Eternal injustice: the mystery of Shu general Wei Yan’s betrayal of Shu

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1? Foreword

Wei Yan, a famous general of Shu, is one of the controversial figures in the history of the Three Kingdoms. Some people say that he was the most important general in the later period of Shu Han Dynasty, which was different from other generals in ordinary days because of his “noble nature”; During the northern expeditions, Zhugeliang, who had been cautious all his life, forbade him to “follow the light every time and invite thousands of soldiers to join the light at Tongguan, such as the story of Han Xin”. In the autumn of the 12th year of Jianxing (AD 234), after Zhugeliang died of illness in wuzhangyuan, he was falsely accused of betraying Shu and was chased down by Ma Dai, the Minister of Yang Yi, because he competed with Prime Minister Yang Yi for the supreme military command of Shu and was deeply regretted and wronged by later generations. For example, Mr. Mao heting said in the diary of guilt Zhai: reading the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the annals of Shu:

“Wei Yan’s rebellion was also unjustified. He was too conceited and hated his own talents. Therefore, after his death, Zhuge said:” although the prime minister died, I saw that he was there. The relatives of the government (below the long history) can return the funeral. I should lead the troops to attack the thieves. Why should one man die and destroy the world? And who Wei Yan should be the leader (constraint) of Yang Yi After the end of the war! “. Gai wanted to send a walker to protect the prime minister’s bereavement and stay in Weinan to duel with Sima. His talent is inferior to that of Zhuge, and his heart to revive the Han Dynasty is the same as that of Zhuge. However, Yang Yisu and Yan Ping did not want to go down, so he led the camps to pay back. Yan was so angry that he first returned to the South and burned the plank road, so that Yi could not return. This is to show off one day’s anger and forget the great events of the monarchy. At the end of Yan Chuan, Chen Shou said: “originally Yan intended to return to the South instead of the north to Wei, but wanted to kill Yi, etc. In ordinary days, all generals have different elements, so the theory of Jishi must be replaced by Liang. This means that if you are inconvenient, you will betray. ” I got it. There are few talented people in Sichuan, and the Great Wall is self defeating. It is better to eat the meat of the instrument! ”

Some people also say that “Wei yannao has a bone turning point, and will turn against him in the long run”. He has repeatedly sold himself for glory, which was not tolerated by Zhu Ge, the prime minister who “worked hard and died” and designed to get rid of him after his death. This kind of statement is common in the romance of the Three Kingdoms, which is widely spread. However, the romance of the Three Kingdoms is, after all, a novelist’s statement, and most people believe that it is only seven parts of historical facts and three parts of fiction. Moreover, Wei Yan in the history book “the annals of the Three Kingdoms” could not see his intention to rebel against the Shu Han, just as the annals of the Three Kingdoms • Shu Shu • biography of Wei Yan said:

“The original intention was not to surrender to the Wei Dynasty in the north but to return to the south, but to kill the instrument. The generals are different in daily life, and the theory of Ji must be replaced by Liang. This means that it is inconvenient to betray.”

Know people and discuss the world, and learn from them. Wei Yan was wrong, but he did not turn his back on his character. After thousands of years, his words were filled with regret and in vain. According to the historical records, he was loyal and righteous, brave and resourceful, and had no sign of betraying Shu. However, Wei Yan’s unruly character and arrogant and rude temper led him to be falsely accused of rebellion at the critical moment, and he was eventually killed. Just as it is said in the praise of officials in the Han Dynasty written by Yang, a Shu native:

“The literary style is strong and rough. In the face of adversity, he was ordered to defend the country. He did not reconcile with the enemy, forgot to talk about chaos, and regretted the beginning at the end of the disease. In fact, he was only a syncope.”

Therefore, we say that Wei Yan’s temper is extreme, but politically he is absolutely loyal to the Shu Han regime and has no trace of betraying Shu. The only problem is that his personality is “discord”, which leads to his death. Now we will discuss Wei Yan’s so-called “treason to Shu” in depth.

