The direct reason for the short life of Qin Dynasty was the cruelty of Hu Hai. His cruelty is famous in history.
The first thing Qin Shihuang did after he became emperor was to change his honorific title to “emperor” to show his dignity. In sharp contrast to this, the first thing Qin II wanted to do after he took office was to enjoy himself, but what he did was to massacre and destroy the Great Wall. This has become a “required course” for later generations to ascend the throne by means of improper means.
Kill Mengtian brother unjustly. Mengtian brothers’ fathers and ancestors, who were avenged by Zhao Gao for public and private affairs, have been famous generals for three generations. Because Fusu was dead, Hu Hai wanted to release Meng Tian at first, but Zhao Gao was afraid of Meng Tian. He immediately stopped him: “the former Emperor once wanted to make a wise emperor his crown prince. Meng Yi stopped him. He was an unfaithful and unjust man. In my opinion, it would be better to kill them.” Zhao Gao is a man who stabs the sky but doesn’t mend it. Anyway, the world belongs to Hu Hai. What’s his business?
The bewildered second emperor did not listen to his brother, son and baby. He imprisoned Meng Yi, who had only come back after praying for the mountains and rivers on behalf of the first emperor of Qin, changed the law, sought his way according to the plan, and deliberately sentenced him to death. Meng Yi was killed after accusing Hu Hai of indiscriminately killing innocent people. Hu Hai sent messengers to Yang Zhou lian to sit in Mengtian. Meng Tian said, “my family has accumulated credit for Qin III. today, I have more than 300000 soldiers. Although I am imprisoned, it is enough to betray. But I am righteous and do not dare to insult the teachings of my ancestors. I also do not forget my ancestors.” The messenger did not dare to convey it. Meng Tian sighed and said, “why should I sin against heaven and die without sin?” In desperation, he swallowed the medicine and committed suicide.
Fratricide. The first thing Hu Hai thought about was how to entertain his eyes and ears. He was persuaded by Zhao Gao to kill Mengtian brother, and was ready to stop. It is normal for a young man in his twenties to be curious about women, but he seems determined to read all the spring scenery in the world, saying: “living in the world is like passing through a gap in a white horse. Now that I am king over the world, I want to do my best to see and hear what I want, and I want to have a world and live my life. Can I meet this requirement?” This kind of decadent language of playing with things and losing ambition, if it were Lisi, he would probably use the story of king you of Zhou and Bao Si to admonish him. But what Hu Hai asked was zhaogao, the teacher who was “obscenity and theft”, and zhaogaozheng was afraid that the world would not be chaotic. The ignorant Hu Hai asked him, just right.
Zhao Gao highly praised Hu Hai’s idea that a virtuous master could achieve, but a foolish king could not achieve. He also came up with a sinister idea that only after killing all his brothers could he have fun without worry. Zhao Gao easily persuaded Hu Hai with his three inch eloquence, so Hu Hai changed the law with the help of Zhao Gao, and deliberately let the ministers and princes commit crimes. Once he was guilty, he let Zhao Gao punish him. Hu Hai killed all his brothers and sisters in two batches. For the first time, he beheaded his twelve brothers in the market of Xianyang. Ten princesses were chopped into meat in Du county. Countless people sat next to each other; For the second time, six brothers and ten sisters were crushed to death in du you (now Xianyang East, Shaanxi). The execution ground was terrible. Jiang Lu and other three men were also Hu Hai’s brothers and were forced to commit suicide.
extort excessive taxes and levies. His cruelty was also manifested in the heavy collection of taxes, the vigorous promotion of corvee and extravagance. This is the practice of the first emperor of Qin. At that time, there were 700000 conscripts for the construction of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin. Hu Hai returned from his tour. After the basic completion of the mausoleum, he did not sympathize with the suffering of the people. Then, in order to satisfy his own entertainment, he made a large number of corvees to continue the construction of Afang palace, Zhidao and chidao (ancient highways). At the same time, he also sent troops to conquer the four barbarians to show that his command ability was as high as that of the first emperor of Qin. He chose 50000 strong soldiers to garrison in Xianyang and taught them to ride horses and shoot arrows for their hunting needs. At this time, there were so many people gathered in Xianyang that food could not meet their needs. Hu Hai did not want to affect his extravagance, so he ordered the surrounding counties and counties to deliver food and grass to Xianyang. These people who had to deal with the errands not only did not have public funds to eat and drink, but also had to bear their own dry food, It is also forbidden to take food within 300 li of Xianyang (Liu Bang, as a “commanding” Pavilion leader, once sent a conscription husband to Xianyang. All the small officials in the county wanted to raise money for him to use on the road. Xiao He always gave him twice as much; without this money, I am afraid Liu Bang would beg on the road).
