The Three Kingdoms (220-280 years in the narrow sense and 184, 190 or 208-280 years in the broad sense) is a period in Chinese history. There are three countries, namely, the Caowei, Shuhan and Sunwu. At the end of the Han Dynasty, the wars among the Three Kingdoms continued, resulting in a decline in population and economic damage. All the three countries attached importance to economic development. Due to the needs of war, various technologies have made great progress. Scholars at the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period had different opinions, which were generally divided into narrow sense and broad sense. In the narrow sense, Cao Pi forced the Eastern Han Dynasty to surrender to the emperor in 220, and the founding of Cao Wei began to destroy the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is generally believed that the Yellow turban rebellion of the Eastern Han Dynasty began in 184. This stems from the establishment of the state pastoral system by Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty to solve the Yellow turban rebellion, which led to the separation of local regimes and the division of the world. Other points of view are as follows: when DongZhuo left Luoyang with Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty in 190, the imperial court of the Eastern Han Dynasty had collapsed; After the battle of Chibi in 208, the three kingdoms’ confrontation took shape. Historians pay more attention to the formation and process of the Three Kingdoms. Since 184, the Eastern Han Dynasty has begun to lose its political power entity and separate regimes, forming the prototype of the Three Kingdoms until the Wei Dynasty and the Han Dynasty. Therefore, this period from 184 to 220 years is often included in the three Kingdoms period for discussion. During the Three Kingdoms period, a large number of talents emerged, and later generations often remember the influential figures at that time. There are a lot of Three Kingdoms in Tang and Song poetry. During the yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the deeds of the Three Kingdoms became more popular and became a common topic in drama and folk art and literature. Based on this history, Luo Guanzhong of the Ming Dynasty compiled the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which became one of the four famous works in China. Its rich and colorful historical connotation has also spread to Asia and all over the world, affecting these regions. The annals of the Three Kingdoms, written by Chen Shou in the Jin Dynasty, was later cited by Peisong, which is of great reference value. Until today, the famous figures and events of the three countries are still familiar, and have become one of the themes of television, film or games.
The formation of the Three Kingdoms situation
In 189, Emperor Ling died, and Liu Bian was made emperor Shao. The brother of the ruling empress dowager He Jin contacted Yuan Shao and killed the eunuch Jian Shuo. Shao and Jin conspired to kill all eunuchs, and called DongZhuo into Luoyang for help. When he Jin was killed by eunuchs, and Shao killed all eunuchs, Zhuo led his troops to Luoyang to take charge of the court. He deposed the Shao emperor and established Liu Xie as emperor, namely Emperor Xian of Han Dynasty. ZhuoZhi’s arbitrariness aroused the opposition of the courtiers and local shepherds in the Eastern Han Dynasty, leading to a large-scale civil war. After Zhuo entered Luoyang, Shao fled to Jizhou, where Qiao Mao, in the name of the three emperors of the Eastern Han Dynasty, asked the prefectures to launch troops against Zhuo, and Guandong prefectures responded one after another. They divided their villages into key points, promoted Shao as the leader of the alliance, and took the camera to attack Zhuo. In 190, Zhuo evaded the Kanto military front and kidnapped Emperor Xian to move west to Chang’an. The Kanto allied forces cheated and annexed each other, and soon fell apart. In 193, Chang’an mutiny, Zhuo was killed, and the central Shaanxi plain was in chaos. After a fierce scuffle, by 196, many separatist regions had been formed across the country: Yuan Shao occupied the three prefectures of Hebei, Qinghai and Henan, Cao occupied the two prefectures of Yan and Henan, Han Sui and Ma Teng occupied Liangzhou, gongsunzan’s Liaodong, taoqian, Liu Bei and Lv Bu successively occupied Xuzhou, Yuan Shu occupied the Huainan part of Yangzhou, Liu Biao occupied Jingzhou, Liu Zhang occupied Yizhou, sun CE occupied the Jiangdong part of Yangzhou, and Shi Xie occupied Jiaozhou. In addition, Zhang Lu protected Hanzhong area in the form of Taoism, and bought sacrificial wine to govern the people. Among these separatists, yuanshao and Cao Cao were the most powerful and active. After Zhuo entered Luoyang, Cao Cao fled to Chenliu and gathered his troops to resist, becoming a member of the Kanto allied army. He lured 300000 yellow turban troops to Jibei, selected their elite and made them into Qingzhou soldiers; In addition, some powerful landlord armed forces were successively incorporated. In the first year of Jian’an, he moved Emperor Xian to Xuxian County, and gained the momentum of holding the emperor hostage to make him disobey his ministers; Land reclamation and capital renewal. In 200, the Cao and Yuan armies fought the battle of Guandu. The weak defeated the strong and wiped out the main force of Yuan army; He also took advantage of the contradiction between the two sons of Shao to occupy yuan’s Yecheng, successively occupying the four prefectures of Qing, Ji, you and the union, and unified most of the north. In 207, Cao Jun went out of lulongsai to defeat Wuhuan who invaded the north. In 208, Cao’s army went south and captured Jingzhou, where Liu Cong, the son of Liu Biao, was based. Relying on Jingzhou, Liu Bei fled to the south. Lu Su was ordered by Sun Quan to meet with Bei to discuss countermeasures. Zhugeliang was also ordered by Bei to form an alliance with Sun Quan in Chaisang to jointly resist Cao Jun. Sun and Liu united forces defeated Cao’s navy in Chibi, forcing Cao’s army to return to the Central Plains. Promote the formation of the Three Kingdoms. After returning to the north, the troops were deployed in Guanzhong and Longxi, and the unified scope was extended to the whole North. In 211, the Reserve Department entered Yizhou and gradually occupied the original territory of Liu Zhang. In 219, Bei captured Hanzhong from Cao Jun, and Guan Yu also launched an attack on Cao Jun. however, Sun Quan sent his troops to attack Guan Yu and occupy most of Jingzhou, holding a stalemate with Liu Bei Jun across the Three Gorges. In 222, the Han army went out of the gorge and held a stalemate with the Wu army at Yiling. In the battle of Yiting, the Han army was defeated by the Wu general Lu Xun and returned to Sichuan. Shortly after the battle of Yuting, Han and Wu resumed their alliance and fought against the Wei Dynasty. Although there are often wars between the north and the south, sometimes on a large scale, on the whole, the forces are generally balanced, and the balance of power has been maintained for more than 40 years.
