Count the princesses of the Han Dynasty who married the western regions and the Huns

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In 200 B.C., Liu Bang, the emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, who lost the war with the Huns, accepted the proposal of minister Lou Jing and implemented the “peace policy”, which opened a new page in the relationship between the central government and the surrounding ethnic groups. In fact, most of the “princesses” in the Han Dynasty and those who were close to the western regions and the Huns were women selected from the princes’ royal families or the people, not real princesses. Only a dozen of these women with the name of “Princess” were found in history books, and the rest were submerged in the rolling torrent of history.

Xijun: full of melancholy

During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu went far away to Mobei after being attacked by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing. Later, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty adopted circuitous tactics, actively opened up the western regions, implemented the strategy of distant communication and close attack, and united with the countries of the western regions to attack the Xiongnu. The powerful Wusun state became the main target of the Han Dynasty.

Wusun originally lived near the Qilian Mountains. Later, it was driven to Wensu and Yining in Xinjiang by the Huns. It has always been a feud with the Huns. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent an envoy to the kingdom of Wusun, who expressed his willingness to marry the princess and form a brotherly state to jointly control the Huns. In the sixth year of Yuanfeng (105 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty appointed Xijun, the daughter of the king of Jiangdu, as a princess and married kunmo, the king of Wusun. Xijun was beautiful and noble. King Wusun was overjoyed and named her right lady. However, Hun Shan Yu also tried to win over Wusun. Under pressure, kunmo married a Hun princess as his left wife.

Xi Jun, who grew up in the boudoir and was well clothed and well fed, could not match the Hun princess to adapt to life outside the Great Wall. The Hun princess took the bow and shot the vulture, galloping across the grassland. Princess Xijun, on the other hand, could only turn her melancholy into a sad song, telling her homesickness with a Pipa all day: “my family married me to the heaven, and entrusted me to the Wusun king of a foreign country. The vault is the room, the wall, the meat, the cheese, and the milk. I am homesick, and would like to return home for the Yellow swan.”

Two years later, kunmo fell ill. Because his son had died, his grandson cenzou succeeded him to the throne. According to custom, descendants should inherit their grandfather’s wives and concubines. Princess Xijun couldn’t accept it. She asked Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty to return to her country. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty replied, “in his country, I want to destroy the Huns with Wu sun, but I have to wrong you.” Xijun had to be sad and humiliated to marry cenzou again. Three years later, Xijun gave birth to a daughter for cenzou. Finally, because of postpartum disorder and difficult mood, Xijun died of sadness soon.

Worry relief: marry three times in four dynasties, and pay back at seventy

After Xijun died, cenzou proposed to the Han court again. During the Taichu period (about 104 B.C.), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty selected the daughter of Liu Wu, the king of Chu, to relieve her worries and still married cenzou as a princess.

In order to find a balance between Han and Xiongnu, cenzou also married a Xiongnu princess. A few years later, Jieyou had no children, but the Hun princess gave birth to a son, named nimi. Later, cenzou died suddenly. Because nimi was still young, the throne was inherited by Weng guimi, cenzou’s younger brother. He was fat, and Wusun called him the “fat king”.

According to custom, the fat king married Jieyou and the Hun princess. As a result of their congenial disposition, Jieyou and the fat king loved each other very much, and gave birth to three princes: yuanguimi, Wannian and dale. The fat king was very considerate and obedient to his advice, which also brought the close relationship between the Han court and the Wusun state closer. The messengers from both sides continued to return. This angered the Hun Shan Yu, and the relationship between the two sides was tense and explosive.

Fengli, the maid who married Wusun with Jieyou, is also a knowledgeable woman with special language skills. Jieyou treated her like a sister and married her to the powerful general wusunyou. Jieyou and Feng Yi became horns inside and outside the imperial court, which had a far-reaching impact on the political and military affairs of Wusun state.

In 71 BC, the Hun Shan Yu sent troops to threaten the Wusun state, asking them to sacrifice their princess Jieyou and sever all relations with the Han government. Facing the bullying of the Huns, the fat king and Jieyou were so angry that they quickly sent envoys to invite the Han court to send troops to attack the Huns. At that time, Huo Guang, a senior general, was in charge of the Han government. They immediately sent troops to Wusun to supervise the battle.

The Huns did not dare to fight head-on with the Han army. They fled all the way to the northwest. They were intercepted by the army of the Wusun state and quickly retreated. 40000 people died and more than 700000 cattle, horses, sheep and camels were lost. From then on, they never recovered. The northern frontier of the Han Dynasty was calm for a long time.

Through this military cooperation between the Han court and the Ukrainian sun Kingdom, the bilateral relations have become more harmonious, and the status of worry relief in the Ukrainian sun kingdom is at its zenith. Feng Xi, also known as Mrs. Feng, was active among princes and ministers and was treated with courtesy and respect. On behalf of the Han Dynasty, he also declared to pacify the countries of the western regions.

Soon the situation changed. When the fat King became ill, the throne returned nimi, the son of cenzou, the Hun princess’s flesh and blood. The influence of relieving anxiety immediately declined.

Ni MI is tyrannical, and everyone calls him “mad king”. According to the custom of Wusun, Princess Jieyou reluctantly married the crazy king and gave birth to a son for him. Domestic voices against the mad king are rising one after another. Soon, the mad king killed one of the fat King’s sons, causing unrest in the kingdom of Wusun.