In the Qin Dynasty, the corvee was extremely heavy, and there were many kinds of exorbitant taxes, such as poll tax. Only the land tax was “more than half of the Thai tax”. In addition, there were additional taxes on the three stones of forage grass and the two stones of straw; Adult peasants have to perform military service for one year in their lifetime, and the period of service is also very long, from the age of 17 to 60, which is called “regular death”; It is also called “garrison troops” to garrison the border for one year; Every year, I have to work for the counties for one month. Other kinds of temporary exorbitant taxes and levies are also numerous, which are too poor to cope with. Once these corvees were out of time, they would be executed, and the people would cry bitterly.
severe law. Among the seven heroes of the Warring States period, the laws of the state of Qin were the most “strict”, “complicated” and “cool”. Even Shang Yang, the initiator of the reform, suffered and died of a “car crack”. Qin has so many laws and regulations and so many cool laws that it is difficult for other countries to catch up with them. Qinshihuang admired Legalists very much. He once said after seeing an article by Hans Feizi, a fellow disciple of Lisi (who was later wrongly killed because of the jealousy of Lisi), that if he could travel with him and die without regret, it could be seen that Lisi was extremely worshipped. Lisi was also favored by him because he was a legalist figure.
It is unbelievable that there are so many laws and decrees of Qin Dynasty. According to the “cloud dream Qin Bamboo Slips” unearthed in Hubei, there are 29 kinds of laws and decrees, covering a wide range of society, and this is only a small part. Some of the regulations are even trivial. For example, there is a regulation in the law of stables and gardens that cows should be evaluated and compared in April, July, October and the first month of each year. If they are well raised, they will be rewarded with a pot of wine and ten pieces of dried meat, and they will be exempted from one more servitude of cattle; Those who are badly Fed will not only be reprimanded, but will also be fined two months’ service for feeding cattle. If cattle are used for farming and their waistlines are reduced by an inch, the cultivator must be whipped ten times. There are many of these.
Qin’s laws are so cool that people can’t bear to see them. There are only a dozen kinds of death penalty, such as beheading, killing, car cracking, owl leaders, abandoning the city, giving death to the barbarians, and so on. “Shenyi” and “LianZuo” are two kinds of laws and regulations with very severe punishments, and many families have been destroyed. When Hu Hai came to power, Lisi put forward the technique of “supervising responsibility” to Hu Hai in order to avoid disaster. He criticized the benevolent and righteous Yao and Yu for not carrying out “supervision and responsibility” because they regarded the world as their own “shackles” and could not do what they wanted. He believed that the implementation of “supervision and responsibility” could allow the emperor to make arbitrary decisions. Ministers did not dare to do evil. The common people were busy correcting their mistakes. How could they have time to plot rebellion? In this way, the world will naturally be peaceful, and the king can do whatever he wants. As everyone knows, it was this evil policy that created a grave digger for Qin – Liu Bang. He was originally a leader in the system, because he took his slave apprentices to Lishan, and they fled one after another. Seeing that he could not complete his task, Liu Bang simply let them go, and went to work as a promising “thief” career.
At the suggestion of Lisi, Hu Hai, who was overjoyed by the idea of aiding the tyrant, was indeed “more strict in supervising and punishing the people”. Whoever punished the people more severely was a good official. “Whoever kills people is a loyal minister.”. At that time, half of the people on the road were tortured, and the people who were executed piled up in the city. Hu Hai said happily, “if this is the case, it will be able to supervise.” Huan Kuan wrote in his treatise on salt and iron that “Zhao Gao condemned the people inside with a strict law, and all officials cut off the people outside with a steep law. The dead lay on their backs, the torturers looked at each other, and the people looked at each other with eyes and feet, trembling.” A reign of terror.