Development of the three countries
In 208, after Cao Cao unified the north, he led a large army south to attack Jingzhou. Liu Biao died at this time. His second son Liu Cong took over and surrendered to Cao Cao. Seeing this, Liu Bei decided to leave Xinye and go south to Jiangling. On the way, Cao Cao defeated him and fled to Xiakou. At this time, Lu Su went to the reserve office to inquire about the situation. The reserve also sent Zhugeliang as an envoy to Jiangdong. The two sides formed an alliance. Sun Liu’s allied forces took Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu as their commanders to fight against Cao Cao. The two sides faced each other across the river. Huang Gai deceived Cao Cao Cao with his tricks. Yu defeated Cao Cao’s army in Chibi with his firearm, and Cao returned to the north. The two sides also began to compete for Jingzhou. Prepare to put pressure on Jingnan and successfully force the four counties in Jingnan; The Ministry of power Yu also sent troops to the South County of Jingzhou. It took a long time to conquer the South County. Quan Wei courted Bei and married her sister to Bei. In order to expand his power, Quan occupied Jiaozhou. Later, Yu wanted to send troops to attack Yizhou, but died of illness on the way. Lu Su took his place and lent Nanjun to Bei. However, Cao Cao failed in the Southern War and moved westward to attack Zhanglu in Hanzhong. The warlords in Xiliang suspected that they would attack themselves. In 211, Cao Cao launched an army, promoted machao and Han Sui as leaders, led the army to suppress, and successfully took the northwest as a territory. Tripartite confrontation
Liu Bei was invited by Liu Zhang, the leader of Yizhou, to help Zhang defend the invasion of Zhang Lu and Cao Cao. He promised orally. However, after entering Sichuan, the two sides continued to buy people’s hearts. The two sides finally broke up in 212 and prepared to send troops directly to Zhang in Chengdu. Although Pang Tong, the military master, died in midstream, he succeeded in forcing Zhang to surrender in 214, prepared to successfully enter Yizhou and left Guan Yu to defend Jingzhou. At the same time, Cao Zeng went south to attack Sun Quan, and finally both sides retreated. In 215, Cao quickly gained Hanzhong. At the same time, sun and Liu began to fight for the ownership of Jingzhou, and the two armies faced each other. However, knowing that Hanzhong had been manipulated and the safety of Shu had been jeopardized, they shared Jingzhou with Quan and returned to Yizhou. However, the relationship between the two sides had deteriorated. In 216, Cao became king of Wei. One year later, he was ready to attack Hanzhong. Cao had a general to rebel, and Quan also sneaked into Hefei. Hanzhong successfully fell into the hands of Bei. Although Cao once sent troops to recapture it, he failed. In 219, he was self proclaimed king of Hanzhong. In the same year, Yu led the Jingzhou army to attack Wei in the north. However, LV Meng, who had just taken over the position of Lu Su, raided Jingzhou and captured Yu. In 220, Cao died, Cao Pi ascended the throne, and forced Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty to abdicate. Jianguo was named Wei; In 221, he was proclaimed emperor in Chengdu, with the national title of Han; Quan became a minister to Wei, while PI granted Quan the title of king of Wu and added nine tin. In the same year, Bei Bei, in the name of revenge against Yu, sent Lu Xun, who succeeded LV Meng, to fight in the East. As a result, Bei suffered a disastrous defeat and soon died of the White Emperor. In 223, Liu Chan ascended the throne, Han and Wu allied again, and finally the Three Kingdoms of Wei, Han and Wu came into being. In 229, King Wu became emperor and established Wu. Internal and external conflicts
After Liu Bei’s death, the Han Dynasty, after crusading against the southern central arch and guyizhou rear area, Zhugeliang attacked the Wei five times from 227 to 234, but ultimately failed. After Liang’s death, Jiang Wei also attacked Wei for many times, but he failed to achieve obvious results. On the contrary, his national strength was greatly consumed. In addition, in the late Shu Han Dynasty, Liu Chan spoiled the imperial government by favoring and trusting the eunuch Huang Hao. Wei had impeached Huang Hao, but he was forced to harm him. Zen was also disgusted with Wei’s repeated attacks on Wei. Wei had to avoid the middle, and there were serious internal and external differences. Lu Xun and zhugeke of Wu also sent troops to attack Wei for many times, but they failed to make great progress. But in the south, Ke succeeded in making the mountains more obedient. However, there was a struggle within Wu. As early as before Sun Quan’s death, the crown prince formed a clique to compete for the crown prince. As a result of the fierce struggle between the crown prince and his son, Quan finally had to choose the young Sun Liang to succeed to the throne. Quan died in 251. Before his death, Taifu Ke, who was appointed as the country’s governor, lost a lot of people’s hearts because of the defeat of the northern expedition, and was soon killed by sun Jun. Jun and his younger brother Sun Jian ruled in terror during the dictatorship. Many ministers and families died together. Although he was killed by Emperor Wu sun Xiu in the end, But Wu’s state policy has been declining. The main wars of Wei were to resist the attacks of Han and Wu, and Cao Zhen, Zhang Ying and Sima Yi were very active. Among them, Yi also appeased gongsunyuan and recovered the northeast. In the Wei Dynasty, after the death of Cao Rui, the Ming emperor, there was a power struggle between the power minister Yi and the clan leader Cao Shuang. In 249, Yi deposed Shuang, who was then a great general, in the Gaoping mausoleum incident. So far, the government of the state of Wei was under the control of Yi and his son. Later, his son Sima Shi and simazhao became more autocratic. The emperor abandoned his position and Cao Mao, a noble Township official, was even killed by Zhao’s subordinates. Although there were many uprisings in the interior of Wei Dynasty to eradicate the Sima family, they were unsuccessful. The three rebels in Huainan launched by Wang Ling, wuqiujian and Zhuge Tan were all suppressed by the Sima family. Three parts belong to Jin
In 263, Sima Zhao sent Zhong Hui, Deng AI and zhugexu to Nanping Shuhan on three separate routes. They had a tug of war with Jiang Wei, the general of Shuhan. The Wei army was blocked in front of the Jiange. Deng AI avoided the sharp edge of the Wei army and took the Yinping path to Fucheng and forced Chengdu. Liu Chan, the leader of the Han Dynasty, surrendered and the Han Dynasty was destroyed by Wei. Later, Hui and Wei rebelled in Shu. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, “Wei’s officers and men worked hard to kill Hui and Wei, and Wei’s wife was killed”. It can be seen that there was no chaos, and Zhao quickly calmed down. In 265, after the death of Zhao, simayan seized the power of Wei, made Luoyang its capital, established the Jin Dynasty, which was called the Western Jin Dynasty in history, and began to prepare for the invasion of Wu. In 279, Yanbing marched in six directions from north to west towards Dongwu. Sunhao, the Lord of Wu, wanted to resist. However, under the tyranny, the soldiers had no intention of fighting, and the Jin army was unstoppable. In 280, the Jin army successfully conquered Jianye, Hao surrendered, Wu perished, and the Western Jin Dynasty successfully unified the world.
The Yellow turban rebellion in order to combat the Yellow turban rebellion, the government gave military power to the state herdsmen. Many state herdsmen took the opportunity to become big, and the influence of the central government began to decline. In the battle of Yijing, Yuan Shao basically unified Hebei and no longer worried about the future. He wanted to fight for the world southward. And launched the battle of Guandu in the second year. During the battle of Guandu, Yuan Shao’s power declined, Cao Cao’s plan to unify the country was defeated, and Liu Bei took advantage of the chaos to occupy Jingzhou, forming the prototype of the three-thirds situation The battle of Tongguan wiped out machao and other heroes in Xiliang, consolidated the forces in the rear and unified the north in the true sense of Cao Cao In the battle of Hanzhong, Liu Bei defeated Cao Cao and captured the land of Hanzhong, making Liu Jun unprecedentedly powerful. Liu Bei also became the king of Hanzhong In the battle of Yiling, the national strength of Shu and Han declined greatly, and they were unable to recapture Jingzhou, forming the final form of the three kingdoms’ confrontation. Zhugeliang attacked Shu in the North six times, and Zhugeliang died five Zhang away from Qi Mountain. Weisima Yi held the military power, and Jiang Wei’s northern expedition to Shu was consumed a lot of Wei’s war to destroy Shu. Shu perished. Deng AI, Zhong Hui, Jiang Wei and some of the remaining ministers of Shu were killed in the rebellion. The war between Jin and Wu destroyed Wu, and the Western Jin Dynasty unified China.
