Duke mourning of Jin regained his hegemony in the Central Plains of Jin: Yan Ling defeated Chu Zheng allied forces in the war

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The general situation before the war and the cause of the war, the war between Jin Chu Yanling (now Yanling County, Henan Province), was actually another scene in which Jin Jing’s hegemony continued. The blueprint of Jin Jinggong’s hegemony is to take the control of Chu as its sole goal. The steps of its implementation are, first, to destroy CHIDI and expand the strategic situation of the central plains; Secondly, in the alliance with Qi, Jin Qi alliance was formed to compete with the alliance of Qin and Chu; Third, in Jiewu, the rise of the state of Wu in the southeast became a problem for Chu, so that it could no longer devote itself to the central plains; The fourth is to break up the alliance between Qin and Chu, and then break it with each other. In the 8th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, the war between Jin and Qin at the Ma tunnel was the fourth stage of Jin’s long-term plan to seek hegemony, that is, Jin first broke up the alliance between Qin and Chu by means of harmonizing with Chu, leaving Qin in a helpless situation, and then broke through the Ma tunnel with the army of princes. As for its final act, it was to take advantage of Qin’s defeat, and then break through the isolated state of Chu, so as to achieve the ultimate goal of its strategy. Therefore, the 11 year war between Jin and Chu Yanling of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty was actually a long-term strategy of seeking hegemony formulated by the state of Jin since King Jing. After more than 10 years of twists and turns, it reached its final stage. Since the battle of Jin Qin Ma tunnel is one part of a series of strategic actions after Jin broke up the Qin Chu alliance, its next strategic action is naturally to take the opportunity to break down Chu. These two strategic actions must be closely coordinated and closely linked. This is because if the time between the two is too long, and the state of Qin recovers, the Qin Chu alliance will be revived again, and it is bound to fall into a stalemate again, and the effectiveness of the Ma tunnel campaign will be lost. The rulers of the state of Jin seemed to pay attention to this, so the state of Jin immediately fought the war of Yan Ling between Jin and Chu after the war of Macheng tunnel, with a distance of only 2 years, which was the shortest time distance between the wars in the spring and Autumn period. The close time distance between these two campaigns proves that these two campaigns are a whole connected strategic action, which cannot be regarded as completely irrelevant. Jin’s series of Tu Ba strategies lasted for 18 years. Although his monarch had the evolution of Jing Gong and Li Gong, the first three stages were Scholar Association and Luan Shu; By the fourth stage, the scholar association had retired and was presided over by Luan Shu. Jin’s strategy was to attack Chu immediately after the battle of Ma tun. However, Chu was far away from the south, and it had to be lured north into the Central Plains before it had a chance to fight. Therefore, the political strategy of the state of Jin was to focus on the disputes in the Central Plains, because there were many disputes among the princes in the Central Plains, and such disputes were most likely to attract the attention of the state of Chu. The following is a description of what happened in the Central Plains in the three years after the war: in the first year after the war, that is, in the ninth year of King Jian of Zhou, in August 577 BC, Duke Cheng of Zheng sent his son Xi (Zihan) to attack Xu and was defeated by Xu. Zheng Chenggong attacked Xu from the beginning, so he invaded his country. Xu Jun ceded Shu Shen, who was near Zheng territory, to seek peace. After Zheng Chenggong returned from the alliance between Jin tongkai and Jin Li guild, Zheng became an ally of Jin, while Xu was an ally of Chu. There is no record in history whether Zheng’s two raids were directed by Jin. However, Xu’s invasion was enough to affect the security of the north of Chu, which is a fact. The state of Chu was invaded by its ally Xu and its security was forced, so there was a proposal to attack Zheng to save Xu. Ling Zizhong (childe Yingqi) was originally the person who presided over the Jin Chu alliance in the west gate of Song Dynasty. He believed that the attack on Zheng was enough to cause a war between Jin and Chu, and advocated not to save Xu. At that time, childe Zhen (Zibao) also agreed with this righteousness. He said, “there is nothing wrong with Xinxing Jinmeng and breaking it?”? But Sima Zibian (Zi fan) opposed his proposal, saying, “if the enemy gains, he will advance. What alliance is there?”? Zi fan and Zi Zhong have always been jealous of each other, and they can’t work together. Especially the peace between Jin and Chu, which was presided over by Zizhong, was opposed by Zifan, so he wanted to take this opportunity to destroy it, so he decided to fight against Zheng. The second year after the war of Ma tunnel, namely, the 10th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, 576 BC. Following Sima Zi’s advice, the king of the Communist Party of Chu attacked Zheng and arrived at the violent tunnel (now in Fugou County, Henan Province); It invaded the Wei kingdom in the East and reached Shouzhi (now Shouxiang, suixian County, Henan Province). At this time, Zheng Chenggong also sent his son Jia to invade Xinming in Chu territory (missing the examination, which seems to be near Xuchang in Henan Province) to threaten the back road of Chu army. After the state of Jin learned that the Chu army invaded Zheng and Wei, Luan Shu believed that the northern invasion of the Chu army was a good opportunity for the Jin army to attack, and was eager to mobilize troops to save Zheng. At that time, Han Jue believed that Chu betrayed Ximen’s alliance and invaded the Central Plains, and its people would not use their lives, and Chu would be unable to fight. At that time, Han Jue didn’t know the whole strategy of Luan Shu well. He thought that it would be better not to fight because there were many internal enemies in Jin and all the ministers competed for power. At this time, it happened that the Chu army, which invaded the Wei state, also retreated by itself because of the threat of Zheng army on the back road, so Luan Shu’s proposal to save Zheng was abandoned. In these two years, several events occurred in the Central Plains, which was enough to help the northern invasion of Chu and the invasion of Chu by Jin. Therefore, the battle of Yan Ling between Jin and Chu could not be avoided. One is the civil strife in the Song Dynasty. In the 10th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, the Duke of Song Dynasty died, and his son pinggong succeeded to the throne. At this time, the domestic part of Song Dynasty was pro Jin and pro Chu. Sima dangze of the pro Chu sect wanted to weaken the pro Jin sect, so he killed his son Fei (the son of Duke Wen of song). Pro Jin sect right division Hua Yuan to kill dangze and Dangyu. Yu Shi, the left division of dangze Yudang, fled to Chu, which caused the state of Chu to spy on the state of song in order to revive the pro Chu forces.