It was under this boundless burden and cool law that the public opinion all over the world was that “the world has been suffering from Qin for a long time”, so officials forced the people to rebel, “the garrison soldiers called, the valley was raised, the Chu people torched, and the scorched earth was pitied”. In the first year of Qin II’s accession to the throne, Chen Sheng Wu’s broad uprising broke out. Encouraged by Chen Sheng’s “better to be a kind of king, marquis and general”, the poor once formidable Qin Empire “went up to the sky with a row of egrets” in the blink of an eye.
Crowning with monkeys: Wild Hu Hai
Archimedes said, “give me a fulcrum, and I will pry up the whole earth.” For Hu Hai, he would say, “give me an emperor and I will squander the whole country.”
Hu Hai and Qinshihuang were two extremes: Hu Hai only cared about his own pleasure, while Qinshihuang swallowed the world; Hu Hai was confused by Zhao Gao, and the first emperor of Qin ordered his subordinates to do their best; Qinshihuang was diligent in his administration. He read more than 120 kilograms of bamboo slips every day, and Hu Hai was a “playboy”; There are many controversies about the merits and demerits of Qin Shihuang’s life, but there are no controversies about Hu Hai, because he is a completely ignorant ruler.
In the history books, Hu Hai’s deeds are not many. What remains are mostly records of Hu Hai playing with acrobats and harem beauties. As soon as Hu Hai came to power, he asked Zhao Gao to discuss how to “entertain to death”, which is the embodiment of his “entertainment to the end”. In addition to talking with Zhao Gao, he also asked Lisi once.
Declaration of debauchery. When the rebel army had reached Hongmen, Lisi saw that the situation was critical and wanted to find opportunities to advise him many times, but Hu Hai did not know what was right or wrong, “Han Feizi” was scolded He said that when Yao was emperor, he lived in a small inn. The rafters were made of wood and leather; His food, clothing, housing and transportation were inferior to those of the doorman; Dayu worked for many years. He had no white meat on his thighs, his legs were polished, and his hands and feet were covered with thick cocoons. His face was black, and he died outside. Even a servant could not achieve such labor. Is this what people are trying to do to be the son of heaven? A wise king should let the world satisfy his desires. Only in this way can he show the dignity of an emperor. If he is not doing well himself, how can he be expected to govern the country well? I just want to do what I want and enjoy the world for a long time without being disturbed by others. What do you think you will do? ” He also said without shame: “I am honored as Wancheng, but I have no truth. I want to build a thousand Chengchi car and follow the 10000 Chengchi entourage to prove my name.” (Hu Hai’s childish thinking is just like the joke: one is “one”, so “ten thousand” is the overlap of tenthousand “ones”, which can be laughed at or cried bitterly.)
It turned out that Hu Hai’s philosophy of life was that “you must enjoy life as much as you can, and do not make the golden cup empty to the moon.” His words are his “Declaration of life”, and they are also an accusation against LISS, who intervened in his enjoyment: don’t gossip about me any more, or I’ll be rude. Lisi was so scared that in order to protect himself, he had to ask Qu Yi for forgiveness by means of strict “supervision” and said that “the Yan family has no special prisoners” (there are good people under the Yellow wattle).
Cruise the country. When Hu Hai first came to power, he felt that he was young and had no prestige. He wanted to learn from the first emperor of Qin to cruise around the world and subdue the sea. So in the spring of the year he ascended the throne, he took a large number of people to “travel with public funds”. This time, they reached Jieshi in the East, then went south along the coast, reached Kuaiji mountain, and returned to Liaodong. He engraved the names of the ministers he followed on every stone carved by Qinshihuang to record his achievements. Hu Hai followed his example, but unexpectedly, he was a dog like a tiger. When the people all over the world were crying for food, these laborious actions undoubtedly added a straw to the camel that had reached the limit of the great Qin Empire.