2? His loyalty is evidenced by his Han Dynasty

Wei Yan, the general of Shu, was one of the most admired and valued generals of the former leader Liu Bei, and was also one of the first group of meritorious ministers who followed Liu Bei to Yizhou and determined Bashu. The annals of the Three Kingdoms – Shu Shu Shu – Wei Yan Zhuan says, “Wei Yan has a long character and is a member of Yiyang people. He entered Shu with his former master in a series of songs and made great contributions in several wars. He moved to yamen general.” It can be seen that in the war of Liu Bei’s taking Yizhou to the west, Wei Yan made great achievements in many battles. Starting from the grass-roots level of the army, he climbed up step by step, so that he finally fully gained the trust of his predecessor and entrusted him with the important task of guarding Hanzhong. The annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and Wei yanzhuan say:

“The former Lord was the king of Hanzhong, who moved to Chengdu to rule the city. He should be the most important general to control Hanchuan. Many people think that he must be in zhangfei. Fei also allows himself with his heart. The former Lord and Bo Yan were the general who supervised Zhenyuan in Hanzhong and led the imperial guards in Hanzhong. The army was shocked.”

At that time, Hanzhong was the most forward position of Shu. Winning Hanzhong could not only compete for Guanlong in the north, but also cover Bashu in the south. Just as Yang Hong said to Zhugeliang, “Hanzhong will benefit China’s throat, and there will be no chance of survival or death. If there is no Hanzhong, there will be no Shu, and this family will suffer.” (Annals of the Three Kingdoms · Shu Shu · biography of Yang Hong). Huang Quan, a general of Shu, also said, “if you lose Hanzhong, the three Ba will not recover. This is the way to cut the arm of Shu.” (Annals of the Three Kingdoms • Shu Shu • biography of Huang Quan). Guzuyu, a native of the Qing Dynasty, said, “Hanzhong Prefecture overlooks Guanzhong in the north, covers Bashu in the south, reaches xiangdeng in the East and controls Qinlong in the West. The situation is the most serious.” (guzuyu: summary of Fang Yu’s reading history, Volume 56). If Cao Wei occupied Hanzhong, it would seriously threaten Bashu. At that time, there were all five tiger generals in Shuhan, including Guan Yunchang, a “peerless and uninhabited” general, Zhang Yide, a “majestic and powerful” general, mamengqi, a “scholar and martial artist, and a” powerful and powerful “general, Huang Hansheng, a” strong and healthy “general, and zhaozilong, a” smart and brave “general. However, the former Lord entrusted Wei Yan with the important task of guarding the safety of Yizhou, which shows that he knows people well and has absolute trust in Wei Yan. Therefore, at the occasion of the general assembly, I would like to ask, “why do you want to live in the cloud when you appoint your secretary to take an important task?” Wei Yan was so angry that he said to the clouds, “if Cao Cao comes from all over the world, please refuse him for the king. If he comes from hundreds of thousands of people, please swallow them for the king.” “The former Lord was called good, and all the powers strengthened his words.” It can be seen that he is both loyal and righteous, and is brave and resourceful. But Wei Yan did not disappoint. During his 15 years of guarding Hanzhong, Cao Wei crossed Hanzhong half a step from the end. Until the later period of Shu Han, Jiang Wei adjusted his military deployment and used the technique of luring the enemy in depth. Finally, Zhong Hui, a general of Wei, drove him straight in, resulting in the direct destruction of Shu Han, which was deeply regretted by later generations. For example, Guo yundao said in Shu Jian:

“The gateway of Shu is just Hanzhong. Jiang Wei retreated from his Garrison in Hanshou and withdrew from Hanzhong’s preparation. But he was the first to take risks and take chances. The chairman of the different clock drove straight in. No one had ever defended him, and the enemy was happy to succeed. It was not necessary for Deng Aizhi to leave Jiangyou at the beginning, but Shu was no longer supported and could be seen without the help of the wise men. Alas, Jiang Wei’s death in Shu also.”

From this point of view, in the late stage of the demise of Shu, if Prime Minister Zhuge ordered Wei Yan to “attack and defend” the army in Hanzhong and move north into the Central Plains, the state of Wei would not be able to surpass the thunder pool and the regime of Shu and Han would not perish in a very short time, but history can not be assumed. On the other hand, jiangboyou, the successor of Zhuge’s will, was “loyal to current affairs, considerate and precise” and “sensitive to military affairs, both courageous and righteous, and deep understanding of military intentions”, However, he was embarrassed and burdened by his lack of talent and learning. Just as Chen Shou commented in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and Jiang Wei’s biography, “Jiang Wei was a man of letters and martial arts. He aspired to fame, but he played with the masses and made bad decisions, which eventually led to his death. Lao Tzu said, ‘he who rules a great country still cooks a little fresh food.’ what a nuisance to him because he is so small?”. The level of Wei Yan’s and Jiang Wei’s military talents is clear at a glance. It can be seen that Zhugeliang also had a time when he knew people unwisely and trusted them to be inhuman.