The second is the internal change of Jin. The three kings of Jin (Ying Ying, Ying Zhun, Ying Zhi) were tyrannical and killed the doctors bozong and Luan Fuji without authorization. Bozhou Li, the son of bozong, fled to Chu. Therefore, Chu Sima believed that the Jin State would undergo internal changes, and there would be no spare effort to take into account the affairs of the Central Plains.

The third is the rise of the state of Wu. King Shoumeng of Wu participated in the alliance of the princes of the Central Plains. In the winter of the 10th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, King Shoumeng of Wu and Jin SHIXIE, Qi Gao Wujiu, Lu shusun qiaoru, song Huayuan, Wei Sun Lin Fu, and Zheng Gongzi formed an alliance at Zhongli (the former site of Zhongli city is located in Fengyang County, Anhui Province today). Therefore, the joint Wu policy of the state of Jin for many years was declared successful, and the state of Jin provided a strong guarantee.

In the third year after the war, that is, in the 11th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, in 575 BC, the state of Chu was restrained by the army of Zheng because of its attack on Zheng and Wei last year. So in the spring of that year, he sent his son to Zheng, and Xu Zheng ceded the land of Ruyin in Chu (about the land south of Ruhe River in Xiangcheng County, Henan Province) for peace. Zheng Chenggong really betrayed Jin and attached Chu, and sent his son Si to unite with the king of Chu in Wucheng (now Nanyang, Henan Province).

Zheng Chenggong not only allied with the state of Chu to obtain the land of Ruyin, but also forced Xu Guo to move south to ye (Chu, now ye County, Henan Province), so he regarded himself as a powerful country in the Central Plains. In April of that year, he sent his son to Xi Xingbing to attack the Song Dynasty and attack Shangqiu, the capital of the Song Dynasty.

Zheng Jun attacked the Song Dynasty and was initially defeated by the Song Jun in Fupo (now the marshland in the east of Ningling County, Henan Province). However, song generals were proud of their victory, and stationed in Fuqu without warning. They were attacked by Zheng’s counter attack, and were defeated by Yiling (in the north of yipo), and all song troops were wiped out. The state of Jin learned that the state of Zheng rebelled against Jin and attached to Chu, and attacked song. If the state of song surrendered to Chu, the situation in the Central Plains would turn into Chu again; So he planned to attack Zheng and save song. At that time, Shi Xie (the son of the scholars’ Association, later granted to fan, so it was also called fan Wenzi) believed that Li Gong of Jin was unjust and had many internal disturbances. If Zheng was defeated and song was saved, it would inevitably lead to a war between Jin and Chu. It was better to stay abroad to guard against provincial subsidies. However, Zhengqing luanshu believed that the opportunity for years of strategic planning should not be lost. He said, “you can’t lose your princes when you are in the world”, so he decided to fight against Zheng. The state of Chu heard that the state of Jin sent troops, and quickly sent troops north to save Zheng, so it became the battle of Yan Ling of Jin and Chu in June that year.