deceive oneself and others. Shusuntong, a native of Xue County, was a doctor waiting for imperial edict in the Qin Dynasty. A few years later, Chen Sheng’s uprising shook the world. When Hu Hai heard of this, he summoned all the scholars to ask, “the garrison troops of Chu have already attacked Qi and entered Chen. What do you think we should do?” There are more than 30 doctoral students, who said: “I can’t make a disturbance. To make a disturbance is to rebel. There is no amnesty for death. May your majesty send troops to attack it.” Hu Hai was so angry that he could not hear the word “anti”. However, shusuntong said that what all the people said was wrong: “the Ming Lord is above, the decree is issued below, all the officials are dutiful, and all the four sides are interested in the imperial court. There are no rebels! They are just petty thieves sneaking around. Why bother? The prefectural guards have been arrested and killed. Why worry?” Hu Hai, who was extremely fatuous, was very happy to hear this and ordered that all those who said “anti” should be sent to prison and those who said “theft” should be dismissed. He also gave shusuntong 20 pieces of silk, dressed in clothes and worshiped him as a doctor. When shusuntong returned to the school, the students scolded him: “what are you talking about?” But shusuntong said, “I don’t know. I can hardly avoid tiger mouth!” Ironically, Shu Suntong, who flattered him to his face, immediately fled back to Xue County, which had already fallen to Chu.
Kill the admonisher. Facing the increasingly serious situation, the right Prime Minister fengquji, the left Prime Minister Lisi (the Qin Dynasty regards the left as the most important), and the general Fengjie (Feng qujizi) collectively advised: “the bandits in the eastern part of the Shaanxi Province rose up together, and Qin sent troops to kill many people, but there were still many deaths. The reason why there were so many robbers was that the Xu Cao Zhuan worked hard and there were too many taxes. Please suspend the construction of the a Fang palace and reduce the number of garrisons around the province.” Hu Hai was so angry that he said, “in the two years since I took the throne, a group of thieves have risen together. You can’t stop them, but you want to stop what the previous emperor did. There is no way to repay the previous emperor. Why not be loyal to me next time?” Send fengquji, Lisi and Feng Jie to prison for questioning. Fengquji and Fengjie did not want to be humiliated, so they committed suicide, and Lisi was soon killed in vain.
Hu Hai is such a person who pursues pleasure all his life. If he only enjoys pleasure as a prince, it will only harm himself. If he enjoys pleasure as an emperor, it will harm the whole country.
Death is not a pity: the death of Hu Hai
If God wants it to perish, he must first make it crazy. Hu Hai played his life crazily all the time, hoping to die without regret. However, historical sinners who are angry with heaven and resentful towards others often backfire.
Hu Hai was red in zhaogao’s hands and killed by him. In fact, the idiom “success is also Xiaohe, failure is also Xiaohe” should be changed to “success is also zhaogao, failure is also zhaogao”.
All the rebel forces are singing triumphantly and making rapid progress towards the capital Xianyang. Liu Bang, one of them, has led tens of thousands of people into Wuguan and sent people to connect Zhao Gao. Zhao Gao was afraid that Hu Hai would blame him, so he called himself ill. At this time, the capital gate collapsed for no reason, and everyone talked about it. Hu Hai also had a strange dream.
A dream tiger eats a horse. After Zhao Gao pointed out that deer was a horse, Hu Hai was surprised. He thought he was insane. He summoned the diviner Taibu himself. Taibu replied, “that’s why you didn’t fast seriously.” So Hu Hai went to Shanglinyuan to fast. During his fast, he still wandered and killed a passer-by. At this time, Zhao Gao deliberately sent his son-in-law Xianyang to order Yan le to tell Hu Hai that he did not know who shot him, and moved the body to Shanglinyuan. When everything was arranged properly, he went to see Hu Hai and said, “the son of heaven killed innocent people for no reason, which is not allowed by God. The heaven will bring disaster, so we should stay away from the palace.” Hu Hai did not doubt that he was there, so he went out to live in Wangyi palace. Who knows, this is a conspiracy!