The Han Dynasty sent troops to Wusun state for military intervention, and made use of Mrs. Feng’s eloquent eloquence and her understanding of Wusun’s internal situation to dredge up and persuade all factions, expose the provocative tricks of the Huns, and make Wusun accept the arrangement of the Han court. In the end, yuan guimi, the eldest son born to Jieyou and the fat king, became the great king, ruling 60000 households. Wu jutu, the son of the Hun princess, was granted the title of little king, ruling 40000 households. The two sides divided and ruled and achieved temporary peace.

Later, Jieyou’s eldest son, yuan guimi, and his youngest son died one after another. The people of the Wu sun kingdom all belonged to Wu and slaughtered them. Jieyou’s situation was not the same as before.

Princess Jieyou has been living in the western regions for more than 50 years from her distant marriage to Wusun in the Taichu period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty to the first year of Ganlu (53 BC) of Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty. After four dynasties and three marriages in a foreign land thousands of miles away, she wrote to Emperor Xuan that “I miss my hometown when I am old, and would like to have the bones returned to the Han land.” Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty was moved by the sad words and sent someone to take her back. In the third year of Ganlu’s reign (51 BC), the seventy year old Jieyou finally returned to Chang’an.

Zhaojun: voluntary marriage and burial

Wang Zhaojun was born in Baoping village, Zigui County, Nanjun county (now Zhaojun village, Xingshan County, Hubei Province) in 52 BC. She is a natural beauty with exceptional intelligence. She is good at everything, such as music, chess, calligraphy and painting. In 36 BC, Wang Zhaojun was selected by the Yuan emperor to enter Beijing. After Wang Zhaojun entered the palace, he refused to bribe the painter maoyanshou because of his beauty. Mao Yanshou made some flaws in her portrait, which made him demoted to the cold palace for three years and had no chance to meet the emperor of the Han Dynasty.

After 60 BC, the Xiongnu ruling group had internal strife. First, there were five Danyu fighting for the establishment, and then there were zhizhidanyu and Huhanxie Danyu fighting. Hu Hanxie failed in the struggle. In 51 BC, he went south to the Han Dynasty and stayed under the fortress in the north of Hetao. The Western Han Dynasty sent troops to protect him. In 36 BC, the Han Dynasty exterminated zhizhizhichanyu, and the forces hostile to the Han Dynasty in the Xiongnu and the political enemies of Hu Hanxie Chanyu were eliminated. Hu Hanxie Chanyu felt that he should further strengthen the relationship with the Han Dynasty. In 33 BC, he entered the Han Dynasty in person and asked for peace and marriage to form a permanent friendship. Emperor yuan of the Han Dynasty readily agreed and summoned his concubines to discuss marriage. Wangzhaojun stepped forward and made peace voluntarily. When Hu Hanxie left, Zhaojun attended the farewell meeting. The Yuan emperor was shocked that she was so beautiful that he didn’t know that there was such a beautiful person in the back palace who wanted to keep her, but he couldn’t take her back. He gave her 28000 pieces of brocade and silk, 16000 kilograms of cotton, gold and jade and other valuables, and personally sent them out of Chang’an for more than ten miles. In order to commemorate this marriage, emperor yuan of the Han Dynasty changed the Yuan Dynasty to “Jingning”, which means peace at the border.

After leaving Chang’an, Wang Zhaojun spent more than a year and arrived in Mobei in the early summer of the second year. He was warmly welcomed by the Hun people and was granted the “Ning Hu Yi family”.

After Zhaojun left the frontier, the Han and Hungarian nationalities were united and harmonious, and the country was peaceful and the people were in peace. Unfortunately, Wang Zhaojun and Hu Hanye Chanyu were married for only two years (31 BC), and Hu Hanye Chanyu died. She and Hu Hanye Chanyu had a son named Yitu wisdom tooth master. After the death of Hu Han Xie Shan Yu, Zhaojun must remarry Diao Tao Mogao Shan Yu, the eldest son of Hu Han Xie Shan Yu’s first surname. Wang Zhaojun could not accept it. He wrote to Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty and asked him to return to his hometown. But emperor Cheng ordered her to follow Hu customs, and Zhaojun had to marry down. Zhaojun and Diao Tao Mogao have two daughters. The eldest daughter is princess xubu, and the youngest daughter is the princess. In 20 BC, Mo Gao, the carved pottery, died again, and Zhaojun was widowed. One year later, at the age of 33, Wang Zhaojun died of depression and was buried in the southern suburb of Hohhot. His tomb was near the big green hill and the Yellow River, and later generations called it “Qingzhong”.

The 60 years since Zhaojun left the frontier are the 60 years of harmonious coexistence between Han and Hungary, as well as the 60 years of peaceful development of the entire southern desert, including Hohhot. Here, there has been a prosperous scene of “the people of niuma buye are prosperous”. The people of all ethnic groups in Han and Hungary, who have enjoyed 60 years of peaceful life after suffering from war, deeply love Wang Zhaojun.

The princess of the Han Dynasty married the western regions and the Huns, leaving a strong mark in history. The Han Dynasty was a special Dynasty. War and reconciliation were the two most important means to deal with foreign relations. These women endured humiliation and married far away in the western regions. After experiencing all kinds of hardships, they made great sacrifices to alleviate the ruling crisis of the Central Plains Dynasty and the development of the Han Dynasty, and also made contributions to national cultural exchanges.

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