Chronology of major events in the Three Kingdoms
Yellow turban uprising in February, 184. Zhangjiao died in October. In 187, Cao Cao was appointed prefect of Dongjun. In September, 189, Dong Zhuo abolished the little emperor Liu Bian as the king of Hongnong, and made the nine year old king Chen Liu Liu Xie as the emperor, in order to offer the emperor. In December, Cao Cao called on the princes of all towns to attack Dong Zhuo. In january190, all the princes set out to fight against Zhuo. Zhuo ordered Li Ru to poison king Hongnong and died at the age of 15. In February, Zhuo burned Luoyang and moved its capital to Chang’an. The ancient capital of Luoyang was broken. Gongsun Du established himself as the Marquis of Liaodong. In 191, Sun Jian broke through Zhuo and killed Huaxiong. Yuanshao seized Jizhou, where Han Fu was a state shepherd, and led the state shepherd. In April, 192, Wang Yun set up a series of plans, and Lv Bu killed Zhuo. In June, he surrounded Chang’an, killed Yun and defeated bu. He defeated the Qingzhou yellow scarf army and incorporated it into the “Qingzhou army” with strong strength. Strike the watch hard and die in battle. In 193, Cao made an eastern expedition to Xuzhou and defeated taoqian. 194 cloth strike drill. When he died of illness, he was ready to lead Xuzhou herdsmen. In October, 195, he led Yanzhou animal husbandry. Sun CE attacked Jiangdong and defeated Liu Yao. Li Li and Guo Si vied for Emperor Xian. In July, 196, Emperor Xian was escorted back to Chang’an by Yang Feng and others. Bu occupied Xuzhou, and Liu Bei put it into operation. Cao Shixing tuntian and kidnapped Emperor Xian to Xu. In 197, Yuan Shu became emperor in Shouchun. The crusade against Zhang Xiu failed. Shaoxing occupied the four prefectures of Hebei, Youzhou, Qingzhou and Lianyungang. In September, 198, he deployed offensive preparations to defeat Xiaopei. In December, he captured and killed cloth. Zhou Yu married Xiao Qiao. In November, 199, embroidery was performed. Dong Cheng and Prince Fu conspire to get rid of Cao. The plan attacked the Lujiang River and defeated liuxun. Prepare for Crusade, and the operation will die. For 200 years, Cao zhushacheng, etc. CE was assassinated and died, and Sun Quan succeeded to the throne. Chen Lin wrote a document to discuss Cao Xi, and the battle of Guandu began. In October, Cao sneaked into WuChao. Cao Shao was defeated in cangting in 201. Prepare to go to Liu Biao. Shaoxing died in May, 202. In 203, he had the right to crusade against Huang Zu. In 204, Jizhou was pacified. Liaodong Gongsun died and his son gongsunkang succeeded to the throne. In 205, Qingzhou was pacified. In 206, the state was pacified. In August of 207, he destroyed Wuhuan, destroyed the remaining forces of the yuan family, and unified the north. Prepare for three visits to the cottage and invite Zhugeliang. Cao redeemed caiwenji from the Huns. In June, 208, Cao was appointed Prime Minister of the Han Dynasty. Guo Jia died of illness and in July, he used the southern expedition form. The patient died in August. Fuck Kongrong. In September, Liu Cong dropped the drill. In November, Cao was defeated by the sun Liu allied forces in the battle of Chibi. In October, 209, Bei married Quan Zhimei. The Tongque terrace was built in 210. Yu dies. Gongsun Kang sent Gongsun Mo, Zhang Chang and other soldiers to attack Korea and Xi, and built a leading county. In the year of 211, he broke through machao. Prepare for Sichuan. In October, 212, Cao went south to attack ruxukou. Be stationed at Xiameng pass. The power was transferred to moling and renamed Jianye. In May, 213, Emperor Xian granted Cao Cao the title of Duke Wei and added nine tin. In May, 214, Wancheng was conquered. In July, Quan attacked Hefei and was defeated by Zhang Liao. In October, Emperor Xian, empress Fu and the national Abbot Fu secretly planned to eliminate Cao, let things go and kill everyone. Liu Zhang surrendered and prepared himself to lead Yizhou herdsmen. In July 215, Zhang Lu was recruited. In November, Lu lowered the operation. The battle of Xiaoyaojin. You must defeat power. He was called king of Wei in 216. In February, 217, Cao Cao attacked Ru Xukou and lost his power. In 218, Cao Zhang smashed the Wuhuan army, the Xianbei tribe surrendered, and the North was pacified. In July 219, he became king of Hanzhong. Guan Yu flooded the seventh army. In October, Yu lost Jingzhou and was killed by Quan. Cao died of illness in January, 220. In October, PI became emperor and established the state of Wei. He was proclaimed emperor in April of 221. Prepare for cutting Wu. Zhang Fei was killed. In 222, he became king of Wu. In the battle of the Yi mausoleum, Lu Xun burned the camp and was defeated. In April 223, Bei died in Baidi City, and Zen succeeded to the throne. In August, piwu road attacked Shu. Shu and Wu were reconciled. Yong Kai rebellion. In 225, the southern expedition was launched. Liang captured Meng Huo seven times and subdued southern Sichuan. PI died of illness in 226, and Cao Rui succeeded to the throne. In December, Cao Rui appointed Sima Yi as a general of Hussars. Power besieged Jiangxia and was defeated. In 227, he wrote about the northern expedition. In 228, the Central Plains was invaded. Jiang Wei surrendered to Shu. Ma Su lost the Street Pavilion. Zhou Blum pretends to surrender to lure Wei to attack Wu, and Lu Xun defeats Cao Xiu. Second, the Central Plains. In 229, he was proclaimed emperor. Three expeditions to the Central Plains. In 230, Wu sent Wei Wen and Zhuge to Yizhou. Light four expeditions to the Central Plains. Cao Zhen died of illness. The fifth expedition to the Central Plains was launched in 231. In the year of 234, Six Mountains of Qi came out. August Liang died in wuzhangyuan. Wu attacked Hefei in a large scale. In January, 235, Cao Rui granted Yi the title of Taifu. Ma Jun made Sinan cars and water turns. In 237, gongsunyuan of Liaodong established himself as king of Yan. In May of 238, Emperor Ming of Wei sent Liu Xin, Xian Yu Si to take Dai Fang, and Le Lang in August to level Liaodong and kill gongsunyuan. The queen of Japan’s evil horse platform, Bei Mihu, sent envoys to Wei, and Wei granted Bei Mihu “Pro Wei Japanese king”. In January 239, Cao Rui died and Cao Fang succeeded to the throne. In 240, Shu General Zhang Yi put down the barbarian rebellion. Wei took Fang Taishou Gong to send tijun to Japan. In 241, Wei built water conservancy in the Huaihe River. In 242, Quan sent troops to attack Hainan Island. Koguryo, Dongchuan, rebelled in the Imperial Palace, and Koushi Anping. In 244, Cao Shuang sent troops to attack Shu, which was disadvantageous and suffered heavy casualties. In August, wuqiujian, the governor of Youzhou, set out from xuantu to attack Koguryo. In September, baijichen intelligently attacked the border people of Lelang. Later, the Governor Liu Maowei returned. In October, the Wei army conquered the marubu. In November, wuqiujian, the king of Dongchuan, chased yilou with Wang Qidong. Liu Mao and Gong Zun sent their troops to fight for power with sun Ba, the king of Lu. Lu Xun died of worry and indignation because of his involvement. In May, the Wei army won victories in the conquest of Koguryo, and won victories without frugality. In 246, Koguryo was broken without thrift. In 247, Shu generals went out of Longyou to attack Wei and took over the Qiang and Hu tribes attached to Shu. Wang Qi took over the position of governor Fang and sent Zhang Zheng to Japan with his imperial edict and Huang Chuang. In 248, Yi was appointed prime minister. In January, 249, Yi killed Cao Shuang and his gang. Xiahou conquered Shu. Viva Wei. After 250 years of power, sun he was abolished as a common man, sun BA was given death, and Sun Liang was made crown prince. Wei Xiping failed in his attack. In 251, Wei Taiwei and Wang Ling plotted a rebellion and were pacified by Yi. Yi died in July. In 252, Sima Shi, Yi’s eldest son, became a general. Sun Liang succeeded to the throne after the death of his power. Sima Zhao attacked Wu and failed. In 253, Zhuge Ke attacked Wei and returned without success. Wei Di Dao failed to attack Wei. Wusunjun killed Ke. Cao Fang was abolished in September of 254. In October, Cao Mao succeeded to the throne. Wusunying failed to murder sun Jun. In 255, wuqiujian, the general of Zhendong, and the Wen Qin crusader, the governor of Yangzhou. The division is dead. Zhao was a great general. Wei attacked Wei Di Dao, winning first and then losing. In April, 256, Zhao crusaded against Zhuge birthday. Wei vawei was defeated by Deng AI. Wusunjun died, and his younger brother Sunlin specialized in Wu politics. Sun Jia killed tengyin and others. On the birthday of 257, he joined forces with Sun Wu to fight against Wei. Wei went out of Luogu and failed to attack Wei. In 258, the Wei army broke Shouchun and cut off his birthday. Sun Jia abolished Wu Emperor SunLiang as Kuaiji king and established Langya king sunxiu as emperor. Sun Xiu and Ding Feng designed the kill. In May, 260, Jia Chong and Cheng Ji killed Cao Mao. In June, Cao Huan succeeded to the throne. In October, 262, Wei attacked Wei, was defeated by Deng AI, and retreated to tunda. In 263, the three roads of Zhao attacked Shu, and Shu died. In 264, Zhong Huiwei was killed after his plot failed. Zhao was called king of Jin. Sun Xiu died and SUN Hao succeeded to the throne. In 265, Zhao died, and his son simayan succeeded the king of Jin. In December, Yan Xiaohuan was king Chen Liu, who called himself Emperor Wu of Jin, established the Western Jin Dynasty, and Wei died. In 271, Wu Hao sent troops to attack Jin and stopped because of the resentment of the soldiers. In 272, Yan sent Yang Zhao, Yang Hu and other soldiers to support Xiling, a strategic place. Lu Kang defeated Yang Zhao and killed Bu Chan. In February 276, the eight Eastern barbarians were naturalized. In July, the seventeen Eastern barbarians were naturalized. In 277, the Jin Wenyang defeated the Xianbei people. In 278, Yang Hu died and Du Yu was stationed in Xiangyang. In February, the six kingdoms of Dongyi came to offer sacrifices. In 279, the Western Jin Dynasty sent six armies to attack Wu. In 280, the Western Jin Dynasty destroyed Wu, Haojiang, and Wu.
