Original: Tianya mending knife source: wechat official account: Tianya current affairs has been authorized to reprint
At the end of the Sui Dynasty, all the heroes in the world rose together. Li Yuan took advantage of the situation to set up troops in Jinyang. In 618, he became emperor, established the Tang Dynasty, and established Chang’an as the capital.
In 626 A.D., lishimin launched the “transformation of Xuanwu Gate”, killed Prince lijiancheng and King liyuanji of Qi, and was listed as the crown prince. Later, Li Yuan, the emperor Gaozu of the Tang Dynasty, abdicated, and lishimin was the emperor with the year Zhenguan.
After Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty lishimin ascended the throne, he practiced martial arts, practised economy at home, persuaded students to teach agriculture and mulberry, opened up territory abroad, attacked and destroyed Eastern Turks and xueyantuo, conquered Gaochang, kuci and Tuyuhun, and set up Anxi capital protectorate in the western regions in the 14th year of Zhenguan (640).
In 649 ad, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty died, and Prince Li Zhi ascended the throne as Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty.
After he ascended the throne, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty continued to expand his territory, exterminated Western Turks in 657 A.D., and the jurisdiction area of anxidu Prefecture reached its peak, including today’s Xinjiang, Eastern and southeastern Kazakhstan, all parts of Kyrgyzstan, Eastern Tajikistan, most parts of Afghanistan, northeast Iran, the eastern half of Turkmenistan, most parts of Uzbekistan, etc.
This is the first time that China has extended its influence to the vast central Asian region.
In 712 ad, Li Longji, the grandson of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian, the third son of Li Dan of emperor Ruizong of Tang Dynasty, ascended the throne at Chang’an Tai Chi palace and became emperor. He was known as “Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty” in history, also known as “Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty”.
After Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty ascended the throne, he advocated culture and education based on the Taoist thought of tranquility and inaction. In the early stage, he was politically clear, worked hard to govern, appointed talents, developed rapidly, and governed the world. The Tang Dynasty entered its heyday and became the most powerful country in the world at that time, known as “the heyday of the Kaiyuan era” in history.
At the same time of the rise of the Tang Empire, the Abbasid Dynasty of the Western Arab Empire also rose strongly (known as “the great food in black clothes” in History), and began to “invade” Central Asia. The two empires of the East and the West continued to confront in Central Asia.
In 751 ad, the two empires finally had a fierce battle in the Talos region of Central Asia, which was called the “battle of Talos” in history.
According to the records of Zizhi Tongjian, in this war, the famous general gaoxianzhi of the Tang Dynasty led 30000 Tang troops and 200000 Arab troops (later increased to 300000). However, due to the revolt of Geluolu, a Turkic nomadic tribe subordinate to the Tang Dynasty, the Tang army was defeated and only a thousand people survived.
Of course, this war has different records in Arab history. We do not study history, so we only describe this war according to Chinese records.
The battle of Talos was the only time that the Arab Empire and the Tang Empire defeated the Anxi army in several border conflicts. However, the failure of the Tang army did not change the status of the Tang Dynasty in Central Asia. The Tang army continued to expand in Central Asia
However, in the later period of Tang Dynasty, Emperor Li Longji gradually neglected the government and trusted the treacherous ministers Li Linfu and Yang Guozhong; Doting on Yang Guifei, together with policy mistakes and reusing Anlushan and other northern minorities to try to stabilize the borders of the Tang Dynasty, led to the subsequent eight years of “an Shi rebellion”
In order to calm the civil strife, the border Tang army had to retreat to defend the Tang capital, resulting in the loss of control over the western regions and the loss of most of Xinjiang.
In 808 ad, the garrison of the Tang Dynasty launched its last solemn and stirring charge
At this time, the Tang army were all veterans who had stood firm for nearly half a century. At that time, all the young soldiers were white haired. All the Tang Army soldiers waved swords and died heroically.
A poem says:
The whole city is white haired, and the stranger’s knife is not lost in death;
How dare you forget the Tang Dynasty after 50 years of independent resistance?
China UnionPay once released a micro advertisement “the last transfer of Mobei in the Tang Dynasty”, which said this history and made people cry. I urge everyone to go and have a look:
From the 14th year (640) of Zhenguan of lishimin, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, to the 3rd year (808) of lichunyuanhe, Emperor Xianzong of the Tang Dynasty, the Anxi Prefecture had existed for about 170 years.
Since then, China has never extended its influence to Central Asia.
The “an Shi rebellion” caused great damage to the Tang Dynasty, completely withdrew the Chinese civilization from Central Asia and most of Xinjiang, and allowed the Arab civilization to occupy Central Asia.
