Cao Cao’s Northern Expedition attacked western Liaoning to eliminate disasters. There are remains of the old hero Tochigi in the East and Jieshi in the East

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Jieshi is located on the coast of zhianwan, Wanjia village, Suizhong County, Huludao City, Liaoning Province. At that time, Cao Cao wrote a famous sentence here for thousands of years.

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Schematic diagram of Cao Cao’s elimination of Yuan’s residual forces in the north and his northern expedition to Wuhuan.

Speaking of Cao Cao, people easily think of tongquetai, Chibi, cooking wine and heroes, and the battle of Guandu. However, another war that followed the Guandu war was ignored for a long time. The romance of the Three Kingdoms, which exaggerates the war, only used more than one page to describe the bloody war that lasted more than four months. Among them, the defeat of Wuhuan was like gold, which only used dozens of words. In fact, the northern expedition to Wuhuan was an experience that Cao Cao would never forget in his life. The laborious expedition, high mountains and dangerous roads, and a wrong step would lead to the destruction of the whole army… Especially in this expedition, Guo Jia, his most trusted and valued adviser in his life, died of illness due to fatigue, which became a permanent pain in his heart

Cao Cao decided to take a gamble on the empty country

In the 12th year of Jian’an in the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 207), it rained heavily outside the city in May of the lunar calendar.

A large army was advancing quietly on the muddy road. The sound of brushing rain wrapped in the sound of footsteps, horses’ hoofs and wheels. It was as gloomy as winter dusk, dull and desolate.

In a chariot in the army, Cao Cao was silent and gloomy. During the northern expedition to Wuhuan, he fought against the consensus of “empty country and March”. 200000 troops, thousands of chariots, and almost all the elite generals of Wen Chen: counselor Guo Jia, Dangkou General Zhang Liao, Pingdi General Zhang Ying, Yokogawa General Xu Huang, and his talented son Cao Zhi… This is what he wants to bet on. He knew that he was 53 years old and could not miss any chance.

In the battle of Guandu, Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao. Yuan Shao’s two sons, Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi, were so scared that they fled to Liucheng (near yuanjiataizi village, shiertai Township, Chaoyang County today) day and night and took refuge in Wuhuan.

Yuan Shao once had a close relationship with Wu Huan. His two sons ran to collude with them. Sooner or later, it will be a great disaster. How can we not eliminate it? Cao Cao decided to attack Wuhuan in the North! However, many generals opposed it as soon as it was put forward. They all believed that Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi were poor and isolated, so they were not worried. On the contrary, Liu Bei and Liu Biao could not help but guard against it. Once the second Liu attacked Xudu on the occasion of the northern expedition to Wuhuan, wouldn’t he be taken to his lair?

At this time, only one person thought that now was the best time to fight Wuhuan and destroy yuan family. His reason was that the army immediately attacked the north, and Wuhuan must have been unprepared by relying on his high mountains and far waters. If he was unprepared and attacked suddenly, he would surely win. Based on the close relationship between Yuan Shao and Wu Huan in the past, once the brothers yuan Shang and Yuan Xi have grown plump there, it will inevitably become a major disaster in the north. As for Liu Biao, he can only sit and talk, not fight. He knew that his talent could not control Liu Bei. How could he safely give Liu Bei military power? Liu Bei has no soldiers in his hands. What can he use to fight? Therefore, even if we are on the virtual country expedition, there is no need to worry.

Cao Cao decided to gamble because of this person, because this person is Guo Jia, a genius. Guo Jia’s words are better than all generals and advisers.

But now, when the army arrived at no end, the situation was far from smooth as expected. Continuous rainy days, frequent floods and muddy roads made it impossible to March, and the soldiers were exhausted. Originally, I wanted to take Wuzhong as a stronghold, go through the mountain customs along the sea, and go straight to Wuhuan’s nest. Now, I’m afraid it’s hard to achieve. If things go on like this, I’m afraid the morale and combat effectiveness of the army will collapse before we reach Wuhuan’s lair. “Filial piety…” thinking of Guo Jia, Cao Cao’s heart tightened. Guo Jia was already weak. He had been tired for days and acclimatized and had been ill for many days. These days, Cao Cao sent people to inquire about Guo Jia’s condition almost every day, and the answer was that it was getting worse day by day. “Can’t God help me and turn around?” Cao Cao’s face became more gloomy.

