Huguang guild hall
March 12 is the 85th anniversary of the death of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the great forerunner of China’s democratic revolution. Sun Yat Sen had three historic trips to Beijing before his death, and the end of his life was also fixed in Beijing – from December 1, 1924 to March 12, 1925, Sun Yat Sen spent the last 73 days of his great life in Beijing. No. 23 iron lion alley, where he died.
First visit to Beijing in 1894 — a letter to Li Hongzhang
Sun Yat Sen’s first trip to Beijing was in 1894, when he was 28 years old. Because the patron of the Hong Kong Academy of Western medicine, where Sun Yat Sen studied, was Li Hongzhang, an important Minister of the Qing Dynasty, Sun Yat Sen decided to write to Li Hongzhang after surveying the world situation and analyzing the reasons for the poverty and backwardness of feudal old China. He advocated learning from the idea of governing a world power and hoped that Li Hongzhang could exert influence in the imperial court, promote reform and strengthen China. Unfortunately, Li Hongzhang didn’t even see him. During his first trip to Beijing, Sun Yat Sen saw that in the face of the dilemma of foreign powers at the door of their homes, the Empress Dowager Cixi was preparing to celebrate her 60th birthday with great fanfare. The summer palace was rebuilt. The whole city was decorated with lights and decorations. There was no sign that they were ready to face the enemy. Although Sun Yat Sen came to Beijing this time without leaving detailed historical data and records of where Sun Yat Sen had been, what he saw and heard this time has fundamentally changed Sun Yat Sen’s thinking. He realized that “it is completely impossible to achieve any improvement”. It was from then on that Sun Yat Sen firmly embarked on the road of revolution. In the same year, Sun Yat Sen organized the “rejuvenating China meeting” in Honolulu; The League was established in 1905; In 1911, the Wuchang Uprising (the 1911 Revolution) was successful. Sun Yat Sen was elected president of the interim government and was sworn in in in Nanjing on January 1, 1912.
In 1912, he came to Beijing for the second time — giving up the great president
After the 1911 Revolution, Sun Yat Sen and his revolutionary party, in order to prevent national division and end the decadent rule of the Qing government as soon as possible, took the initiative to give up the presidency and instigated Yuan Shikai to force the Manchu emperor to abdicate. On February 13, 1912, the day after Puyi abdicated, Sun Yat Sen resigned as interim president and gave way to Yuan Shikai. On August 24 of the same year, at the invitation of Yuan Shikai, he came to Beijing for the second time and held 13 talks with Yuan Shikai on political, military and economic issues at No. 1 iron lion alley, later the presidential palace of Yuan Shikai. During this period, Sun Yat Sen went to the Huguang guild hall in Beijing five times to attend the welcome meeting and the founding meeting of the Kuomintang, and gave speeches to explain his revolutionary ideas.
This time in Beijing, Sun Yat Sen stayed at the Shida Ren Hutong guest house, which is now the No. 33 courtyard of the foreign ministry street. Shida Ren’s alley got its name from Shi Heng, a general of the Ming Dynasty. Shi Heng led his troops to launch the “change of seizing the gate” to overthrow the Jingtai emperor and support the restoration of Yingzong. After Yingzong became emperor Tianshun, Shi Heng was granted the title of “loyal to the country” and his residence was granted to this alley. Yuan Shikai’s grand inauguration ceremony was held here. Since then, it has become the temporary presidential palace.
This trip to Beijing lasted 24 days, and Sun Yat Sen’s footprints covered many places. At that time, the State Council held a banquet for Dr. Sun Yat sen in the “that garden” of the goldfish alley. The royal family of the former Qing Dynasty also held a banquet here to welcome Mr. Sun Yat Sen and expressed “support for the Republic”. (Najia garden is the common name of natong mansion, a scholar of Qing Dynasty.) In addition, Sun Yat Sen also visited the Forbidden City, inspected the Beijing Zhangjiakou Railway at Nankou, attended the welcome meetings of the Christian Church, the Congregational Church, the Presbyterian Church, the Anglican Church, the Youth Association, etc. at the Christian Church at Dengshikou, and attended the reception of many friends at the Liuguo Hotel at dongjiaomin lane.
In 1924, he came to Beijing for the third time — leaving three wills
On October 23, 1924, fengyuxiang launched a coup in Beijing, overthrew the rule of the direct line warlords Caokun and wupeifu in Beijing, expelled Puyi from the palace, and sent a telegram inviting Sun Yat Sen to Beijing to discuss the country. In order to end the chaos of the long civil war since China overthrew the Manchu and Qing governments, Sun Yat Sen, regardless of personal safety, resolutely went north. On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat Sen set out from Guangzhou, passed through Shanghai, Japan and Tianjin, and came to Beijing for the third time on December 31. Unfortunately, due to long-term hard work and long-distance travel, Dr. Sun Yat Sen had a recurrence of liver disease. Moreover, Duan Qirui’s government, which presided over the political situation in Beijing at that time, tried every means to resist Sun Yat Sen’s revolutionary ideas in order to safeguard the self-interest of the die hards, making it difficult. Dr. Sun Yat Sen became seriously ill and had to be admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital for examination and treatment. In january1925, Sun Yat Sen was diagnosed with advanced liver cancer. On February 18, Sun Yat Sen left the Union Medical College Hospital and moved to Xingyuan, No. 23, iron lion alley.
No. 23 iron lion alley was originally a part of the private house that wusangui, a general of the Ming Dynasty, bought for chenyuanyuan. After several changes of hands, it was bought by wealthy Nanyang businessmen during the Republic of China and became the residence of guweijun, a key official of the northern government. Later, guweijun was wanted and fled. This house was owned by the government of the Republic of China. After Dr. Sun Yat Sen came to Beijing this time, the government of the Republic of China took him as Mr. Sun Yat Sen’s Guide.
On March 12, due to the further deterioration of his condition, Dr. Sun Yat Sen died on the 23rd of the iron lion alley – the end of his life was fixed in Beijing.
At No. 23 iron lion alley, Sun Yat Sen left his “family will”, “political will” and “letter to the Soviet Union” when he was dying. He finally said “peace… Struggle… Save China!” It seems that it still echoes in our ears