Combat organization and action of Jin and Chu armies

(1) Jin Jun

< 1> The battle formation of the Jin Army: in the 11th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, in the summer and April of 575 BC, Duke li of Jin decided to fight against Zheng to save the Song Dynasty when he learned that Zheng had rebelled against the Song Dynasty and defeated the song army in Jialing. He also knew that the Jin army would attack Zheng, and Chu would send troops to save Zheng, so it would inevitably evolve into a war between the two groups of Jin and Chu. And because the song army had been completely annihilated, fearing that Zheng army would go further north to block the Jin army’s crossing river, the Wei army was urgently ordered to rush to Mingyan (now Qixian County, Henan Province) first to threaten Zheng army’s side and back and make it retreat. On the one hand, the soldiers quickly crossed the river and rushed to Yanling. On the one hand, he sent Ying Zhun and others to gather the armies of Qi, Lu, song and Wei, and met at Yanling. The combat organization of Jin army is as follows:

Commander: Jin Ligong

Central Army: Field Marshal Luan Shu (Luan Wuzi) led the upper half of the central army and commanded the three armies.

Zuo SHIXIE (fan Wenzi) led the lower half of the central army.

Shangjun: Shuai Yingying (Ju Bo) led the upper half of the army.

Zuo xunyan (zhongxingyan) led the lower half of the army.

Lower Army: Shuai Han Jue (Han Xianzi) led the upper half of the army.

Zuo xunying stayed at home and did not participate in this battle.

New army: Marshal Ying Zhun (sent to Qi and Wei, the upper half of the new army is under the command of the marshal of the Chinese army or the assistant of the new army, which is not recorded in History).

Zuo Yingzhi led the lower half of the new army.

Gongzu: Gongying Valley (Bugu) of Jin Li is the emperor, and Luan Xiangxian (the son of Luan Shu) is the right.

Lu Kai (i.e. Wei Kai), a public doctor, led all the public soldiers.

Taking into account the total strength of the Jin army, there are about 500 chariots and about 50000 to 60000 troops.

He enlisted the troops of the princes as follows, but did not rush to the battlefield to participate in this battle:

Qi Jun: under the command of Qi linggong himself, guozuo is the general, and Gao Wujiu is the assistant.

Lu Jun: Lu Chenggong personally commands, and Meng Xianzi (Zhong sun mi) is the assistant.

Song Jun: Hua Yuan is the general, and Lao Zuo is the assistant.

Wei Jun: Wei Xiangong personally commands, and Sun Lin’s father assists him.

If the armies of the princes listed above are calculated by one army, the total force is about 600 times or more. If according to the original operational concept of the state of Jin, together with the entire army of princes, the total military strength should be more than 1000 times, and the military strength is about 120000.

< 2> Action of the Jin Army: when Luan Shu decided to launch an army against Zheng, Shi Xie thought that Jin Li’s public was more private (private to his ministers), and that he was arrogant and internal discord, so he could not leave the army. At that time, Luan Shu replied, “you can’t lose princes in my life, and you must attack Zheng”. On April 10, the 11th year of King Jian of Zhou, the Jin army left the army. In May, the Jin army crossed the river from Nanhe (now Ji County, Henan Province). At this time, it was learned that the state of Chu had also sent troops to save Zheng. So Shi Xie advocated avoiding Chu. He suggested that Luan Shu, the marshal of the Chinese army, said, “Jin has many internal worries. If you can attract all the ministers to serve the monarch, it will benefit Jin a lot. Why should it be outside the picture of the princes?”? Luan Shu didn’t listen. At that time, the new army Zuo Yingzhi didn’t think it was better to avoid war. He said, “in the war of South Korea in the past, Huigong didn’t cheer up his troops; in the battle of Ji, he didn’t rebel against orders first; in the battle of Ji, he was handsome, and Xun Bo didn’t indulge anymore, which was a shame for the state of Jin. Zi also saw the matter of his predecessor, Jin used force to revitalize the country; now I don’t snow the shame of Jin, but to avoid barbarians, which is also a shame!”! So Luan Shu decided to lead the Jin army to Yanling, and stationed 20 miles north of Yanling city (now more than 10 miles south of Yanling city) to wait for the army of princes. (2) Chu Jun

< 1> The decision-making and operational organization of the Chu Army: when the state of Jin sent troops to attack Zheng, Zheng Chenggong learned that he was in a hurry to send an envoy to the Chu, and ordered the doctor Yao juer to go with him. The situation of Chu’s assistance was repaid in advance, so as to decide the action of Zheng army.

When the envoy of Zheng came to Chu in a hurry, the king of the Communist Party of Chu summoned all his ministers to counsel and ordered Yin Zi to say again: “I actually broke the agreement of Ximen to defeat Zheng and lured Zheng to rebel against Jin with land; if I start a large army again to shelter Zheng, I will win in the difficult period, so I’d better not save Zheng”. Sima said, “Zheng was in a hurry to sue me. If he didn’t save me, there would be no imperial edict.”. The king of the Communist Party of Chu followed his son and led the army to save Zheng with his son as commander. The combat organization of Chu army is as follows:

Commanding the king of Chu

The commander of the central army, Sima Zifan (childe’s side), leads the central army and commands the three armies.

The commander of the left army ordered Yin Zizhong (childe Yingqi) to lead the left army, and the Taizi Bozhou Li (a rebel of Jin) to accompany the army as a consultant.