Tianchou offers advice and soldiers on the way out of danger

Just when Cao Cao was at a loss, the twists and turns and miracles appeared.

This miracle was brought about by a man named Tian Chou.

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The ten-year project of “diverting Luanhe River into Tianjin” cuts across the Great Wall. Xifengkou and Panjiakou, the two majestic passes where Cao Cao’s troops fell from the sky, are inlaid with a pool of blue waves, forming the only unique scenery in the world – the underwater Great Wall.

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White Wolf mountain, where Cao Cao fought a decisive battle.

Tianchou, with the word Zi Tai, is a man of no end who was born and raised here. In his early years, he followed Liu Yu, a shepherd in Youzhou. After Liu Yu was killed by gongsunzan, he narrowly escaped death. There is no end for Tian Chou to return to his hometown. Instead of passively avoiding the world, he created a country of his own ideal and achieved initial success.

Tian Chou first led hundreds of clans and followers into xuwushan (now Yutian, Hebei Province), where he cultivated acres of land and mulberry with everyone. People nearby heard of it, reaching more than 5000 households in a few years. These people are willing to accept Tianchou’s constraints and live in harmony. Tian Chou became a leader through election. Then he implemented a series of policies according to his ideal: “Chou is a law to restrain mutual killing, theft and litigation. The law is important until death, followed by atonement, with more than 20 articles. It is also a marriage ceremony. It promotes the teaching of the school, and the class goes to the public, which is convenient to the public, so that the Tao can’t be found. The north side is obedient to its authority… Yuan Shao sends envoys to recruit orders, that is, to grant the seal of the general, and Chou refuses improperly. When Shao dies, his son is still open, and Chou finally can’t.”

Translated into the present meaning, this passage means that Tian Chou has formulated clear regulations on criminal law, marriage law and education law. The town where it is located is safe, and there are no lost things on the road, just like a Xanadu. Yuan Shao learned of Tian Chou’s reputation and invited him to be an official several times, but he refused.

Tianchou’s ideal society lasted about 13 years. On this day, Tian Chou got the news that Cao Cao’s army was coming, and immediately packed up and rushed to Cao camp. After a talk, Cao Cao appreciated Tian Chou and wanted to stay in the army as an official, but Tian Chou refused.

Tian Chou said to Cao Cao, “this road along the coast often rises in summer and autumn, which is not conducive to marching. In the past, there was a road from lulongsai to Liucheng. Although it has been destroyed for 200 years, there is still a path that can be used. Unexpectedly, it can destroy zaiton (leader of Wuhuan) at one stroke.”

Tian Chou said that the road that has been destroyed for 200 years is a road without a road. From this road, you will face a dangerous place 500 miles outside the Great Wall. After crossing Baitan (the Bank of the Luanhe River 140 miles northeast of the ancient north entrance in the southwest of Chengde City, Hebei Province today), you will reach Pinggang (the left wing of karaqin in Inner Mongolia today) before entering the flat land, directly pointing to the lair of Wuhuan, Liucheng.

It is impossible to fight with Wuhuan without horses. It is not easy to open the road in the “mountains and valleys” without roads with food and supplies, horses and chariots!

Is there a way out? No,

At this time, Guo Jia once again helped Cao Cao make up his mind to move forward.

There is no road for 500 miles

“Give up your baggage and move forward with light weight!” No more chariots, everyone only brings 10 days’ dry food, except horses and weapons, all the others are thrown away! Guo Jia’s advice on his sickbed was quite the courage of the overlord of Chu to fight back.

Since it’s a gamble that has ruined everything, you have to have the courage to break your wrists! Cao Cao believed in Guo Jia and himself. Fight your way out of this desperate situation!

Before leaving, Cao Cao ordered people to set up a sign beside the Binhai Road and wrote, “the road is impassable this summer, and the March will be resumed in autumn and winter.” it appeared to be a road sign to command the whole army, but in fact it was to paralyze the enemy. Wu Huan, a simple minded man, was not Cao ahui’s opponent. “I honestly thought the army would go.”.

Under the leadership of Tian Chou, Cao Jun concealed himself through lulongsai and passed through xifengkou.

Since ancient times, there are only two ways from thistle to western Liaoning.

One of the most common routes people take is the “Binhai Road”, which is located in the narrow coastal plain, which is today the so-called “Liaoxi corridor”. This road starts from Hebei, passes through Yutian, Fengrun, and goes out of the mountain customs to take Jinzhou. This road has experienced too many vicissitudes in Chinese history, and Shanhaiguan has always been a must for strategists.