3? His courage is evident in his repeated meritorious service

During the military operations in the later period of Shu and Han Dynasties, Wei Yan accompanied Zhugeliang in the northern expedition to the Central Plains for many times, and made many military achievements. He was granted the title of former military division by the empress, enlisted the great general of the west, and led the prefect of central Han and the Marquis of Southern Zheng during the holiday. Zhugeliang, who was second only to the prime minister, who recorded books and held a false Festival, led the school captain of Sili, the herdsman of Yizhou and the Marquis of Wuxiang, and became one of the most important generals in the late Shu Han Dynasty.

In the 8th year of Jianxing of Shu Han (AD 230), Wei Yan led his troops, “entering the Qiang in the west, general Fei Yao, the empress General of Wei, Guo Huai, the governor of Yongzhou, fought with Yan in Yangxi, and Yan Da broke the Huai River” (Annals of the Three Kingdoms · Shu Shu Shu · Wei Yan Chuan). This campaign was led by Wei Yan alone. Guo Huai, the opponent of Wei, was a famous general of Cao Wei in the west of the Shaanxi plain. The annals of the Three Kingdoms claimed that he had “detailed strategies and asked Qin Yong”. Guo Huai once defeated Ma Su and Gao Xiang in Jieting and “defeated Liao Hua and captured Ju an” (Biography of Guo Huai in the annals of the Three Kingdoms). Even Zhugeliang was afraid of him for his profound knowledge of military skills and clever calculations. For example, in the second year of Qinglong, Zhugeliang sent troops out of xiegu and stationed his troops in lankeng, waiting for the opportunity to attack the Central Plains again. At that time, King Sima Xuan stationed troops in Weinan to guard against the Shu army. “The Huaihe River and the Liang river will fight for the northern plains. It is appropriate to base on it first, and most people who argue about it say otherwise.”, However, Sima Yi adopted his suggestion and immediately asked him to lead his troops to garrison Beiyuan. “When the cutting base is not completed, the Shu army is large enough to attack it.”. After a while, “Liang Sheng’s troops marched westward, and all the generals said that they wanted to attack the Western encirclement, so they must see it in the West alone. If they wanted to make the officers and soldiers respond to it again, they would attack Yang Sui. They were prepared to attack Yang Sui at night Wei Yan was able to defeat a famous general of Wei like Guo Huai. This shows that he has the ability to fight alone and can be a great leader. Later, during Zhugeliang’s several northern expeditions, Wei Yan also destroyed cities and villages for many times and made many war achievements. The biography of Zhugeliang in the annals of the Three Kingdoms notes and quotes the spring and Autumn Annals of the Han, Jin Dynasties: “King Xuan (referring to Sima Yi) turned to liang from the middle of the case, and Liang sent Wei Yan, Gao Xiang and Wu ban to refuse. He broke the case and won the first 3000 classes of armor, 5000 collars of Xuan armor and 3100 crossbows. King Xuan returned to the camp.”

In this way, Wei Yan, a general of Shu, is brave, good at fighting, invincible, and has a strong sense of Han Dynasty. He is also a strong general of Shu. However, in the late period of the Shu Han Dynasty, when general Guan Zhang and other five tiger generals passed away successively, Zhugeliang refused to be as magnanimous as his predecessor Liu Bei and entrusted him with important tasks. It is a pity.

4? The plan of midnight and noon shows his plan

During the first Northern Expedition in the fifth year of Jianxing (AD 227), Weiyan proposed to Zhugeliang the plan of “sending troops out of the meridian Valley”, and then proposed it many times, but Zhugeliang did not adopt it. Peisongzhi’s annotation in the annals of the Three Kingdoms quoted Wei Lue as follows:

?? “Marquis Xia is a general of Anxi, and the town of Chang’an is better than that of Nanzheng and the people. Yan said:” I heard that there are fewer Marquis Xia, and the Lord’s son-in-law is also timid and schemless. Today, I leave 5000 elite soldiers and 5000 grain. I go straight out of praise, east along the Qinling Mountains, and North at noon. I can only reach Chang’an in ten days. When he hears that Yan is dying, he will escape by boat. In Chang’an, only the censor, Jingzhao taishou’er, and the Hengmen palace and the valley of scattered people have enough food. It is still 20 days before I get together in the East On the morrow, when the Duke comes from the valley, he will be able to reach it. In this way, it will be settled in one fell swoop to the west of Xianyang. ” Since the county is in danger, it’s better to follow the Frank road in an safe way. You can take Longyou in an even way. There is no need to postpone the plan because there is no danger of the perfect situation. ”

However, is the military strategy proposed by Wei Yan to send troops out at noon and surprise attack Chang’an feasible? Scholars have been arguing about this for a long time, which leads to a historical case. The following will briefly elaborate on this to distinguish its merits.