Since then, Islamic civilization has gradually spread in those areas
This is also the main reason why most of Central Asia and Xinjiang believe in Islam.
From the annihilation of Anxi capital in 808 to 2022, China has disappeared from the historical stage of Central Asia for more than 1200 years!
Today, we have another chance to return to Central Asia!
I believe you must have seen a piece of news: on May 30, Kyrgyz President zaparov said in an interview that after he explained to Russian Putin that Kyrgyzstan needs the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway just as it needs “air and water”, Putin said he would no longer oppose the project.
It is reported that zaparov said that the country has wanted to build the China Djibouti Uzbekistan Railway for more than 20 years, but it has not started at all. Because so far, no one can explain to the Russian side the importance of this railway to Kyrgyzstan.
The so-called “China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway” refers to the construction of a railway connecting China, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
From this news, we can clearly see that the biggest obstacle to the construction of the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway is Russia.
The so-called “no one explained the importance of the railway to Russia” is just a “step” and face that Kyrgyzstan has given Putin. What is the matter? People who know a little about international politics will “clear their doors” immediately after they see the news.
At this point, three extremely important issues arise:
First, why did Russia stop the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway?
Second, why does Russia agree now?
Third, what is the significance of the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway?
We do not want to explain these three issues at length, because they are not so complicated.
As we all know, in ancient times (before the industrial revolution), the entire Central Asian region was a nomadic nation, and their civilization was relatively backward. Therefore, Central Asia has always been a place of contention for many empires such as China, Arabia and Russia. Turks, tangs, Arabs, Mongols and Russians all ruled that region
But it was the Russians who finally ruled the region.
In the second half of the 19th century, Russia controlled the Kazakh steppe by building fortress lines in the steppe; Then, relying on advanced firearms and institutional advantages, and taking advantage of the small border defense forces, they successfully conquered the three independent Khanate states in Central Asia, namely, Kokand, Bukhara and Khiva; Finally, he crossed the Amu Darya River, controlled Turkmenistan, privately shared the Pamir Plateau with Britain, and completed the conquest of 3.9 million square kilometers of Central Asia.
In 1919, Lenin launched the “October Revolution” and overthrew the Russian Empire.
Because of the continuous exploitation of other nationalities during the rule of the Russian Empire, after Lenin overthrew the rule of the Czar, he gave all nationalities independent power, so many nationalities became independent from Russia… Including the five countries in Central Asia.
The Central Asian countries became independent from Russia, but they did not dare to really break away from Soviet Russia, so they soon joined the “Soviet Union”.
We must note that there is a difference between “Soviet Russia” and “Soviet Union”. “Soviet Russia” refers to the “Russian Soviet federal Socialist Republic”, which is today’s Russia; “Soviet Union” refers to the “union of Soviet Socialist Republics”, which includes 15 union republics including Soviet Russia.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, these republics became independent, but Russia still had a great influence on them – disobedient Georgia was beaten, and disobedient Ukraine was beaten!
The so-called “independence” is still just an ideal and joke under the current conditions of human civilization – in this world, there are only three countries that can truly be called independent, China, the United States and Russia.
In fact, this is understandable.
Although science and technology and productivity have been greatly improved since the industrial revolution, it is not enough to enable the people of the world to live a rich life. Therefore, various competitions still exist, which greatly limits the further improvement of human civilization.
For big countries, they still face the threat of force, economy and politics from other big countries. Therefore, no big country will allow other big countries to touch the countries around them.
This is reflected incisively and vividly in many things!
For example, the United States has put forward the so-called “Monroe Doctrine”, which does not allow other big powers to invade the Americas; Russia does not allow other big powers to invade the former Soviet Union; China does not allow other big powers to invade the Korean Peninsula, Vietnam and other countries (you can not be nice to me, but you can not introduce foreign powers, otherwise war will come); Even a third rate country like Australia wants to keep China out of the Solomon Islands.
On April 19, the Chinese Foreign Ministry confirmed that it had officially signed a framework agreement on security cooperation of equality and mutual benefit with Solomon Islands, a sovereign country in the South Pacific region!
After that, the western countries immediately broke their defense and fell into hysterical madness.
On the same day, the White House said that the United States, Japan, New Zealand and Australia were “worried” about the security framework agreement, saying that it “posed a serious risk to the free and open Indo Pacific region”.
Australia even said that it must be prepared to invade the Solomon Islands and overthrow its regime – it was so naked!
Why do I hate some “virgin” so much? Why do I hate some experts who often shout slogans such as “democracy”, “independence” and “sovereignty”?
The fundamental reason is that these people are full of food and clothing, so they are full of “benevolence, righteousness and morality”. They simply do not understand the cruelty of the world!