One day, Hu Hai dreamed that a white tiger had killed the horse on the left side of his carriage. He woke up unhappy and asked Zhanmeng. After divining, the dreamer said, “the God of Jingshui is making trouble.” Hu Hai fasted in Wangyi palace and sank four white horses into the river. At this time, Hu Hai finally knew that the event was bad, and sent envoys to accuse Zhao Gao about the thieves. Zhao Gao was so scared that he quietly conspired with Yan le and his brother Zhaocheng to exchange lirenjian’s son. Zhaogao’s cleverness was mistaken by his cleverness. In fact, the foolish Hu Hai had the best control. Later, facts proved that he was wishful thinking about setting up a childe. The carpenter made a yoke and suffered for himself.
The death of Hu Hai. Three days later, Zhao Gao, with the doctor’s order as his agent, rushed into the Wangyi palace with some soldiers originally belonging to Hu Hai wearing plain clothes and holding weapons. But Zhao Gao sued Hu Hai and said, “a large number of robbers from Shandong have arrived!” Hu Hai climbed to a high place and looked at it. He was very scared.
Zhao Gao seized Yan Le’s mother, his in laws, and put them as hostages in his own house. He sent Yan le with more than a thousand people to the gate of Wangyi palace, tied up the guard’s orders, and said, “the thief has entered the palace. Why don’t you stop him?” The guard was shocked and said: “the surrounding defense is tight, so the thieves dare to enter the palace?” Yan Le couldn’t tell the difference, so he cut off the guard order, rushed in with people, and shot as he walked. The Lang officials inside were shocked, walking or fighting, and dozens of combatants were killed. As soon as Yan Le entered the hall, he shot at Hu Hai’s sitting curtain.
Hu Hai was so angry that he hurriedly called the left and right sides. Both sides were afraid to go out. There was only one eunuch next to him who dared not leave. Hu Hai fled into the room and said, “why didn’t you sue me earlier? Even here!” The eunuch said, “I dare not say anything, so I will be saved. If I had said something earlier, I would have killed them all, and I would still be safe.”
Yan Le captured Hu Hai alive and accused him of saying, “I am arrogant and reckless. The world is rebellious. I will tell you what to do.” Hu Hai begged, “can you see the prime minister?” Yan Le said proudly, “no!”
Hu Hai, who did not know the world, said, “I would like to give up the throne and have a county as king. Is that ok?” Yan Le said, “no!” Hu Hai said, “then I would like to be a marquis.” Yan Le is not allowed. Hu Hai had no choice but to plead and said, “I wish to be a common people with my wife, just like my other brothers. Should this be ok?” Yan Le said angrily, “I was ordered by the prime minister to kill you for the people in the world today. Why are you talking so much nonsense?” In desperation, the second Hu Hai only committed suicide to thank the world, and was buried in Du County as a civilian.
Zhao Gao took the jade seal and wore it, but none of the left and right officials followed; When Zhao Gao went to the hall, his throne was shaking. Zhao Gao knew that heaven would not accept him, and the ministers did not agree, so he finally decided to take the throne with his son and baby.
Zhao Gao was treacherous all his life, and finally he died of conspiracy. He abolished the emperor’s title and demoted Prince Qin to accept the jade seal in the ancestral temple of the first emperor of Qin after fasting. Ziying knew that he was sinister. After discussing with his two sons, he said, “Zhao Gao killed emperor II. He made me king because he was afraid that his ministers would kill him. I also heard that Zhao Gao had an appointment with the Chu army. After the Qin Dynasty was destroyed, he became king in the central Shaanxi plain.” So he refused to go. Zhao Gao sent people to invite him many times, but Ziying refused. Zhao Gao had to invite him in person. The quilt baby was killed in the Zhai palace, and his three families were exterminated. He took his body to the streets in Xianyang city for public display.
The ancestral temple was destroyed. The Qin Empire was powerless. Ziying was king of Qin for only 46 days, so he was forced to put a rope around his neck, ride a white horse and ride a white horse and surrender to Liu Bang. The Qin Empire, which was once a glorious empire in history, vanished so quickly; A month later, Ziying and all the clans were killed by Xiangyu. The once glorious Xianyang was also bloodied and the palace was set ablaze.