First of all, Zhugeliang was a great statesman, but not an outstanding military strategist. This has long been the conclusion of ancient times. For example, Chen Shou said in his post commentary on the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu, biography of Zhugeliang:

“Zhugeliang is also a prime minister. He comforts the people, shows the rituals, appoints officials, follows the power system, is open-minded, and preaches justice. Those who are loyal to the interests of the times will be rewarded for their hatred, and those who break the law and neglect will be punished by their relatives…. he is a good judge of knowledge and governance. He is a good manager of politics. However, he has attracted the public for years and failed to succeed. He is not good at changing his mind. He is not good at it!”

The comments on Zhugeliang are true to the point. We know that governing a country is quite different from fighting a war. The way of governing a country is to be able to follow the right path of “showing good manners, appointing officials, following the power system, being open-minded and imparting justice”. However, the military action of “strategizing and winning thousands of miles away” determines the victory or defeat of the war. The key is the commander’s changeable strategy and endless wisdom. Therefore, sun Ziyun said, “a soldier is a crafty man!”, “Those who are good at producing strange soldiers are as infinite as heaven and earth and as inexhaustible as rivers.”. In ancient times, those who were good at using troops mostly followed the military principle of combining the odd and the right, and combining the virtual and the real. However, Zhugeliang’s military strategy of attacking Wei Dynasty showed that he only knew how to “take the right place in Longyou” from the “peaceful way” and could not see the surprise attack on Chang’an at noon. Therefore, he stuck to the right path, fought a war of attrition with the powerful state of Wei in the Qishan area of Hanzhong, and eventually led to the death of the country. He really did not know the opportunity to use troops!

Secondly, under the situation that Wei was strong and Shu was weak at that time, Shu had no other way to survive and defeat the powerful Wei except by surprise. The key to “surprise victory” lies in choosing the attack opportunity and grasping the attack object, so as to achieve the goal of “winning with one move”. If we make a detailed analysis, we will find that the conditions and situation for the first northern expedition have been met. First, the choice of attack time. After the death of Tuogu, the leader of Shu, Liubei, and Baidi City, most people in the state of Wei believed that Shu was unable to attack the state of Wei, so the border defense was lax and the soldiers were lazy. Therefore, the notes in the annals of the Three Kingdoms · biography of Zhugeliang quote Wei Lue as follows:

“At the beginning, Liu Bei was the only one in the state (referring to the Cao Wei Dynasty) in Shu. After Bei died, he was silent for several years, so he had little preparation. When he died, the government and the public were scared, especially in Longyou and Qishan. Therefore, the three prefectures should be lit at the same time.”

Therefore, the first northern expedition was quite sudden and concealed, and it was the best time to attack. Second, grasp the target of attack. At that time, Cao Cao’s son-in-law XiahouDun, who led the army to guard Chang’an, was the son of XiahouDun, a famous general of the Wei Dynasty. Cao Cao Cao married Princess Qinghe. “Emperor Wen seldom got close to him, and ascended the throne. He thought that Anxi was a general. He maintained integrity and was the governor of Guanzhong. He had no martial arts skills and was good at governing life. In the west, he had many concubines, so the princess was at odds with him.” It can be seen that xiahouhe only knew how to save concubines and amass money. By virtue of the nepotism of “master son-in-law”, he was the governor of Guanzhong. He was a typical young man and a figure in the Yamen. For such an ignorant and unskilled young man, if he goes out at noon and raids Chang’an, it can be decided by the first battle. But it was precisely because of Zhugeliang’s caution that he missed the best opportunity to raid Chang’an and revive the Han Dynasty. Every time he came here to read history, he would not feel sorry for it!