Right army commander right Yin Zixin (childe Ren Fu) led the right army.

The king of the kingdom of Chu led all the state officials, which were divided into left and right cantons.

Zuo Guangpeng is named Yu, and pan Dang is named Che You.

On the right side, Xu Yan is the emperor, and the Yangyou base is the right side of the car.

Zheng Jun, Zheng Cheng Gong, personally led, the stone head is the Royal, and Tang Gou is the right of the car.

Taking Chu and Zheng’s armies into account, they are combined into the Fourth Army. It is estimated that their chariot multipliers and forces are about 405 for Chu, 200 for each, about 81000 for Zheng, 125 for Zheng, 12500 (including logistics personnel here, 50 for Chu and 25 for Zheng). The combined forces of Chu and Zheng are about 530 chariots and 93500 troops.

< 2> The action of the Chu Army: the king of Chu has decided to save Zheng, and the formation of his army has been completed. He left Fangcheng (now Fangcheng county), crossed ye (now ye county), crossed the flaw (now the flaw city at the foot of the first mountain, 7 miles southwest of Xiangcheng County), crossed the flood (now the Ru water in the south of Xiangcheng County, that is, the ancient flood, also known as Nanpan), and Ying (now the Ying River, 45 miles northeast of Xiangcheng), joined Zheng Shi in the south of Jiuxu, and then rushed to Yanling. On the dark day of the Jiawu Festival on June 29, the Jin army was unprepared and lined up at the gate of the Jin army overnight. The momentum is very strong, and there is a great potential to defeat the Jin army before the army of the princes called by Jin arrives.

Geographical situation of the battlefield

Yanling is an ancient Yan state, and its ancient city is about 40 miles southwest of today’s Yanling city. It was destroyed by Duke Wu of Zheng in the early spring and Autumn period. It is more than 200 li away from Qushui (the North Yellow River Channel in Kaifeng, Henan Province, which was Qushui in ancient times); It is 50 miles away from Baotun in the east to Fugou East; 110 Li south to Zhaoling; The West reaches Jiuxu (now Xuchang County, Henan Province, because Xu was forced by Zheng before, when the son saved Xu and attacked Zheng, he moved to ye, and the land then returned to Zheng, so it is called Jiuxu). 60 miles away, the plain near Yanling is flat, and the nameless mountains and rivers can be used for combat; Extending in all directions, it was the ancient north-south transportation hub.

Operation process

(1) Jin army’s battle plan

The operational concept of Luan Shu of the Jin army was to wait for the reinforcements of the princes to gather together and fight with Chu in the area near Yanling with overwhelming superiority. Its combat deployment is to concentrate on the left wing of the formation to force the Chu army to defeat it irresistibly, which is the first tactic since the spring and Autumn period.

(2) The battle plan of Chu Army

The operational concept of Chu Junzi rebellion was to force the Jin army to defeat each other before the arrival of the princes’ reinforcements with superior forces. So when the Chu army went north, it marched very quickly. At that time, doctor Zheng reported to Zheng Chenggong, “the division of Chu, its travel is very fast, too dangerous and not neat”. By the time they arrived at Yanling, the dark sun kept pressing down on the front line of the Jin army camp, forcing the Jin army to have no room for formation operations, in order to quickly surround and annihilate the Jin army. Objectively speaking, Chu Zifan’s combat concept is really extraordinary!

The deployment of combat forces is also focused on the right wing. Its intention was to confront the main force of Jin without the enemy’s intention.

(3) Battle process

On the dark morning of the first day of Jiawu on June 29, the 11th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, the Chu army had pressed the front line of the Jin military camp, and at this time, the armies of the princes of Qi, Lu, song, Wei and Ying collected by the Jin army were still on the way.

At this time, the Jin army felt the weakness of its troops, and there was no room for formation by the Chu army. At that time, the army was quite frightened. Shi Xie’s son Shi Jijin (then 17 years old) suggested: “seii yizao, that is, to camp the battlefield.”. At that time, Luan Shu was worried about the weakness of his troops and was trying to hold on to the camp until the reinforcements of the princes arrived, and then turned to attack. So he answered, “Chu Shi is light and slim, and if he keeps his base, he will retreat in three days; if he retreats and then hits it, he will win.”. The new army Zuo Yingzhi said, “there are six rooms in Chu, which can’t be lost. There are two Qing Dynasties in total, which are hostile to each other (referring to the son against the son), one; the king’s soldiers are old (the Chu army is many old and tired soldiers), two; the Zheng army’s array is not neat, three; the barbarian soldiers can’t be arrayed with the army, four; the Huiri array, five; the soldiers in the array are noisy and disordered, and the order is chaotic, six. With such a noisy and disordered army, we will take care of our rear and have no intention to fight in wartime. Therefore, our army’s attack will be able to overcome it.” ? Jin Ligong and Luan Shu followed their words and decided to immediately seii yizao and line up in the camp.