The above paragraph is to tell you two things:
First, from the perspective of Russia’s national interests, it is in Russia’s national interests to prevent the construction of the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway, and you can’t accuse Russia from the so-called “moral” point of view – all the world’s major powers do so;
Second, under the current development of human civilization, the international game is still very cruel, and we can not “virgin heart” overflow.
So why does Russia now agree to build the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway?
Yes, the war between Russia and Ukraine forced Russia to agree.
Since the Russian Ukrainian war, the West has launched crazy sanctions against Russia. Up to now, the sanctions launched by the West against Russia have reached more than 10000. Russia is facing great pressure
Although many countries have not participated in the sanctions against Russia, you can see from the map that among the countries that have not participated in the sanctions, only China can really help Russia – other countries are either too small or have incomplete industrial chains, which simply cannot meet the needs of Russian industry.
However, due to geographical problems, China and Russia do not have many transport channels, limited transport capacity and very high costs – Russia is mainly in Europe, China’s industry is mainly distributed in coastal areas, and the cost of railway transportation is much higher than that of sea transportation.
There are two main reasons why Russia disagreed with the construction of China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway:
First, fear that China and Central Asia are economically close, thus gaining huge political influence in Central Asia and harming Russia’s national interests;
Second, if the construction of the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway is hindered, Chinese goods can only transit through Russia and then be transported from Russia to Central Asian countries. In this way, Russia can not only obtain “transit fees”, but also increase its control over Central Asian countries.
But now it’s different!
After the war between Russia and Ukraine, the West launched unprecedented sanctions against Russia. Russia must rely heavily on China. At this time, the original transportation system cannot meet the cooperation between China and Russia.
What should I do?
Yes, there is only one way: agree with China to increase economic ties with Central Asian countries.
Why is there only one way?
There are two main reasons:
First, if we do not transit through Central Asia and increase transportation lines, it will take a long time to build, and the cost is also huge. Russia’s economy is not very good – rebuilding the transportation system takes a long time and costs a lot of money – so connecting China with Central Asian countries can not only solve the sanctions problem, but also share Russia’s financial pressure;
Second, Russia and Central Asian countries have established a “Eurasian Economic Union”. In order to facilitate other countries to evade European and American sanctions, a large number of goods can be “sold” to Russia through Central Asian countries – Japan can sell goods to China, China can sell goods imported from Japan to Central Asian countries, and then Central Asian countries can sell them to Russia. Such “turnover” will greatly increase the difficulty of tracking goods, In this way, many countries have avoided the so-called “sanctions” in Europe and the United States.
Here we must explain that the Eurasian Economic Union was established in 2015, and its member countries include Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia. Its goal is to achieve the free flow of goods, services, capital and labor within the union by 2025, and to implement coordinated economic policies
It is precisely because of the above reasons that Russia no longer opposes the construction of the “China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway”.
Once the China Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway is constructed, then
In order to strengthen economic ties with Russia and Central Asia, China is bound to transfer some industries to Xinjiang
Because only in this way can the cost be effectively reduced.
China’s industries are mainly distributed in coastal areas. If China wants to increase economic ties with Central Asian countries (in the case of poor land transportation), the nearest route is to transport goods by sea to the Black Sea port, and then to Central Asia. The cost is much higher than that of directly producing and selling from Xinjiang to Central Asian countries.
Let’s look at the following picture: Chinese goods are transported by long sea to the Russian ports in the Black Sea, and then transported by land to the hinterland of Central Asia,
The distance from the Black Sea port to the hinterland of Central Asia is longer than that from Xinjiang.
It is for this reason that the economy and trade between China and the Central Asian countries are relatively small, and the Central Asian countries are also relatively poor – the cost of commodity transportation, including transportation cost and time cost, is too high (shipping takes one month).
Originally, due to the relatively small trade volume between China, Russia and Central Asia, Xinjiang cannot develop faster. However, with the increasing trade volume between Central Asia and Russia, a large number of enterprises have the motivation to relocate to Xinjiang. Therefore, in the next few decades, Xinjiang is bound to usher in rapid development again – Central Asian countries provide resources, energy and raw materials, and China produces, manufactures and processes commodities, Then it is sold to Russia and Central Asian countries to form a “cycle”.
There is no doubt that close economic ties will inevitably lead to political ties. Moreover, from the perspective of Central Asian countries, they also need to introduce external forces to check and balance Russia!
After 1200 years, we once again have the opportunity to expand our influence to Central Asia!
Look forward to the reappearance of the Tang Dynasty; Look forward to winning the Tang Dynasty!
Central Asia, here we are!