However, most of these situations occurred after the Tang and Song dynasties. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, although this road was also the main channel to western Liaoning, its traffic conditions were far worse than those of later generations. You should know that none of the 14 counties under the jurisdiction of Liaoxi County in the Western Han Dynasty is located in the coastal zone between Jinzhou and Shanhaiguan today. Under the condition of no wind or rain on this road, the Rangers outside the great wall can go straight to the inland counties of right Beiping and Yuyang. Once encountering heavy rain in summer and autumn, this road becomes an infeasible one. Cao Cao happened to encounter this situation, “shallow

No carriage, no boat “.

The other way is Tian Chou

The “lulongsai” is the line from xifengkou to LENGKOU in Hebei Province today.

Xifengkou! There are also too many stories in Chinese history. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Murong Yu (today’s Junzi) of Qianyan entered the Central Plains through this place; At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Huang Taiji avoided yuan Chonghuan’s Shanhaiguan defense line, that is, he broke into Zunhua from xifengkou and surrounded the capital, which made Chongzhen suddenly suspicious of killing yuan Chonghuan; When Japan launched the war of aggression against China, the 29th army of the Kuomintang also fought against the Japanese army at xifengkou and fought bloody battles.

It can be said that after Cao Cao’s northern expedition to Wuhuan, this road became a road again.

There are 800 Li from lulongsai to Liucheng, the capital of Wuhuan. Due to years of abandonment, few people walk, and more than 500 of these 800 Li are roadless roads. Cao Jun walked between weeds and rocks, and saw the towering cliffs on both sides. It seemed that there would be enemy ambushes at any time. Zhang Liao and other soldiers advised Cao Cao not to be credulous to Tian Chou and to return to the army as soon as possible so as not to fall into trap. Cao Cao drew his sword in his hand and said, if anyone dares to say this again, I will kill him! So he ordered the whole army to open a way in the mountains, build a bridge in the water, cut through thorns and thorns, and walk while driving. Although some people in the army kept getting sick, some fell behind, and some fell to death, Cao Cao’s face was as iron as iron, and his sword edge always moved forward.

In August of the lunar calendar in the 12th year of Jian’an in the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 207), Cao Jun suddenly appeared near the Bailang mountain (today’s Dayang mountain, Kazuo Mongolian Autonomous County, Chaoyang City) less than 200 miles away from Liucheng. The yuan brothers and the leader of Wuhuan did not expect that Cao Jun would kill out from here and assemble tens of thousands of horses to fight in a hurry.

Bloody battle of white wolf mountain

The battle of the White Wolf mountain is an encounter and a decisive battle of life and death.

Cao Cao was defeated, and all Cao Cao’s troops would be destroyed in western Liaoning, because they had no retreat.

Wu Huan was defeated, and the whole Wu Huan would submit to Cao Cao. They also had no way back.

On the surface, Wu Huan’s advantage is to wait for work with ease and “prosper the masses”, but they were unprepared in the face of the arrival of Cao Jun. like other nomads, they have strong individual capabilities, but weak overall combat.

Cao Cao’s advantage is surprise. His men are all brave generals and elite “tiger and leopard riders” for the rest of their lives. However, their physical strength has been greatly reduced after more than ten days of rapid march on the mountain, not to mention their heavy infantry.

I saw Wuhuan cavalry overwhelming, aggressive, several times the number of their own. There was some confusion in Cao Jun’s formation, and some soldiers showed fear. At this time, the fierce general Zhang Liao took the initiative to ask for war. He “persuaded Taizu to fight, and he was very angry”. Cao Cao saw that he was enraged, brave and fearless, and his heart was inspired, so he awarded the flag he held to Zhang Liao. Cao Cao rode up the White Wolf mountain and looked towards Liucheng. He saw that the formation of Wu Huan army could not be arranged. The formation was loose and full of holes. He was very happy: “all are mobs!” Immediately ordered Zhang Liao and Zhang Ying to be the forwards and lead the troops to attack.

The brave wins when they meet on a narrow road!