At this time, the king of the Communist Party of Chu and Bo Zhou Li, the deceased Minister of Jin, boarded the nest car to watch the Jin army. The so-called nest car is a car built on a high platform to spy on the enemy. Bozhou Li told the king of Chu about the formation of saijing yizao of the Jin army in the camp one by one, and said, “the soldiers of the Jin army were compiled by the Jin army’s royal family, and they are elite and good at fighting, so they should not be taken as them”. The king of Chu followed. Similarly, Duke li of Jin also boarded the nest car with the deceased Minister of Chu, Emperor Miao Ben (that is, the son of Chu general Dou Yuejiao, who fled to Jin when Chu killed Yuejiao) to watch the Chu army. Emperor miaobi also informed Duke li of the situation of the Chu army formation. Moreover, he said, “the excellence of Chu is among the military and royal families, which should not be regarded as it. If we use our excellence to attack the left and right first, and then gather the strength of the three armies to attack the king and soldiers together, we will be defeated.”. Li Gong followed. So the Jin army made the following attack deployment: attack the left army of the Chu army with a part of the Chinese army; Another Chinese Army attacking Chu army; Concentrate the soldiers of the upper army, the lower army, the new army and the public to attack the right army of Chu and Zheng army. After the deployment, the Jin army opened its Barracks at noon on June 29 and attacked the Chu army.

When the Jin army attacked the Chu formation, Luan Shu came out to defend Duke li of Jin with Luan Fangong clan. Yi Yu Li bus, Luan Xiangxian (son of Luan Shu) on the right. As soon as he left the camp, the car of marquis Jin was in the mire, and Luan Shu wanted to take the car as a public car when he saw it. Luan Yuanxian stopped and said, “retreat! You have the great responsibility of the country (the responsibility of commanding the whole army), and you must not mess.”. Luan book is stopped. Luan Yuanxian lifted the car with Ying Yi to get out of the mud. At this time, after seeing it on the nest car, the king of the Communist Party of Chu stepped off the nest car and led Zuo Guang to attack the Duke of Jin who was mired in the mud. When Wei Kai, a senior official of the Duke of Jin, saw the Chu army advancing, he bent his bow and shot the king of Chu, hitting his left eye. The king of Chu retreated after being injured. At this time, the chariot of the Duke of Jin had also left the marsh, so he pursued the king of Chu. The king of Chu urgently called Yang Youji and gave him two arrows to shoot Wei Kai. Wei Kai was hit by an arrow and died.

At this time, the Chu army knew that the king of Chu was wounded by an arrow, and the army was terrified. When it saw the Jin army attacking from the East, it thought that the princes’ army had arrived, and the barbarian soldiers of the right army were in chaos first. Under the fierce attack of the Jin army, the right army did not support and retreated westward. Affected by this, the Chinese army and the left army also retreated backward. At this time, the new army led by Ying Zhi attacked the “King’s pawn” of Chu from among them, and hurriedly dodged when encountering the king of Chu three times. The king of Chu gave him a bow, but he didn’t accept it. Instead, he pursued Zheng Jun to help Han Jue’s attack.

Han Jue’s main force has defeated Zheng Jun and is pursuing to the West. At this time, he rushed to follow Zheng Bo’s flag, and Zheng Bo withdrew the flag and fled.

Luan Yuanxian, in pursuit of the west, saw the flag of Yin Zizhong ordered by the Chu left army. In order to show the “integrity” of the Jin army, he sent someone to send wine to Zi Zhong. After drinking the wine again, Zi beat the drums and fought again. It was the day of the war until he saw the stars.

In that battle, the Jin army, in pursuit, captured the son of the king of Chu and returned.

On that day, the Chu army retreated to the South Bank of Yingshui. The king of Chu occupied the north bank with his “King’s pawn” to receive the defeated army. The Jin army chased to the north bank and made a brief contact with the “King’s pawn” of Chu until dusk.

That night, the commander-in-chief of the Chu central army, the rebel army, Shi Chayi, repaired the soldiers, repaired the armored soldiers, displayed the carriages and horses, prepared for chicken crowing and eating, and fought again tomorrow morning. Jin Jun felt very worried after hearing this. Emperor Miao Ben suggested, “search for soldiers, prepare horses and soldiers, fix the formation, produce food and pray, and resume the war tomorrow”. Jin Marquis followed. They released the Chu prisoners and sent them to inform the Chu army of the news.

When the king of Chu heard that the Jin army was also preparing to resume war tomorrow, he immediately called Zifan to plan. That night, he was drunk and could not see. The king of Chu thought that the marshal could do so, so he withdrew his troops South overnight. The Jin army then entered the Chu camp on the next day, took advantage of Chu’s food, suspended its troops for three days, and then turned the division. The reinforcements of the princes failed to reach the battlefield, except that the Qi army finally arrived at the battle.

When the Chu army retreated to flaw, the king of Chu sent someone to gently blame Zifan. Zichong promoted it again, so Zifan finally committed suicide.