During the Han and Jin Dynasties, the academic thought changed dramatically, which was mainly affected by the change of traditional thought and political struggle, and the former was the largest component. From making friends and valuing algae, it became reactionary and dutiful and belonged to ShenHan. It is natural and straightforward because of the hypocrisy and reactionary of advocating fame, which belongs to Lao Zhuang. Due to the political corruption in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the situation was chaotic. Cao Cao and Zhugeliang adopted the ideas of famous or legalist schools to restore social order. Cao Cao advocated the rule of law. Put forward the concept of “talent orientation” to break the standard of teaching by family status or fame. Zhugeliang also advocated the concept of rule of law. After entering Sichuan, he practiced the rule of law and enforced the law fairly. The proposition that “the key to governing the country lies in the cultivation of talents” is applicable only when one is appointed. He also attached importance to military law. For example, in the battle of Jieting, Ma Su was beheaded for violating military orders. He also demoted himself to the third class. The thought of name and law in the late Han Dynasty and early Wei Dynasty provided the basis for the metaphysical trend of thought in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, which made the celebrities turn the focus from the specific problems of name and law to the abstract speculation of metaphysics based on the political darkness. In terms of Confucian classics, Zheng Xuan’s Confucian classics at the end of the Han Dynasty had been highly respected. However, in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Wang Su inherited his father’s school and annotated the classics. His views on the classics were different from those of Zheng Xuan, so it was difficult for Zheng and Wang to contradict each other. At the end of the Wei Dynasty, Sima usurped Wei as Jin. At that time, the politics was dark, and the thoughts of intellectuals tended to be reactionary, depressed and had no way out. Those who tend to the Cao family are mostly fallen scholars, who criticize politics in the form of free talk and advocate nature. Those who are inclined to Sima family advocate maintaining the famous religion, which gradually divides the Confucian style. Because Wang Su was the grandson of Emperor Wu of Jin Dynasty, he was established as an official school. At that time, he deposed king Zheng Shen and made Wang Xuecheng the suzerain. “Seven Sages in the bamboo forest and the beginning of glory”, brick painting of the tomb of the Southern Dynasty. From top to bottom, from left to right are Rong Qiqi, a hermit in the spring and Autumn period, and Ruan Xian, Liu Ling, Xiang Xiu, Ji Kang, Ruan Ji, Shan Tao and Wang Rong, the Seven Sages of the bamboo forest. The most prominent thought in the Wei and Jin Dynasties was metaphysics. Its basic doctrines are Lao Tzu, Zhuangzi and the book of changes, which are collectively called three metaphysics. Metaphysicians like to talk about metaphysics, but do not talk about mundane affairs. They are called idle talk, which was popular in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. During the gestation period from 240 to 248, he Yan and Wang Bi were the representatives. Metaphysicians believe that a thing needs to understand the “root” of the underlying principle in order to understand the “end” of the ordinary appearance, and then advocate the theory of “unifying the end with the root”. It also regards “Ben” as “Tao”, analogizes it as “nothing” without form (principle and trend), regards “Mo” as “being” of actual phenomenon, and believes that “all things come from nothing”. Then Sima Yan usurped the Wei, Jian and Jin Dynasties. Represented by Ruan Ji, Ji Kang and other seven sages in the bamboo forest, they shifted their focus from ideological theory to life issues. At that time, the politics was dark. Sima suppressed the scholar bureaucrats and played the role of advocating famous religions. Ruan Ji and Ji Kang advocated that Confucian rites and laws suppressed human nature and were hypocritical, emphasizing the liberation of human nature and natural sincerity. They took the lead in realizing this theory and formed a trend of emancipating personality. After the Western Jin Dynasty, the wind of idle talk spread to the political arena. The powerful officials and dignitaries also talked about metaphysics, presenting a group of dignitaries who were living and wanted to be born. Fei Kai proposed a revision of “nature” and advocated “upholding the theory of existence” in order to correct the “false absurdity”. Guoxiang further proved that “Mingjiao” is “nature”, and the development of metaphysics has come to an end. Literature
Among the literature of the Three Kingdoms, the literature of the Wei Dynasty is the most prosperous, which is divided into the early Jian’an Literature and the late Zhengshi literature. Jian’an Literature opposes the weak poetic style, and is called “Jian’an style” or “Han Wei style” by later generations. This is because since Cao Cao and others loved literature, scholars all over the world have absorbed it. The representative figures of Jian’an literature are “three CAOS” and “seven sons of Jian’an”. Other writers include Handan Chun, Caiyan, fanqin, Lu Cui, Dingyi, Yang Xiu, Xunwei, etc. Cao Cao has a calm and heroic spirit and a simple and desolate style. He has written short songs, walking out of the summer gate, and making the county self-evident. Cao Pi and Cao Zhi were full of talent. Cao Pi wrote the literary review “dianlun”, which led to the conscious development of literature. Cao Zhi has a romantic temperament and is the author of Luoshen Fu. Jian’an Qizi, Caiyan, Yang Xiu and others care about reality and face life. Their works reflect the social changes and the sufferings of the people since the end of the Han Dynasty, such as Cai Yan’s eighteen pictures of Hu Jia. In the Zhengshi literature period, because the political situation at that time was controlled by Sima, the literati were depressed and could not face the reality directly. Contemporary writers include the Seven Sages of the bamboo forest and “Zhengshi celebrities” such as he Yan, xiahouxuan and Wang Bi. Most Zhengshi writers are familiar with Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi and good at metaphysics. They are not as persistent and indifferent to social reality as Jian’an writers. Ji Kang’s prose and Ruan Ji’s “poems for cherishing the memory” still inherit the “Jian’an style” and dare to face the Sima regime. Their literature has distinct characteristics. “Wen Xin Diao Long” mentioned that “the beginning is clear, and poetry is mixed with immortality. The disciples of He Yan are often superficial. But Ji Zhiqing is precipitous, Ruan Zhi is remote and deep, so it can be marked.” It shows that both Ruan Ji and Ji Kang are the representative poets of Zhengshi literature. Sunwu writers include Zhang Zhen, Xuezong, Hua He, Weizhao, etc. As a long history of Sun Quan, Zhang Zhen was friendly with Kongrong, Chen Lin and other seven sons of Jian’an. Xuezong was a famous Confucian in Jiangdong and was the master of the crown prince Sun Quan. Hua he was a writer in the late years of Sun Wu. Shuhan writers include Zhugeliang, Ying Zheng, Qin MI, Chen Shou, etc. As a statesman of a generation, Zhugeliang’s works include “a teacher’s example”. Although his writing is not as beautiful as others, it is simple in content, sincere in sentiment and touching, which shows his determination to fight in the northern expedition. The five character poem yuan you written by Qin MI is the only reliable poem handed down from the Shu Han Dynasty. There were also many scholars in Shu who wrote notes for books, such as Xu Ci, Meng Guang, Yin Mo, Li Zhuan, etc. in the late Shu Han Dynasty, qiaozhou and Ying Zheng were both obsessed with literature. Qiaozhou also wrote on Qiu Guo to discuss the shortcomings of excessive war, and Ying Zheng expressed his views through the text in accordance with the previous generation of Confucian scholars. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, there were also scholars who studied fiber chart and technique number, such as Ren an and Zhou Shu, and then there were Zhou Qun and duqiong. Famous historians in the Three Kingdoms period included Wang Shen, Yu Huan, Wei Zhao and Chen Shou. Wang Shen’s book of Wei was rated by historian liuzhiji as “most of his books are taboo, but they are not true records”. This is related to his close attachment to Sima’s forces and suppression of Cao Feng, the emperor of Wei. Therefore, the reference value of this book is relatively low. Wei Zhaoshan wrote the history and wrote the twelve pieces of Wu’s drum music, which is the whole history of the development of Sun Wu and is opposite to Miao Ji’s twelve pieces of Wei’s drum music. He also wrote 55 volumes of Wu Shu. The annals of the Three Kingdoms compiled by Chen Shou is one of the “first four histories”. Referring to Wu Shu and Wei Lue written by Yu Huan, he innovated the writing mode of biographical history books by adopting the method of simultaneous narration of the Three Kingdoms. Although there are still some shortcomings, it is actually one of the indispensable historical records for the study of the history of the Three Kingdoms. Religion
