The Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties in Chinese history was an era of diverse ideas and talents. The three schools of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, each of which has its own representative figures of the times, have a distinctive style and a unique standard of elegance. They discuss difficulties without losing their magnanimity. At that time, praise talents and respect opponents. Buddhism flourished in the Southern Dynasties, and the voice of anti Buddhism can also be expressed. So Fanzhen, the Buddha warrior, appeared. Emperor Wu of Liang, who had been obsequious with Buddhism all his life and sacrificed himself three times, took the lead in debating with fan Zhen, and wrote in person the answer to his subordinates on the destruction of God, which wrote: “if you want to talk about the absence of Buddhism, you should set up a guest and a host, mark its purpose, distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, come to Buddhism, and bend Buddhism, then you will have the meaning of Buddhism, and the destruction of God will be on its own.” you should argue in a manner that does not lose grace.
The imperial edict of emperor Liangwu was conveyed by Shi Fayun to the princes and ministers. More than 60 people, including Wang Xiaohong from Linchuan, Wang Xiaowei from Nanping, Wang xiaoyuanye from Changsha, Xiao ang from Yuzhang, and Shen Yue, were in trouble. We can imagine how much pressure fan Zhen was under. But fan Zhen did not flinch. He was not brave. Therefore, it is also related to the fact that Emperor Wu of Liang could keep the rules of ideological debate and not use political power to exterminate heresy. Just as Mr. Qian Zhongshu said, “if you have the courage and meticulousness to rely on the magnanimity of Liang’s martial arts without fear, you can be very valuable.” It can be seen that the cultural landscape of a generation with prosperous humanities and rich writings in China’s history was formed at that time, which was not accidental, but from a source. The question is how to open the talent gate in the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties. If we “vibrate the leaves to seek the root, and seek the source through Guanlan”, we can not but trace it back to Cao Cao.
Cao Cao is a man. It is difficult for Luo Guanzhong to start the romance of the Three Kingdoms. He has written a vivid image of a traitor. The white face is painted several layers thick. It is even more difficult to peel it off. However, there are not a few literary and historical researchers of later generations who want to return Cao ahui’s historical truth. We all remember that Guo Moruo wrote “overturning the case for Cao Cao” in 1959. The great historian chenyinque also gave special comments on Cao Cao. Chen Yinque also said in a study of Wei and Jin Dynasties (after the beginning and end of the four treatises written by Zhong Hui in the literature category of Shushi Shuo Xinyu) that “those who have married Cao mengde are the peerless heroes”, “history readers only discuss their personal mistakes when they cheat and corrupt Cao mengde, and do not know that this has the effect of transferring the world situation for hundreds of years, not just a matter of time”. It is not low to affirm that Cao Cao played a role in “shifting the world situation for hundreds of years”.
So, where should we start with the historical role of Cao Cao’s “shifting the world situation for hundreds of years”? There is no doubt that we should start with his “three orders for talents”. The so-called “three decrees for seeking talents” refer to the three successive imperial decrees for recruiting talents issued in the 15th, 19th and 22nd years of Jian’an. For the convenience of introduction, we might as well call them the first, second and third orders respectively.
The first order mainly indicates that we are eager to seek talents and eager to “rule the world together” with the wise men and gentlemen. Therefore, we put forward the clear slogan of “talent only”. That is to say, as long as it is a talented person, other conditions can be put aside for the time being.
The second order is to supplement what the first order is not specific enough. In particular, it states that we should not be afraid to use flawed talents. In particular, it is not necessary to restrict people everywhere by virtue. Therefore, the truth lies in: “a man of action may not be able to make progress, and an enterprising man may not be able to make progress.” If the talent is abandoned due to some “short” talent, then Suqin and Chen Ping do not have to use it. Without these two people, how did the weakness of Yan state change during the Warring States period? How did the great undertaking of Han Dynasty achieve? Only by understanding this truth can we achieve “no stagnation of scholars and no abolition of official business”.
The third is to make the Internet more open. It is proposed that the employment should not pay attention to the origin, and do not care whether there is a “stigma”. This decree wrote impressively: “Yi Zhi and Fu Shuo in the past were born of bitches, Guan Zhong, Duke Huan, and thieves. Xiao He, Cao Shen, county officials, Han Xin and Chen Ping were shamed by their insults. Their deaths have been able to achieve the king’s career for thousands of years.” Even if “there is no benevolence or filial piety, but there is the art of governing the country and employing troops”, it is not impossible to use it. This is rather unexpected.
Once these three orders are issued, all kinds of talents and figures will flow down the river. Mr. chenyinque believes that the three orders issued by Cao are mainly aimed at his opponents. The purpose is to break the existing official governance structure since the Han Dynasty. As the slogan “those who have virtue may not have talent” shows, the role of Cao’s destruction is bound to be considerable. However, it is inevitable that there are many sects, good and evil people mixed up, mud and sand mixed together, and strange and strange competitions. In spite of this, after all, the talent boom of the Han and Wei Dynasties was formed. The Cao family, as Yin Lao called it, has the function of “shifting the world situation for hundreds of years”. What is its deep historical significance? What if you were here?