The political situation after the war

The battle of Yan Ling in Jin and Chu was the last stage of the long-term strategy of Tu Ba formulated by scholars and Luan Shu since the king of Jin. Unfortunately, since the death of Duke Jing and the succession of Duke Li, the nature of domestic politics has changed a lot, so its achievements are not as high as expected. Jin Jing owned the ability to control all the ministers, so all the ministers worked together to serve, and the country was prosperous. In the era of Duke Li, because Duke Li was still young, most of the ministers were the old ministers of his father, and Jin had heavy power over the ministers, so the situation of the weak monarch and the strong ministers had been formed. Li Gong wanted to revive the monarchy, so he trusted nei, with the intention of weakening the ministers, and there was already suspicion between the monarchs and ministers. Therefore, before the Yanling war, Shi Xie repeatedly suggested Zheng Qing Luan Shu to avoid the war. He meant to borrow the stimulation of foreign aggression as a subsidy for the monarchs and ministers to be vigilant in repairing the province, uniting and harmonizing. His intention was really good! But Luan Shu and Shihui were the Original Planners of Jinggong Touba’s strategy. This scholar will be dead, so Luan book will want to finish it. Let’s take a look at Luan Shu’s words to tell Shi Xie, “you can’t be my world and lose Princes”, which shows the depth of his intention.

Jin defeated the Allied forces of Chu and Zheng in the battle of Yanling, and its military power has actually reached its peak. However, due to the exposure of the weakness of Jin’s internal affairs, the achievements of this military victory could not be fully effective. The princes knew that Jin would undergo internal changes and no longer have the power to control the princes, so they also waited and waited. Lu xuanbo (that is, uncle sun qiaoru) told the Jin State’s Ying Zhun with Ji sun Xingfu’s words: “there are many branches of government in Jin today, so you can’t follow them. Everything is in harmony with Chu. It’s just death, but contempt for Jin”! It can be seen from this that the attitudes of the princes towards Jin at that time were quite different from those of Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin and Duke Jing of Jin. Lu was one of the close allies of Jin, and Ji sun Xingfu had a close friendship with Jin Zhu Qing Luan and Ying; He all made such a stand against Jin and Chu, and temporarily made a wait-and-see view, then other countries that have always advocated riding the wall, such as the state of Zheng, did not sincerely attach themselves to Jin, and they did what they wanted! Therefore, since the war of Yanling, the state of Zheng has never been subject to Jin but attached to Chu. In order to compete for control of the Central Plains, the Jin State attacked Zheng four times in the year and the second year of the Yanling war, and Zheng always relied on Chu for assistance and did not yield. Therefore, the situation in the Central Plains has returned to the pre war stalemate of Yanling. Therefore, the victory of Yanling campaign not only failed to give full play to its effectiveness, but also felt that the sacrifice of this battle was actually superfluous. The reason is not that Jin’s foreign policy and strategic plan are wrong, but that Jin’s internal affairs are disordered! Here is the reason for the decline of the hegemony of Duke li of Jin: Duke li of Jin has been deeply aware of the expertise of the princes since he ascended the throne at an early age, and wants to weaken the princes in order to revive the monarchy. Since the two victories of Ma tunnel and Yan Ling, Li Gong has become more arrogant and arrogant. Since Yan Ling returned, he wanted to go to the doctors and stand around him. So Xu Tong, Yi Yang Wu, and Chang Yu Jiao, the ministers of the imperial court, were greatly favored by Li Gong. Xu Tong was abolished because of his father Xu Ke; Jiake once seized the land of five Yi sheep; Long fish Jiao and Ying Zhun fought for land, and they were captured by Ying Zhun and punished by shackles. Therefore, the three people deeply hate Ying family and destroy three Ying (Ying Zhun, Ying Zhun, Ying Zhi) on the side of Li Gong every day. At this time, many of the ministers, such as Luan Shu, Ying Zhun, Ying Ying, Ying Zhi, Shi Xie, Zhongxing Yan, Xun Ying, were old ministers of Duke Jing, who worked daily to maintain Duke Jing’s hegemony in the Central Plains and the past glory of the state of Jin. The goals of the two psychological efforts are fundamentally different. Therefore, the monarch and the minister suspected each other, and then formed the tragedy of killing each other later.