This period is the development period of Buddhism and Taoism. Due to the continuous natural and man-made disasters, people have sought religious comfort to their hearts, enabling them to develop gradually. The primitive religion of the Yi people in the south central region has a strong witchcraft style. Its nature is myth worship, which has the characteristics of multi gods and nature worship. It has a long history in Southwest China and formed early primitive religion. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Huang Lao’s learning was popular among the people. The Taiping Dao established by Zhang Jiao and the wudoumi Dao established by Zhang Daoling were the rudiments of Taoism, which was called Tianshi Dao in the Western Jin Dynasty. The Taiping Road of Zhangjiao pays more attention to “keeping one” in Taoism. Taiping classic is the main classic, also known as Taiping qinglingshu. The content is numerous and miscellaneous, “his words are based on Yin-Yang and five behaviors, and there are many wizard miscellaneous words”. His social thoughts not only protect the interests of the ruling class, but also appeal for fairness and sympathy for the poor people. After Zhang Jiao had a large number of followers, he led his younger brothers Zhang Liang, Zhang Bao and his subordinate Zhang Mancheng to launch the “yellow turban rebellion” at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Finally, he was defeated by the Eastern Han Dynasty and gradually declined. Zhangdaoling entered Heming mountain in Sichuan Province during the reign of emperor hanshun and created the five Dou rice path by making runes. This religion may be the integration of Huang Lao’s learning and local religion, and most of the runes come from Bashu witchcraft. The five bushels of rice doctrine is basically the same as the Taiping doctrine and serves the study of Huang Lao. Zhang Lu’s envoy “offered wine” to recite the five thousand words of Lao Tzu, and the Tao Te Ching became one of the main classics. Lao Tzu Xiang Er Zhu reflects the early Taoist interpretation of Lao Tzu five thousand essays. Spread by his son Zhang Heng (Taoism) and his grandson Zhang Lu, it is popular in Sichuan and Hanzhong. After Zhang Lu surrendered to Cao Cao, the five bushels of rice spread from Ba and Han to Jiangnan. Buddhism was introduced into China as early as the early Eastern Han Dynasty, but Confucianism flourished at that time, with little development, and developed in the rear of the Three Kingdoms. At that time, Mahayana Buddhism spread around under the influence of kusana empire. Under its influence in the western regions, Buddhism flourished in Khotan, Kucha and other places. Later, some monks, such as Tianzhu tankejaro, Sabbath Tandi and kangjukang sengkai, came to Luoyang to translate the classics and spread Mahayana Buddhism to China. Tan kejialuo popularized the precepts, which was the beginning of Chinese monks’ receiving the precepts, and later generations took him as the ancestor of the law school. Tan Wude (Dharma Tibet) karma translated by Tan Di was disciplined by Zhu Shixing and others. It is generally the beginning of Chinese monks’ becoming monks. Due to the poor translation of scriptures at that time, Zhu Shi started from Yongzhou to Khotan in 260 and became the first Chinese monk to go west to seek Dharma. He wrote the Sanskrit version of Da pin Prajna, which was sent back to Luoyang by his disciples in 282. Finally, zhushulan translated it into the Prajna Sutra of light release. In terms of development, at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, zorrong once Daxing Buddhist temple in Jiangdong. During the Three Kingdoms period, Luoyang was the main Buddhist town in the north and Jianye in the south. Emperor Wei Ming of the Wei Dynasty greatly promoted Buddhist temples. Cao Zhi also liked reading Buddhist scriptures and creating Buddhist Chants. On the aspect of Sunwu, when Zhiqian and Kang Sangha came to Wu successively, they were highly praised and supported by Sun Quan. When SUN Hao declared himself Emperor, he wanted to destroy the Buddhist temple, but he gave up because of the influence of monk Kang’s words. In Shuhan, Buddhism was not very prosperous and its scale was small. Art
In terms of art in the Three Kingdoms, there were many famous scholars in Sunwu who were good at various arts. At that time, they were called the eight wonders of Wu. There were Wu fan, Liu Dun, Zhao Da, Yan Wu, Huang Xiang, Cao Buxing, song Shou and Zheng Yu. For example, Yanwu is good at playing go. No one in his generation can win. He is known as the “chess sage”. As for Cao Buxing, he was good at painting and Huang Xiang was good at calligraphy. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, many paintings were destroyed or lost, causing losses. With the development of Buddhism, paintings with Buddhist themes began to appear. The paintings of the Three Kingdoms period did not achieve greater success because of political turmoil and social chaos. Before the Three Kingdoms period, painting was mainly a technical profession of “the garden of hundred works”, which had not yet been artistically developed. In this period, the content of realistic themes began to appear, and it was also propagated by the ethics. “The works include the picture of Vimalakirti, the picture of Sakyamuni, and so on. He once linked fifty feet of silk together and drew a portrait of a man. He was quick in mind and quick in hand. He crossed the period of religious propaganda. Painters also moved from the Central Plains of the Yellow River basin to the Yangtze River Basin. At that time, famous painters included caobuxing and Mrs. Zhao, the king of Wu. Other painters who were good at painting included Huan fan, Yang Xiu, Emperor Cao Mao of Wei, zhugezhan and others. Caobuxing of Sunwu, who is good at sketching from life and painting Buddha paintings, is known as “the painting of Buddha”. His works are full of three-dimensional sense. The world is known as “Cao Yi comes out of the water” and is called “Cao Jiaxiang”. Mrs. Wang Zhao, the younger sister of prime minister Zhaoyuan of Wu, was good at calligraphy and landscape painting, and was praised as “needle Jue” at that time. She drew topographic maps of mountains and rivers of various countries for Sun Quan, which was the first in landscape painting. At the end of the Han Dynasty, Yang Xiu reportedly had paintings such as the picture of Xijing. Huan fan of the Wei Dynasty was good at painting, and Cao Feng, the emperor of the Wei Dynasty, painted historical figures. Shuhan Zhuge Zhanyi works in calligraphy and painting. The art of calligraphy rose in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. From the Three Kingdoms to the Western Jin Dynasty, the official script was still the official script, and most of the inscriptions at that time were written in official script. The inscriptions of the Cao Wei Dynasty are upright and solemn, with little interest. The famous steles of Sunwu include the prophecy stele of Tianfa God, the mountain stele of Zen state, the Gulang stele, etc. Among them, the prophecy tablet of Tianfa God controls the square with a round shape, which is dangerous and wide, and has a magnificent momentum. The main calligraphers in this period included Zhang Zhi, Zhang Chang, Wei Dan, Zhong Yao and Huang Xiang. Zhang Zhi is good at Zhang Cao, and has created modern Cao. His famous works include champion post and return post. Zhang Chang, the younger brother of Zhang Zhiji, is good at Zhang Cao and official script. Wei Dan summarized his calligraphy experience and wrote the book of calligraphy. Among them, “if you want to be good at something, you must first sharpen your tools.”, It is his famous saying. Zhong Yao’s “Declaration Table” and “recommendation table” are classic works in regular script. Huang Xiang is good at small seal script and official script, especially at Zhangcao. His popular works include “hurry to die” and “Wen Wu Jiang Dui tie” and “Tianfa God prophecy tablet”. Technology
