During the Three Kingdoms period, women’s concept of chastity was not strong, and remarriage was common

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The rolling Yangtze River flows eastward, and the waves wash away heroes.

At present, the new edition of “Three Kingdoms” is popular. The golden iron horse, heroism, resourcefulness and bravery 1800 years ago have once again become a topic of attention. The new “Three Kingdoms” has been re adapted against the background of the Three Kingdoms era, which is between the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the romance of the Three Kingdoms.

The popular stories of the Three Kingdoms mainly come from romance. Literary historians all believe that the romance came into being in the hands of many people. Generations of storytellers and opera singers have repeatedly preached and sung, concentrating the wisdom of all aspects of the folk. Luo Guanzhong is the most important arranger. It was after the May 4th New Culture Movement that Luo Guanzhong was identified as its author. Since then, Mao Zonggang in the Qianlong period has made a systematic collation and revision.

Although the romance is quite inconsistent with the official history, it has become a true epic of the Chinese nation, integrating the ideals and aspirations of the Chinese nation for more than a thousand years. Lu Xun once said, “at that time, there were many heroes, martial courage and wisdom, magnificent and moving, and the facts were not as simple as those of Chu and Han Dynasties, nor as complicated as those of the spring and autumn dynasties, so it is particularly suitable to say.” To be honest, it was indeed an era of epic.

However, in recent years, the creation of historical dramas has become the most controversial problem. In fact, this problem is not complicated. A historical play should not make major changes to the conclusive historical facts, while those that are not recorded or vague in the historical materials can be artistically processed. Those who think that the true stories in history are not wonderful enough and need to be rearranged are worthless.

People who love history know that the plot compiled by many film and television dramas is far less attractive than the real historical story. The key is whether the director and screenwriter can show it.

In order to cater to the market and box office, some historical film and television dramas use the body of the ancients to express the desire of modern people for power, money and beauty incisively and vividly, even at the expense of making up and joking. This kind of “making the past serve the present” often misleads the audience into thinking that this is what history is like, so it is “not strange to see strange things”, “used to it”, and even accept what is originally wrong as real history.

Chinese people’s understanding of the history of the Three Kingdoms is more complicated because of the “Romance”. Yes, in the romance, we saw the courage and loyalty of righteousness, the brilliance and hope of supporting justice, the efforts and struggle to turn the tide, and the helplessness and tragedy of knowing that it cannot be done, but this does not prevent people from excavating and tasting the details of the real history of the three kingdoms.

This article tries to trace the origin and present rich and delicate historical facts, so as to make the charm of the three countries more clear and true. Many things, ancient and modern, are under discussion.

There were no seats in the Three Kingdoms period

During the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Han nationality in the Central Plains continued the custom of sitting on the ground in the Qin Dynasty. There will be a large banquet “feast” on the indoor ground, which is generally rectangular, and the sitting posture is kneeling. In addition, there is the habit of sitting in bed and couch. The couch is narrow and low, smaller than the bed, and the sitting position is still kneeling. In the stills, the emperor and Cao Cao’s vertical sitting was introduced into the Central Plains after the two Jin Dynasties.

Kneeling, that is, two knees on the ground, the insteps of both feet face down, and the hips fall on the heels. If you lift your hips and straighten your upper body, it is called long kneeling, also known as long kneeling. It is a posture ready to get up to show respect for others.

In modern times, people’s sitting posture has different requirements on different occasions, but it is far less serious than what the ancients thought. In ancient times, there was an uncivilized sitting method, called Jiju, which was a posture in which the legs were stretched flat and the upper body became a right angle. According to volume 9 of Han Shi waizhuan, “Mencius’ wife lived alone and occupied. Mencius looked at it when he entered the house, and Bai’s mother said: ‘women are rude, go away.’ his mother said: ‘why?’ she said: ‘occupied’.” because of the irregular sitting posture, women are even in danger of being retired, which shows the importance of ancient society.

Cao Cao’s foot dropping sitting posture is similar to that of modern people. It was originally a living habit of nomads. After the two Jin Dynasties, the Central Plains had frequent wars and ethnic migrations, and the sitting posture of nomads was introduced into the Central Plains. The custom of sitting on the ground in the vast Han areas gradually changed, and there was no longer only kneeling.

Since then, furniture suitable for hanging feet has slowly changed with the sitting posture. In addition to traditional seats such as seats and beds, high foot seats have also appeared in Dunhuang murals from the 5th to 6th centuries, such as waist round stools, square stools, chairs, etc. In the stills, Cao Cao’s new seat like a chair and stool was unlikely to appear in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.

Emperor Xian of Han Dynasty’s “Zhang Guan Li Dai”

The costume system of the Han Dynasty officially established by the Ming emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty has clear and detailed provisions on ceremonial clothes and court clothes, and the hierarchical characteristics are very distinct.