Between Duke li of Jin and San Ying, due to the destruction of the Japanese phase of the ministers, Duke Li had the intention of clearing San Ying. At this time, it coincided with Ying Zhi’s successful recruitment of Zhou for the battle report of Yanling, and met with Zhou (Duke mourning of Jin, then Ren Yu Zhou), the great grandson of Duke Xiang of Jin. The ministers of Zhou Dynasty made Zhou Weijun the king by abolishing Li Gong as a general of the Three Kingdoms and moving Li Gong vertically. In the 12th year of King Jian of Zhou Dynasty, in the winter of 574 BC, Duke Li and his ministers hunted in the field. Duke Li first killed prey and drank wine with women, and then reached the doctors. At this time, Meng Zhang, a Buddhist monk, robbed his boar and shot him, so Li Gong was furious and said, “he cheated me!”! The ministers also urged Li Gong to make trouble. Xu Tong said, “you must first kill the Sanying clan. Most of the Sanying clan are resentful. If you go to a big clan, you don’t force the public office; if you kill many resentments, you will be meritorious.”. So Li Gongsui decided to kill Sanying. After hearing this, he wanted to attack Li Gong. He Zhi said, “people are established by faith and wisdom. Faith does not betray the monarch; wisdom does not harm the people; courage does not make trouble. Who is I to lose these three? Dead and resentful, will it be used? You really have ministers and kill them, why is it the monarch? I am guilty, and I will die after death. If I kill them well, I will lose their people. If I want to be safe, just stand by. Receiving your reward is to gather the party; having a party and fighting for life, which is the biggest crime?”? So the war ended. At the noon of December that year, Xu Tong, the Minister of Xi, and Yi Yang led 800 soldiers to attack Xi. Changyu Jiao asked that no soldiers be needed, and Li Gong sent Qing Zeji, the Minister of Xi, to help him. Long fish Jiao and Qing Zee pulled a dagger and tied a lapel, pretending to be the litigant who asked to see the Jia family. Ying Zhun, Ying Zhun, and Ying Zhi all came, and sat in the pavilion to listen to their words. Long fish Jiao then assassinated Ying Ying Zhun and Ying Zhun with a dagger. When he saw that it was an assassin, he hurried to escape, and long fish Jiao caught up with him and assassinated him. The ministers of the three kings arrayed their bodies in the court hall and declared their sins. Xu Tong also arrested Luan Shu and Zhong Xing Yan to see Li Gong with another oracle. And long fish Jiao said to Li Gong, “if you don’t kill the second son, you will worry about him.”. Li Gong said, “I can’t bear to kill Sanqing once.”. Jiao Dui said, “people will tolerate the king. When ministers hear of chaos, they will be traitors outside, and they will be punished inside; when they resist the traitors, they will be punished by virtue; when they do not kill, they cannot be punished for virtue; when ministers force them, they will not be punished; when virtue and punishment do not stand, traitors will be punished.”. Li Gong didn’t listen, and long fish Jiao fled to di. Duke Li immediately released Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan and resumed their positions, and told them, “I have been punished by the Ying family, and the Ying family has been defeated. The doctor has no shame, and he has resumed his position”. So Duke Li appointed Xu Tong as his minister. At this time, Shi Xie had committed suicide for fear of disaster.

Li Gong thought that the three evils had been eliminated, and Luan Shu and zhongxingyan had also expressed their sincere obedience, and had taken Xu Tong as their Qing, so he played in the house of Li, a craftsman of the Minister of justice, and ignored political affairs day by day. Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan felt that Li Gong’s indulgence in pleasure and immorality could not be saved, and they were worried about the fall of Jin’s hegemony, so they had a plan to abolish it. In December of the winter leap of that year, Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan captured Li Gong by surrounding the craftsman’s home with soldiers; On the one hand, xunying and Shi Bang (Shi Xie’s younger brother) were sent to welcome the son Zhou Yu to Wang Ji. In the second year, that is, the first month of the spring in the 13th year of King Jian of Zhou, the prince Zhou Zhi Jin, and the Ministers greeted him. It was for mourning the Duke, and mourning the Duke’s succession that the political situation of Jin was resumed. Jin almost lost its hegemony during the rebellion of Li Gong, and it was only then that Jin regained its hegemony.

During this period, civil strife also occurred in the state of Qi, killing its doctor, guozuo, and using Cui Zhu as a doctor. Taking advantage of the inability of Jin to take into account the Central Plains, Chu and Zheng attacked the Song Dynasty, attacked Chaoying (now Xiayi, Henan Province), invaded the city Gao (now Southeast of Wu County, Shandong Province), took youqiu (now within kaucheng County, Henan Province) and attacked Pengcheng (now Tongshan, Jiangsu Province), trying to block the road between Jin and Qi to Wu. On the one hand, he sent Yu Shi, the deceased Minister of the Song Dynasty, to the Song Dynasty, and stationed in the song territory with 300 chariots. At that time, the forces of the state of Chu invaded the Central Plains again, which became a prairie fire.


(1) Jin aspect

The long-term strategy of Tu Ba planned by Jin Jinggong, his various ministers and scholars, Luan Shu, etc. from the merger of CHIDI to the battle of Yanling, with neat steps and clear paragraphs, is enough to serve as a model for the long-term strategy. At the end of the spring and Autumn period, those who dominate the industry on a large scale and for a long time should take this strategy as the first! Compared with Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin, it seems that they can only be behind them. This is because Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin died and their hegemony was destroyed. However, after the death of Duke Jing of Jin, Luan Shu, Han Jue and other people continued to do so. Until the era of mourning Duke Jin, it has been prosperous, and what it has shown to future generations is far more than its predecessors?