Zhang Liao patted his horse down the mountain and rushed directly into the enemy line. The elite cavalry of Cao Jun poured down and fought with Wu Huan cavalry. Sergeant Wu Huan had been afraid of Cao Jun’s tiger power, but now he was even more flustered when he saw this formation. Zhang Liao clapped his horse and took routon directly. He fought for more than 20 years, but did not divide up or down. Zhang Liao pretended to be defeated. When PI Dun came, he suddenly pulled his horse back and took advantage of it. The knife light flashed and cut PI Dun under his horse. Seeing that the commander was dead, Wu huanbing was desperate to escape. Seeing that the situation was bad, Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi hurriedly led thousands of cavalry to flee.

Xu Huang, Zhang Ying, Han Hao, Shi Huan, Xian Yufu, Yan Rou, Cao Chun fought bravely, and tens of thousands of cavalry fought in a scuffle. The Wuhuan army, which was originally in a hurry, was headless and defeated.

Cao Cao won the battle of the White Wolf mountain, calmed Wuhuan and occupied Liucheng at one stroke.

Guo Jia left Cao Cao to wait for two yuan heads

Cao Cao’s victory in the Northern Expedition and the triumphant return of his teachers made him happy. Not long after the bad news came, Guo Jia died of illness.

Cao Cao personally held a sacrifice for Guo Jia in Yi County, breaking his heart.

At this time, news came that Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi had switched to Liaodong Gongsun Kang. The generals asked to return to Liaodong to subdue gongsunkang and Eryuan. Cao Cao, however, did not seem to hear it, and stood still in Yi county. A few days later, Gongsun Kang sent someone to send the heads of Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi, and everyone was stunned.

Here, a plot is designed in the romance of the Three Kingdoms – “Guo Jiayi plans to set Liaodong”.

In the face of everyone’s surprise, Cao Cao took out Guo Jia’s suicide note in tears. In his suicide note, Guo Jia advised Cao Cao not to rush into Liaodong, because gongsunkang had always been afraid of Yuan’s annexation, and now Eryuan’s defection to him would surely arouse his suspicion. If we go to levy, they will unite against us and it will be difficult to win for a while. If we stand still, they will inevitably attack and kill each other.

The result was just as Guo Jia expected.

In fact, this may have been Cao Cao’s own decision, but Luo Guanzhong’s grafting is not without a spectrum. Guo Jia is indeed a mastermind and has made similar schemes. According to the biography of Guo Jia in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, after Yuan Shao’s death, Yuan Shang and Yuan Tan were also beaten down by Cao Cao. At that time, all the generals advocated that the two yuan should be destroyed in one go, but Guo Jia said it was not necessary. It was better to wait for the brothers to fight by themselves. Guo Jia’s analysis is that Yuan Shang and Yuan Tan were originally at odds because of their contention to be successors, and they both had their own advisers, so they were bound to cause trouble. If we are in a hurry, they will share the same hatred; We don’t care about him, they will fight. Therefore, we should make a southern expedition to Liu Biao and wait for their internal changes, “become and then attack it, which can be determined at one stroke”. Sure enough, Cao Cao’s army only arrived in Xiping (now the west of Xiping County, Henan Province). Yuan Shang and Yuan Tan fought for Jizhou, and Cao Cao also reaped profits. Guo Jia and Zhugeliang passed by

This is a year that will leave historical memories. Two heavyweight advisers Guo Jia and Zhugeliang passed by. Guo Jia left here and Zhugeliang officially left there.

Some people say that Guo Jia and Zhugeliang passed by, and I don’t know how much wonderful the three kingdoms are missing. Just look at Guo Jiayi’s plan that Liaodong and dead Zhuge scare away Huo Zhongda, there is a wonderful thing of the same kind!

In fact, Guo Jia and Zhugeliang not only have amazing similarities as individuals, but also have the same weight in their respective camps. After getting Zhugeliang, Liu Bei said, “there is Kongming in solitude, just like water in fish.” After Cao Cao got Guo Jia, he said, “if you make an orphan into a great cause, you must be this person.” Before Liu Bei died, he was alone with Zhugeliang; Cao Cao once “wanted things to belong to him” for Guo Jia. Just because Guo Jiaying died young, we didn’t see that day. For the same reason, Guo Jia is not as bright as Zhugeliang. Zhugeliang came out of the mountain at the age of 26 and died of illness at the age of 54. He has served Liu Bei group for 28 years, and there are still 11 years left in which he has sole authority; Guo Jia has served for Cao Cao group for only 11 years, and his position is no more than a military adviser (staff). The conditions for the two to display their talents are really different.