In the first episode of the TV series “Three Kingdoms”, in the scene where Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty and his ministers presented Dong Zhuo together, the crown that Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty wore looked like a crown (Figure 2), which was inconsistent with the occasion of the court meeting of monarchs and ministers. Of course, the crown on Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty’s head was also different from the real crown. The crown is one of the most important symbolic costumes of the emperor in major sacrificial activities. It is 7 inches wide (about 23.5 cm today) and 1 foot 2 inches long (about 28 cm today). The crown extending forward to the sky extends into a circle, and the part extending backward is square. The color of the inside is red and green, and the top of the outside is black. The length extending forward is 4 inches of Han Chi (about 9.4 cm today), and the length extending backward is 3 inches of Han Chi (about 7 cm today). There are 12 Diao white jade beads hanging Diao.

On this occasion of the royal court, the emperor should wear the Tongtian crown. It is a kind of relatively high and vertical, with less backward inclined roll at the top, iron guard beam, decorative emperor’s special crown, and can also be used as the emperor’s regular clothes.

From the stills of this play (Figure 3), we can see that the costumes of the civil and military forces in the Manchu Dynasty are very unified, but according to the costume system of the Eastern Han Dynasty, this is also wrong. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, officials should wear different crowns according to their different identities. Civil officials wear the Jin Xian crown: its shape is a beam crown with a front height of about 16.5 cm, a rear height of about 7 cm, a crown length of about 18.8 cm, a front height of about 18.8 cm, and a rear height of low. The crown worn by the officials in the stills is similar to the Jinxian crown, but the latter is higher than the former, which is very different from the real Jinxian crown in specific shape, lacking the beam representing the level of official rank.

The military crown worn by military officers, “one is the big crown of military Bian”, which is tied with green silk, and the crown belt tied to the jaw has no drooping decoration. As a military officer, Cao Cao, the captain of Xiaoqi, should not be the same as the crown of civil officials (figure 4).

The above points are just a few aspects of the inconsistency between the clothing of the new “Three Kingdoms” and the clothing system of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The record of Yu Fu in the book of continuation of the Han Dynasty records in detail the costume system of the Eastern Han Dynasty, including the coronas, clothes, shoes, ribbons, etc. of sacrificial and imperial uniforms, each with an equal sequence. There are more than 16 kinds of crowns, including crowns, Tongtian crowns, Gaoshan crowns, and FA crowns. There are also clear regulations on the colors and patterns of clothing. The officials of the Eastern Han Dynasty “wear clothes, made of deep clothes, with robes, following the five seasons”, that is, the robes made of deep clothes connected with the clothes are the court clothes, and the color of the robes is generally “following the five seasons”, that is, spring green, summer red, season summer yellow, autumn white, and winter black. In addition, according to relevant historical records, although there were five color imperial clothes at that time, they were all dressed in soap color, that is, black. Recently, some netizens questioned the black dress of officials in the new “Three Kingdoms”, but judging from the dress system and relevant historical materials at that time, it was in line with the actual situation at that time that officials wore black dress.

It’s common for women to remarry if they don’t have a strong sense of chastity

Zhao Yun refused to marry fan in the romance of the Three Kingdoms and the new Three Kingdoms: Zhao fan, the governor of Guiyang, acted as a matchmaker for fan, his widowed sister-in-law for three years, and wanted to marry her to Zhao Yun. Zhao Yun heard of it and resolutely opposed it. Later, Zhugeliang asked him why he refused. Zhao Yun said that the fan family had been chaste for three years. I was greedy for beauty. Wouldn’t it hurt her?

In fact, this story is just a fiction of scholars, which is not recorded in the annals of the Three Kingdoms. In the Han Dynasty, from the Royal relatives to the common people, people’s concept of chastity was relatively weak compared with later generations. Women had the freedom and power to choose their own spouse and remarry others. At that time, the productivity was underdeveloped, the natural sanitation conditions were poor, and the population was scarce. The government strongly encouraged people to have more children, and it was common for women to remarry.

The queen of emperor Jing of Han Dynasty had married the golden grandson and had a daughter. Later, she was favored by Emperor Jing, who was fashionable as the crown prince, and was soon crowned beauty. After the death of Queen Wang’s father Wang Zhong, Queen Wang’s mother married a man surnamed Tian and gave birth to Tian Xuan. There are also many cases of remarriage in the scholar’s family. After Su Wu’s envoy was detained, her wife mistakenly thought he was dead and remarried. Among ordinary people, it is more common for women to remarry. According to the records of the book of Han Dynasty? Biography of Chen Ping, “Lu Yu, a rich man, has a granddaughter, and his five married husband often dies. No one dares to marry, and he wants it.”. Finally, Zhang negative “gave Chen Ping his granddaughter”. Women who have lost their husbands five times can remarry, which shows that society at that time still supported women’s remarriage. Zhao Yun was unlikely to say the above words at that time, which was very similar to Luo Guanzhong, who was influenced by the Neo Confucianism of the song and Ming Dynasties.

Of course, this situation in the Han Dynasty does not mean that women have much freedom. In the Western Han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu proposed that “the three principles of the royal way can be found in heaven”, which laid the basic theory of the principle of morality and morality. The principle of husband as wife became one of the three principles, which aggravated the bondage of women. However, there will always be some time difference between the transformation of customs and concepts and the implementation of etiquette and law policies. The principle of “unity and end” advertised by Confucianism did not immediately gain universal recognition and acceptance among the people, so there was a relatively common situation of women remarriage in the Han Dynasty.

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