In order to resist the alliance between the two great powers of Qin and Chu, the state of Jin focused on uniting Qi and Wu, which was indeed a far sighted move! And LianWu is particularly high in its strategy! This is because countries with higher culture often look down upon barbarian states as insignificant, just as countries that regarded themselves as superior in modern times ignored backward areas. Duke Jing of Jin was able to see this 2500 years ago, and he worked hard to raise him. He used his strength to frustrate the prosperity of Chu. His vision is really far-reaching! After the Jin State made peace with Chu, it immediately fought in the Macheng tunnel to attack the Qin state; Immediately after the war of Ma tunnel, the battle of Yanling was immediately fought to defeat Chu. This kind of flexible application of political strategy and strategy and the tight coordination of pace are rare in the ancient war history. Although the battle of Yanling did not play a significant role due to the self destruction victory of Duke li of Jin; But the superiority of this political strategy and strategy is indispensable!

There was a debate between Shi Xie and Luan Shu when the Jin state launched its war against Zheng; However, how can the foolishness of Duke li of Jin cause vigilance and province repair due to foreign aggression? Therefore, even if there was no battle of Yanling, Jin could not be free from internal difficulties. Only Luan Shu’s loyalty to Jin can cause Li Gong to be moved without killing. Otherwise, it’s just a suicide like Shi Xie. How can it help Jin?

In the battle of Yanling, the Jin army deployed in the battle: the seii yizao of Shi Ji was in the camp; Ying Zhi advocated immediate attack; Luan Shu’s concentration of troops on one wing belongs to the superior insight in tactics! This is because Shi Ying’s sudden response, resourceful and good observation, Hou Ming’s knowledge of the enemy and Luan Shu’s novel array constitute the key points, which are superior tactics to defeat the crowd with an oligopoly. The key to combat lies in taking the initiative, rather than relying entirely on the equipotential or advantage of troops (this is actually the essence of Mao Zedong’s tactics). In particular, Luan Shu can adopt the wisdom of everyone, not cling to his own views, and his determination is bright, which is enough to be a model for generals!

Luan Yuanxian told his father not to give up his command duty when Li Gong was in the mire. He was really serious and had the same feeling of tiger father and tiger son with the scholar’s emergency wit!

(2) Chu aspect

The state of Qin, which betrayed the alliance of the state of Chu, made peace with the state of Jin alone, giving the state of Jin the opportunity to break each one; No matter what coercion or other reasons it is in, it is undeniable that this is the lack of Chu’s political strategy! In short, betraying the allies for self-interest and losing the great trust of the world is the great taboo of building a country! Jin Wen announced that his ministers said, “those who believe in it will benefit all the world”. It is indeed a wise view, and those who preside over the country should be regarded as the standard.

Before the battle of Yanling, the state of Chu did its best to support its ally, the state of Zheng, ceded the land of Ruyin and moved its enemy, the state of Xu; The focus of his political strategy was very appropriate, so Zheng was a strong ally of Chu for a long time. Careful analysis, this is also a strategy of controlling the barbarians with the barbarians, that is, the so-called: controlling the Central Plains with the Central Plains!

Chu Zifan’s rapid dispatch of troops, rapid action, and even not avoiding the dark day, and fighting in front of the Jin military camp are all tactics that Zi fan focuses on “speed” and “striving for initiative”, which is understandable. However, there must be a certain limit to speed, beyond which fatigue and irregularity will inevitably form. From the Jin Dynasty to the observation of the Chu army, it was obvious that Zi counter demanded too much, resulting in the disorder of the array and the noise in the array, which was a good opportunity for the Jin army to attack. Later, Sun Tzu wrote a book and said, “it’s the reason to roll armor and follow the trend. Day and night are not everywhere. You can travel multiple times. If you fight for profit within a hundred miles, you will catch three generals; if you fight for profit within fifty miles, you will fall on the general.”. It is from this kind of combat research.

Both the Duke of Chu and Duke li of Jin personally boarded the nest car to observe the enemy, which was a model action for the commander to visit the front line in person. However, the prince of the Communist Party of Chu led Zuo Guang to attack Duke li of Jin, which was reckless. This is the matter of the generals in the array. There is no need to bow to the commander and do it by himself. The consequence of this kind of bowing is that the Communist King retreated, causing chaos in the whole army. Although the defeat of the Chu army was not entirely due to this factor, it is indisputable that the morale of the army was shaken by this. It can be seen from this that the commander must be more careful in his actions!

After the defeat, Chu Zi ordered the army historian to investigate the injuries of the barbarians, make up for the soldiers, repair the armor and soldiers, and display the chariots and horses to prepare for another war tomorrow. His disposal was very appropriate. Unfortunately, he drank and got drunk that night, so that he couldn’t answer the call of the king of Chu, so the king of Chu retreated in anger, and finally he ended up committing suicide. Therefore, it can be seen that wine is really wrong!

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