Ma Jun is good at mechanical application, improving production, and making a guide car that turns water into a hundred operas and is lost. He has won the reputation of “world famous and skillful”. He improved the silk weaving machine of the Han Dynasty, so that the patterns were three-dimensional, comparable to Shu brocade. We improved Bilan’s keel cart in the late Han Dynasty and invented a keel waterwheel to irrigate high-level farmland. Now some terraces are still in use. He also transformed the stone car into a rotary stone car to improve the throwing volume and speed. Zhugeliang invented “wooden ox and flowing horse” in order to facilitate transportation on the mountain plank road. Its structure is different from the literature of previous dynasties. Scholars generally believe that it is a unicycle and a four-wheel vehicle. At present, there is no definite answer. He invented a crossbow that can fire ten arrows in a row, also known as “Yuanrong”. In addition, it is said that Kongming lamp, which was designed by Zhugeliang to transmit signals, is recognized as the ancestor of hot air balloon; According to the records of shishijiyuan, Zhugeliang was also the first to produce the prototype of the long gun, which eventually gradually replaced the spear. Liu Hui is a mathematician. He was interested in mathematics when he was young. He studied the nine chapter arithmetic, a classic of ancient Chinese mathematics. In the fourth year of Jingyuan’s reign (263) of Cao Wei, he wrote the notes to nine chapters on arithmetic, which was easy to understand by his own notes. Later, Liu Hui wrote the tenth volume of the nine chapters of arithmetic notes, namely, double difference (later called island Suanjing), which made Chinese surveying reach the peak. In medicine, the famous ones are Hua Tuo, Zhangzhongjing and huangfumi. Hua Tuo had excellent medical skills and was good at surgery. He, Dong Feng and Zhangzhongjing were called “three great doctors of Jian’an” in historical books. However, as for the part of his medical legend, historian chenyinque believes that it should be derived from Indian Buddhist legends. However, he may be the first doctor to use the anesthetic “Mafeisan” for surgery. In view of the frequent turmoil and epidemic diseases in contemporary times, Zhangzhongjing devoted himself to the study of diseases and wrote a treatise on typhoid and miscellaneous diseases with reference to various books. This book is a masterpiece of the two schools of medical classics and prescriptions in the Han Dynasty. It is the first classic in the history of traditional Chinese medicine. Yu Jiayan said that this book “is the ancestor of all parties and the ancestor of all parties”. Later generations regard it as the “saint of medicine”. Huangfumi, who had been home since childhood, learned to forget food and sleep. He was indifferent to fame and wealth and did not want to be an official. He made in-depth research on acupuncture and moxibustion, and compiled various meridian theories and acupuncture methods before the Jin Dynasty into “acupuncture and moxibustion A and B classics”, which became a model for acupuncture and moxibustion in later generations. He also wrote on cold food powder, which became popular after the Wei and Jin Dynasties. In terms of other technologies and astronomy, Chen Zhuo, who served successively as the order of Sun Wu and the Taishi of the Western Jin Dynasty. He collected information from various schools, improved China’s star official system, and drew a star map for future generations. Peixiu’s “mapping six body” occupies an important position in the history of Chinese maps. Pu Yuan was good at forging chain ironware. He made knives for Zhugeliang in xiegu (now the southwest of Mei County, Shaanxi Province). Its Sabre can split bamboo tubes filled with iron beads. It is known as the divine sabre. Sunwu is located in the south of the Yangtze River, with developed waterway and shipbuilding technology. Some of its warships have five floors up and down, and some can accommodate 3000 soldiers. Shuhan is rich in well salt. The local natural gas is used to boil salt, which improves the production capacity.
Three Kingdoms military system
Wei’s central army was divided into Chinese and foreign armies. The origins of Chinese and foreign armies, He Ziquan clearly stated in his article “the Chinese army in the Wei and Jin Dynasties”: “the ‘Chinese army’ comes from the ‘foreign army’. The differences between the Chinese and foreign armies were formed in the Han Jian’an era (196-220) and the early Wei and Huang dynasties (220-226) When the governor system was established, the distinction between Chinese and foreign armies and the names of Chinese and foreign armies were officially established. Before Jian’an, Cao Cao group was just one of the heroes in the separatist regime at that time. Cao Cao welcomed the emperor and made a promise to hold the emperor to order the princes. Especially after he defeated Yuan Shao in the battle of Guandu and won the Hebei, union and Qing prefectures, his ruling area gradually became a national scale. At this time, the situation was so great that it was no longer possible to lead an army (although not all but most) to fight everywhere, as in the past. As a result, the method of staying in the garrison came into being. To pacify a place means to keep a part of the army garrisoned there and have one person as the commander in chief to command the troops in the area under his jurisdiction. This system of retaining villages was actually the beginning of the military system of the military district governors that prevailed in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. This situation occurred after Cao Cao defeated yuanshaozhan Youji and merged with Zhuzhou. After the Chibi war, the confrontation between the Three Kingdoms was formed, which gradually became a system and developed into a later Dudu system. In fact, the national army is divided into internal and external forces, and the names of internal and external forces naturally follow. The generals and the soldiers led by the governors who stay outside are called foreign forces; The army directly under the central government is called the central army. ” Wei’s central military strategy was the same as that of the southern and Northern armies of the Han Dynasty, which was responsible for guarding the Imperial Palace and the capital. According to the military system of the past dynasties, “Wei’s system was slightly like that of the Eastern Han Dynasty, and the northern and southern armies were the same”, which still referred to Wei’s central army as the northern and southern armies. However, due to the frequent wars in the Three Kingdoms at the end of the Han Dynasty, the Chinese army often marched in all directions. Compared with the northern army of the Han Dynasty, the combat task of the Weizhong army was much heavier. The military system of the past dynasties describes the development of the Weizhong Army: “at the beginning, Cao Gong set up the Wuwei camp at the prime minister’s residence to lead the army. And Emperor Wen added the Zhongying camp, so there were two camps, Wuwei and Zhonglei, which were led by the generals and five schools.” Wuweiying is the closest Suwei forbidden soldier of the Caowei group. It was set up in the 13th year of Jian’an (A.D. 208) according to the records of the soldiers of the Three Kingdoms. At that time, Cao Cao had just become prime minister, so he set up his own Wuwei camp at the prime minister’s residence. At that time, the number of forbidden troops of the Han Emperor was few, and under the control of Cao Cao, once the Wuwei camp was established, the prime minister’s residence was even more majestic. The commander of Wuwei camp was Xu Chu at first. His official position was general Zhonglang of Wuwei, and later moved to general Wuwei. The generals of the Wei Dynasty were all close to the emperor. Emperor Wen of Wei set up the second battalion of Zhonglei and Zhongjian, which belonged to the commander of the central leading army. Emperor Ming of Wei set up the second battalion of Xiaoqi and guerrilla. The military system of the past dynasties only mentions the second battalion of Wuwei and Zhonglei, with some omissions. “The two battalions of Wuwei and Zhonglei are led by generals and unified by the five schools” is also inaccurate. As a matter of fact, Cao Wei set up five new battalions, including Wuwei, Zhonglei, Zhongjian, Xiaoqi and guerrilla, to be under the command of the central leading army; Since the Eastern Han Dynasty, the five northern army battalions of garrison, infantry, Shesheng, Yueqi and Changshui still existed during the Cao Wei period, but the number of soldiers was poor. The status of the five schools was inferior to that of the general of Wuwei, and it was impossible to command the new camps of Wuwei and Zhonglei. With regard to the organizational system of the Weizhong army, the military system of the past dynasties says: “there is a division of the central, left, right and front armies, and there is also a general of the central guard, the central leader, the leader and the guard. There is no constant for other miscellaneous numbers.” Chenfuliang believed that the northern and southern armies in the Han Dynasty had evolved into the central, left, right and front armies in the Cao Wei period. In fact, only the Chinese army is equivalent to the northern and southern armies of the Han Dynasty. The so-called left, right and former armies are obviously opposite to the Chinese army. They may be the names of foreign troops in different places. In the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the Zizhi Tongjian, there are often references to “Eastern army” and “Eastern army”, both of which refer to the foreign troops staying in the East. The left, right and front armies are also mentioned in this way. Chenfuliang, the commander-in-chief of the Chinese army, believed that there was “one general for the central guard, one for the central leader, one for the leader and one for the guard”. Those who have always talked about the Cao Wei military system, like him, think that there are a group of commanders in the Wei Zhong army, including the central guard, the central leader, the leader and the guard. In fact, the leader and the guard and the middle leader and the middle guard were officials in different periods. Volume 137 of the jade sea: “Wei Wu is the prime minister, Han Hao is the guard, Shi Huan is the leader, and he is not a Han official. In the 12th year of Jian’an, the guard was changed to the central guard, and the leader was the central leader.” This passage is slightly different from historical facts, but it is undoubtedly correct to point out that the predecessor of the central guard and the central leader was the guard and the leader. The reason why the leading army and the guard army were changed to the central leading army and the central guard army was that the central army was actually divided into the central army and the foreign army at that time, so it was necessary to put the Chinese character in front of the commander-in-chief of the central army and the guard army. Since the name of the leader and the guard army was changed to the middle leader and the middle guard army, some people followed the old name and recorded it in historical books, so later generations often thought that the leader and the guard army coexisted with the middle leader and the middle guard army. Those with high qualifications in the middle leading army or the middle guard army can be called the leading general or the guard general, but the middle army can not have both the leading general and the guard general, as well as the middle leading army and the guard army at the same time. The central leader is the commander of all the battalions of the central army. He personally leads the central leader and concurrently leads all the battalions of the central army; The central guard ranks second only to the central leader in the central army. He is responsible for the selection of military officers and personally leads the central guard camp. At the beginning, the establishment of foreign troops in Liutun was very inconsistent, and the commander was often temporarily appointed and replaced by the Central Committee. By the time Emperor Wen of Wei, the situation had changed. According to the military system of the past dynasties, “in the third year of the early Yellow Emperor, it specially set up the military of prefectures, sought to add the name of general of four expeditions and four towns, and set up the commander of the great general, the commander of all Chinese and foreign armies, as well as the position of Taiwei.” The prefectural military, the governor of the Wei Dynasty, was a military officer representing the central government stationed in various regions, and was led by a central army different from the prefectural army. The so-called “four expropriations and four towns” refer to the titles of general expropriating the East, general expropriating the south, general expropriating the west, general expropriating the north, general expropriating the East, general expropriating the south, general expropriating the west, general expropriating the north, and general expropriating the north. In addition, there are the titles of the so-called “four ansiping generals”. These are not fixed military posts, but temporary titles. It can also be seen from these titles that the generals who are in charge of the military affairs of the prefectures are exercising the power of expedition and suppression on behalf of the central government. The Chinese and foreign armies are the Chinese and foreign armies. The “establishment of a high-ranking general to supervise the Chinese and foreign armies” means that the high-ranking general commands the National Central Army, and the high-ranking general becomes the supreme military commander of the Cao Wei Dynasty. The Caowei regime was established to replace the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the beginning, Taiwei was still the highest military and political officer. After the establishment of a senior general, the most important power of Taiwei was divided. Therefore, chenfuliang said that the senior general was “on top of Taiwei”. To sum up, the system of the central army of the Cao Wei Dynasty is as follows: | – the central army – the leader and the guard – the central army of the various battalion generals – the senior general – | – the foreign army – the governor of the Zhuzhou military. In addition to the central army and the foreign army, the Cao Wei regime also has state and county soldiers as local soldiers. Emperor Guangwu of the Eastern Han Dynasty stopped to recruit soldiers, and the military strength of the prefectures and states was very weak. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, some prefectures became independent and powerful, and the troops of most prefectures were destroyed or merged one by one. Cao Cao unified the north, and the separatist forces, large and small, were either eliminated or incorporated. In the northern states and counties, there were often only the central army left behind, but no local armed forces. At that time, Sima Lang, the chief bookkeeper of the prime minister, suggested that all prefectures and prefectures should be ordered to establish local armed forces so as to “prepare for the four barbarians outside and evil influence inside”. According to the military system of the past dynasties, “since the words of Nasi Malang, the state and county were ordered to provide standard soldiers, but there was no captain, the governor or the governor.” The duty of the prefectural soldiers is to guard their own prefectures, and they should also be deployed when necessary. The status of prefectural and county soldiers is lower than that of Chinese and foreign armies. “Prefectural and county governors are not the same as Chinese and foreign armies. In the case of the Chinese army, though they have made great contributions, they will be Marquis; in the case of prefectures, though they have made great contributions, they will not be denied” (Jin Shu. Duan Zhuo Zhuan), but the power of local prefectural and county governors has greatly expanded. Therefore, according to the military system of the past dynasties, the military power of the Caowei regime was “concentrated outside the prefectural herdsmen, but within the generals and Taiwei”. Therefore, later, Emperor Wei Ming was asked to remove the right to lead the troops of the prefectures and prefectures at the edge of the border. In addition, senior generals were sent to guard the troops, so as to prevent the prefects and prefectures from “concentrating on military work and not civil affairs” and not “independently cultivating their own business” (Annals of the Three Kingdoms. Weizhi. Dushu Biography). It is worth mentioning the Cao Wei military system and the Army garrison, but chenfuliang neglected it again. In the Wei Dynasty, there were two kinds of garrisons: civilian garrisons and military garrisons, which were the methods of renting official land and the promotion of garrisons in border counties in the Han Dynasty. The management mode of the Mintun is: the big Si Nong is in charge of the Mintun throughout the country, the Diannong Zhonglang will be in charge of the Mintun in a prefecture, the Diannong Duwei is in charge of the Mintun in a county unit, and the Tun Sima is in charge of a production unit – yitun. In each village, there are 50 villagers. The task of Mintun is to plant rice, millet, mulberry and hemp, and turn over 50-60% of the harvest to the government. The peasants who settled in the fields refused to accept military service, but the implementation of the Le style management of the military justice department should be included in the scope of military system research. In the early years of Jian’an, the purpose of the reclamation of farmland was to bind the refugees to the land and provide the government with a large amount of rent for military supplies; At the end of Wei Dynasty and the beginning of Jin Dynasty, for the benefit of aristocratic families, the rulers often divided the farmland, divided the farmland customers, and the farmland system was destroyed. The start of the military garrison was later than that of the civilian garrison. Generally, it maintained the original military establishment and was set up at the border where the Wu and Shu countries faced each other, so that the soldiers could keep the garrison at the same time. The eastern Wu also had soldiers similar to those of the Caowei The military system of Shu and Han Dynasties is roughly the same as that of Wei Dynasty, but it has its own characteristics. The