green tiles, which is simple and colorless. The brick carvings of “Dayu flood control” and “merit recording and reward” are placed on the left and right of the advance, and the scene is magnificent and vivid. Among the backward ones are the statues of Dayu holding Lei (LEI) Dai Li. The left and right sides display the relic photos and legends of Dayu in Shaoxing. “Yu cave” and “Yu debate monument” are embedded on the wall under the corridor of Yu temple, which are the words of historians to test and debate the burial place of Yu.

On the right side of Dayu mausoleum is Yu temple. According to legend, it was first built by Qi, the son of Dayu (2059-2050 BC), and then rebuilt by Shaokang (1913-1891 BC). He also appointed his youngest son Wuyu as the king of Hui Ji, guarding Yu temple, and the country name was Yu Yue. Yu temple was destroyed and built several times. The current Yu temple was built in the 11th year of Datong in the early Liang Dynasty of the Southern Dynasty (AD 545). Most of the buildings in the temple were rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty, except the main hall, which was rebuilt in the 23rd year of the Republic of China (AD 1934). Entering the xiyuanmen gate of Yu temple, you can see a stone gate Pavilion, in which there is a large stone monument, which is the famous “Yi Lou (hook tower) monument”, also known as “Yu Wang stone”. It is said that it was written by Dayu during the flood control in Hengshan Mountain, Nanyue (there is a translation under the inscription). Go north through the Lingxing gate and climb the hundred step golden steps, which is the sacrificial hall, or worship hall. This is the place where Yu was sacrificed in previous dynasties. There are two verandas on the left and right, where steles praising the achievements of Dayu in previous dynasties are placed. After the sacrificial hall, there is the hall with double eaves and flying corners, carved beams and painted buildings. The ridge of the hall is decorated with dragons, headwinds and Phoenix. On the platform in the middle of the hall, there is a statue of Dayu, six meters high, wearing a red rosefinch on a black background and two dragons, Hua gun, holding GUIs in both hands. On the left side of the hall is the imperial stele pavilion with inscriptions written by Gan long in the Qing Dynasty. There is a “flat stone pavilion” on the hillside in the southeast of the hall. There is a large stone with a height of 2 meters and 0.6 meters in the pavilion, which is shaped like a weight and has a bowl of large hole on the top. It is said that it is the tool used by Dayu when he was buried, or it is also said that it is the ballast stone of Dayu’s tomb when he was buried, or the mark of the tomb. Below the stone is the real burial place of Dayu. This strange stone has aroused people’s memory of this ancient hero. For many years, it has been touched very smoothly by people. There are two stone tablets beside the stone pavilion, engraved with “Stone Button” and “Yu cave”. It means that Dayu was born in Shi Niu and buried in Hui Ji. On the hillside between Yu mausoleum and Yu temple, there is a clear spring that never dries up. The name “Feiyin spring” is derived from Confucius’ praise of Dayu Fei’s diet, evil clothes and low official office. Around Yu mausoleum, mountains stretch, verdant flows around, and around the red wall, the weather is solemn.

Brief list of Xia Dynasty lineage:

Chang Yi: the second son of the Yellow Emperor, the year of birth and death is to be examined, and the burial place is to be examined

Zhuanxu: the son of Chang Yi, the year of birth and death is to be examined, and the burial place is to be examined

LuoMing: Zhuanxu’s son, the year of birth and death is to be examined, and the burial place is to be examined

Si Qian: Son of Luo Ming, the year of birth and death is to be examined, and the burial place is to be examined

Si Yu: Son of Si Qian, reigned from 2166 to 2060 BC, 2070 to 2060 BC, and was buried in Dayu mausoleum in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province

Si Qi: Son of Si Yu, 2059-2050 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Taikang: the son of Si Qi, was buried in Taikang mausoleum, Taikang County, Zhoukou, Henan Province from 2049 to 2020 BC

Si Zhongkang: the younger brother of Si Taikang, 2019-2006 BC, the burial place is to be examined

Si Xiang: the son of Si Zhongkang, was buried in Xiangling, Puyang City, Henan Province from 2005 to 1978 BC

Si Shaokang: the son of Si Xiang, was buried in Shaokang mausoleum, Taikang County, Zhoukou, Henan Province from 1913 to 1890 BC

Si Shu: Son of Si Shaokang, 1889-1874 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Huai: Son of Si Shu, 1873-1848 B.C., burial place to be examined

Si Mang: Son of Si Huai, 1847-1830 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Xie: Son of Si Mang, 1829-1814 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Bujiang: Son of Si Xie, 1813-1755 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Jian: Si Bujiang’s younger brother, 1754-1734 BC, the burial place is pending examination

Si Jian: Son of Si Jian, 1733-1713 BC, burial place to be examined

Si Kongjia: the son of Si Bujiang, was buried in the Kongjia mausoleum in Shengchi mountain, Sanmenxia, Henan Province from 1712 to 1682 BC

Si Gao: the son of Si Kongjia, was buried in xiagaoling, Gushan, Shengchi County, Sanmenxia, Henan Province from 1681 to 1671 BC

Si FA: Son of Si Gao, 1670-1652 BC, burial place to be examined

Si lugui: the son of Si FA, was buried in xiajie mausoleum, waniu mountain, northeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province from 1651 to 1600 BC

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