However, although it is only 11 years, Guo Jia has left brilliant achievements. When Guo Jia was in Cao Cao’s army, Cao Cao sang a song of triumph, and good news spread frequently, successfully unifying the north. As soon as Guo Jiayi died, Cao Cao’s military achievements were lackluster. In the words of Mr. Zhou Zexiong, it also dealt with Ma Teng and Han Sui, “grasshopper warlords”. Dealing with Sun Quan and Liu Bei, the two “Heroes”, is a little weak, and they are almost burned to death in Chibi.

Losing Guo Jia is the heaviest blow that Cao Cao has suffered in his life. Guo Jia is not only a counselor but also a confidant to Cao Cao. After Cao Cao was defeated in the battle of red cliff, he narrowly escaped death and sighed, “Guo fengxiao is here, so don’t make him lonely!”

Facing the stone tablet in the East, Cao Cao left a famous story for thousands of years

In September of the 12th year of Jian’an in the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 207), Cao’s army began to withdraw from Liucheng. Because Tian Chou led the way and made his first contribution, Cao Cao appointed him Marquis of Liuting and wanted him to garrison Liucheng. But Tian Chou is indifferent to fame and wealth, so he won’t accept it. He sobbed and said, “I was originally a person who ran away unjustly. I feel deeply that the prime minister is kind and alive. How can I receive a rank for my mere labor?” Cao Cao was moved by his loyalty, so he worshipped him as Yilang and sent others to guard Liucheng.

Cao Jun returned to the army this time on the East Road, that is, from today’s Chaoyang County to the coast, and then walked south along the western Liaoning Corridor. Due to the severe drought, there was a lack of water and food along the way, and water was obtained by digging 30 feet of land. It’s cold, clothes are single, people are hungry, and this part of the road has been very difficult.

In mid September, Cao Jun arrived at Jieshi (today’s Wanjia Town, Suizhong County, Liaoning Province). On the sea viewing platform, Cao Cao looked out into the distance, but when he saw the startling waves lapping on the bank and the sea containing all rivers, he couldn’t help but be strong and fierce, and wrote the eternal famous sentence “facing the stone tablet in the East and looking at the sea”.

Cao Cao wrote a total of six poems on this trip, with the total name of “walking out of the summer gate”. One of the songs, “winter in October”, was written immediately after the war in the White Wolf mountain killed Wu Huan’s leader, Patton. This is Cao Cao’s poem describing Chaoyang directly, from which we can see the weather, phenology and farming conditions in Chaoyang area at that time.

In fact, among these poems of Cao Cao, the one that will last forever is the poem “although the tortoise lives”: “an old steed lies in the Carpinus, and his ambition is thousands of miles; in the twilight years of a martyr, his ambition has not been strengthened.” It is still widely read.

So, where is the Jieshi that Cao Cao has been to now? Jieshi is located on the coast of zhianwan, 56 kilometers west of Suizhong County, 15 kilometers away from Shanhaiguan. The scenery here is beautiful and the climate is pleasant. The sea water is clear to the bottom, the water is shallow and the waves are light, the beach is wide and gentle, and the white sand is fine without mud.

In the sea more than 200 meters away from the shore, there are three huge reefs, which are about 20 meters higher than the sea. It is said to be the place where Meng Jiangnu threw herself into the sea for burial, so it is called Jiang NV’s tomb by the people. Every spring tide, from the shore to the reef, a huge stone paved sea plank road looms, which can reach the foot of the reef. On the East and west coasts of Jiang nvfen, there are cliffs extending to the sea. The east side is called HONGSHILAZI, and the west side is called heishilazi. The two cliffs are like two giant dragons lying quietly in the sea, arching Jiang NV’s grave, forming a unique landscape like “two dragons playing with pearls”. In recent years, archaeological discoveries have proved that Jiang NV’s tomb is the stone tablet that Emperor Qin Shihuang, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty and Cao Cao all visited. The huge Palace site of the Qin and Han emperors was found in the stone tablet area directly opposite to HONGSHILAZI, heishilazi and Jieshi.

Nowadays, more and more tourists come to Jieshi to visit. Reporters in local interviews have found that some fishing boats often shuttle back and forth around Jieshi. When asked about the fishermen, they learned that many tourists from other places always wanted to chisel the stone tablet and take it back as a souvenir, so they spontaneously patrolled and guarded it. A fisherman told reporters that some tourists found them and asked to buy stones with money. They were unmoved and set rules. Where Qinshihuang and Cao Cao liked, they wouldn’t sell them for any money!

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