central army of Shu, the military system of the past dynasties, said: “Shu has five armies. Its left and right generals, supervisors and guardians are one, including one division, supervisor, guardian, code and enlisted in the army. Its former division, general, supervisor, guardian and supervisor are one each, and its subsequent supervisors, generals and both. Its general school is as strategic as that of the Han Dynasty.” The five armies are the front, rear, left, right and middle armies. The Chinese army, like Cao Wei, was also a garrison force; The front, rear, left and right armies are roughly equal to the foreign armies of the Cao Wei Dynasty. The central army of Shuhan has one or two generals as the highest military commander in China. The organizational system of the five armed forces is not exactly the same. The Chinese army has a guard, a supervisor, a military division, a capital guard, a leader and a code army; The front and rear armies have a guard, a supervisor, a military division, a leader and a code army; The left and right armies have one guard, one supervisor and one Du guard respectively. According to the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the annals of Shu, the biography of Ma Huang and Zhao in Guanzhang, the commanders of the front, rear, left and right armies are the former general, the rear general, the left general and the right general respectively, and only the commander in chief of the Chinese Army is the guard; According to Wang Ping, Liu Min and Jiang Wei, the front, rear, left and right armies often take the guards or supervisors as their respective commanders. Therefore, it remains to be further investigated whether the former generals and other official titles are another name for the guards or Jin, or official titles at different times. The grass-roots army of Shu has many different titles. According to the military system of the past dynasties, “there are different types of soldiers, i.e. sudden generals, Wuqian (upper clan and lower clan), Sau, Qingqiang, Sanqi and Wuqi. They can’t all use Shu people.” “At the time of Liu Zhang, there were 10000 people in the three auxiliary streams. They were taken as soldiers and named Dongzhou soldiers.” The list here is not complete. According to statistics in wangxinfu’s supplement to the annals of the soldiers of the Three Kingdoms, Shu has grass-roots troops with the following Titles: Qu Chang. The Han Army originally had the Department of Hequ, and Shu had Qu Chang, but some troops still had Qu. As there are garrison generals in Shu, there are garrison organizations. As a general of the charge team, the Shu army often has a special forward team. There is no front, there is no when, the two may be the same brave team. The flying army, mainly composed of Qingqiang, a branch of Qiang nationality, is divided into five parts. Tiger step, a fine and brave infantry team. Tiger riding, Jingyong
Economy in the Three Kingdoms period
After Cao Cao, the economic officer of the state of Wei, welcomed the emperor to Xuchang, he took the policy of “the art of determining the state by the husband lies in strengthening the army and providing enough food” to implement the reclamation of farmland near Xuchang. As a result, “the people who raised the land promised to get millions of Dendrobium.”. Therefore, field officials were set up in each state and county to recruit refugees to open up the field, and the system of opening up the field was popularized to change the situation of “white bones are exposed in the wild, and there is no Rooster crowing for thousands of miles” caused by the warlords’ scuffle in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Because of the success of the reclamation system, the local government has become “the farmland of farmers and soldiers, the sound of chickens and dogs, and the fields belong to each other”. Because of the reclamation measures, the northern society has turned to stability. Finally, it has reached the goal of “conquering the four directions without the labor of transporting grain, so as to eliminate the thieves and conquer the world”. The economy of Shu has been known as the land of abundance since ancient times. The rich material resources here are the basis for the success of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Yan and his son successively served as the pastor of Yizhou to govern Shu with the policy of leniency and leniency, which led to the monopoly of land and mountain resources, thus reducing taxes. After Liu Bei occupied Yizhou, Zhugeliang and FA Zhengyi changed their previous corrupt policies, cracked down on the powerful and powerful, and used to close the country to the rest of the people and cultivate crops. In addition, weir officials were set up in Dujiangyan to manage irrigation and water conservancy projects and promote the reclamation of farmland in order to restore and develop agricultural production. In addition. Liang Jifa is implementing the public sector for important handicrafts such as iron smelting, salt boiling and cotton weaving, and has set up full-time officials to strengthen management. The above series of measures have greatly increased the national tax revenue and laid the conditions for the tripartite confrontation. Later, Guan Yu lost Jingzhou to fight against Wu, which made Shu face the edge of collapse. Therefore, Liang Liang expanded the official range of handicraft industry in terms of economy and increased the production of Sichuan cotton to help speed up the pace of restoring national strength. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the economy of the state of Wu was in full swing. The Central Plains fought for years and the area was damaged. The people of the North crossed the river with their families to take refuge. There was no shortage of rich businessmen in the north. They came to Jiangnan from the north. At the same time, they brought production technology and culture to bring new blood to the poor Jiangnan at that time. Originally, Wu’s farming technology was very backward, and he had not yet understood cattle farming. After the injection of production technology, the agricultural production technology has been gradually improved, and the population has gradually increased, which has changed the previous situation of vast territory and sparse population. The three generations of the sun clan: Sun Jian, sun CE, and Sun Quan ruled over a larger territory, and the army became larger. Therefore, the consumption of food, grass, and military supplies became a large part of the national expenditure. In order to reduce the burden, the system of stationing the farmland was implemented one by one, and the stationing of agricultural officers and stationing of agricultural officers were set up. The system of Garrisoning the farmland includes garrisons and civilian garrisons. The cultivators under the military garrison are tenant soldiers, and the cultivators under the civilian garrison are field dwellers. Wu is located below the Yangtze River Basin, so it also pays attention to building water conservancy to make use of water resources and military preparedness. Sili Xiaowei Department of the thirteen prefectures (administrative regions of the Three Kingdoms) in the Eastern Han Dynasty: the jurisdiction of Henan (now the east of Luoyang) is now the central Shaanxi, the southwest of Qin and the west of Henan. Known as “Si Zhou”. Yuzhou: zhisuqiao (Wanbo county) has jurisdiction over the south, East, north of Anhui, north of Western Jiangsu and southwest of Shandong. Yanzhou: Changyi (now the northwest of lujinxiang county) governs the southwest of Shandong, the east of Henan and the northwest of Jiangsu. Xuzhou: governed by Tan (southwest of Tancheng County, Shandong Province), it now covers the southeast of Shandong, the north of Jiangsu and the northeast corner of Anhui. Qingzhou: it is located in the north of Shandong Province and the southeast corner of Hebei Province. Liangzhou: it governs the southeast part of Gansu Province (north of ganqingshui county). Bingzhou: it is governed by Jinyang (West of Taiyuan) in the north of Shaanxi, most of Qin and one of Inner Mongolia. Jizhou: the jurisdiction of Hao (north of Baixiang County) is now in the southwest of Hebei. Youzhou: zhizhiji (southwest of Beijing). The area is now in the north of Hebei, with one Liao and one Ji respectively. Yangzhou: the jurisdiction of Liyang (Wanhe County, later moved to Shouchun) now covers Southern Jiangsu, central and southern Anhui, and Zhejiang, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces. Jingzhou: the jurisdiction of Hanshou (east of Changde City, Hunan Province) is now in the southwest of Henan Province, on the edge of Hubei and Hunan provinces and Guizhou, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. Yizhou: it is under the jurisdiction of Luohe (Guanghan County, Sichuan, Mianzhu, and then Chengdu), covering most of Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan, and a corner of Shaanxi, Hubei, and Gansu. Jiaozhou: Guangxin (guiwuzhou city)