Moreover, the military plan of sending troops out at noon and raiding Chang’an is indeed feasible. Although the road of midnight noon is rugged and difficult to walk, it can be walked. Among them, the annals of the Three Kingdoms has mentioned it many times, such as the biography of Zhang Lu: “tens of thousands of people from Guanxi ran from the midnight noon valley.” “True biography of Cao”: “true to Changan in August, from the Meridian Road to the south “Biography of Zhong Hui”: “Premier Wei Xing, Liu Qin, is interested in the Ziwu Valley, and the armies are parallel”. It can be seen that Ziwu valley was a familiar and dangerous path at that time, but it should not be a steep and difficult path compared with the Yinping path that Wei general Deng AI secretly crossed. The annals of the Three Kingdoms, the book of Wei and the biography of Deng AI said:

“AI has traveled more than 700 miles from Yinping road to an uninhabited place. He has built bridges and pavilions. The mountains are high and the valleys are deep. It is extremely difficult and dangerous, and the grain transport will be in short supply, often in danger.”, “All the officers and men climb the wooden edge cliff, and the fish run through it.”

Although they are both dangerous ways, they vary from person to person and have different achievements. Deng AI, a general of Wei, was well versed in the art of war and knew the skills of Qi and Zheng. He used Zhong Hui, a general of Wei, to win by surprise when the sword pavilion was in a stalemate with Jiang Wei. He decided to fight against Shu by sneaking across the dark and peaceful path. However, Zhugeliang stuck to the right path, fought against the powerful state of Wei in the Qishan mountains of Hanzhong, and finally died. It can be said that he went back to the same path. This also proves that Wei Yan’s plan of sending troops out of the noon and raiding Chang’an is the most brilliant and practical military plan.

5? The dispute over Yan Yi shows his injustice

The contradiction between Wei Yan, the general of Shu, and Yang Yi, the chief minister of the prime minister’s office, has a long history. For example, in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and biography of Fei Chan, it is said that “Wei Yan, a military officer on duty, and Yang Yi, a long history, hate each other. Every time they sit together and argue, they either hold their swords or imitate the instrument, and the instrument weeps and tears cross the room.” Most of the contradictions between the two men were caused by their different personalities. According to historical records, although Wei Yan was “good at raising soldiers and brave”, he was “tall in nature” and had a poor relationship with his colleagues. He was also rebellious and fierce, and everyone was afraid of him. But only long history Yang Yi refused to sell, and the two became bitter. When Zhugeliang was alive, because he “deeply cherished the talents of the instrument and relied on the bravery of Wei Yan, he often hated their grievances and could not bear to neglect them.”, Therefore, he often ordered Fei Xun, a member of the army, to mediate between them. Whenever the two pointed their swords at each other, “he often went into his sitting room to admonish him about their differences”, so as not to harm the public for personal reasons. Therefore, “when the world comes to an end, each person will extend and use the instrument to the best of his ability”, which is actually “the power of salvation”.

In the autumn of the 12th year of Jianxing (AD 234), after Zhugeliang died of illness in wuzhangyuan, the contradiction between Yan Yi became uncontrollable. The two fought for the supreme military command of the Shu army and the withdrawal and deployment of troops, leading to serious internal strife. The whole story is as follows: before Zhugeliang died, he held a military conference at the highest level. Whether it was arranged intentionally or unintentionally, Wei Yan, the second military commander after Zhugeliang at that time, was excluded. This was the fuse that directly led to the internal strife of Yan Yi, and also laid a deep disaster for Wei Yan’s disobedience to the withdrawal and deployment arranged by Zhugeliang. The annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and Wei yanzhuan states:

“In the autumn, when people were ill and sleepy, they worked closely with Chang Shi Yang Yi, Sima Feiyi, and Jiang Wei, the military escort, to spend their time in retreat after their death. After the delay, Jiang Wei took the second place. If the delay or failure to comply with the order, the army would be spontaneous.”

At that time, Wei Yan was a former military division and enlisted the western general. During the holiday, he led the prefecture governor of Hanzhong and the Marquis of Nanzheng, ranking second only to Zhugeliang, who was the prime minister to record books. During the holiday, he led the school captain of Sili, the herdsman of Yizhou and the Marquis of Wuxiang. It is reasonable to say that after Zhugeliang’s death, he was most qualified to succeed to the position of general. Wei Yan should be the commander of the whole army. However, Zhugeliang put aside Wei Yan’s secret discussions with Chang Shi Yang Yi, Sima Feifan and the guard Jiang Wei. This was obviously emotional and intentional.

After Zhugeliang’s death, Yang Yi “did not lose heart secretly”, but ordered Sima Feifan to explore Wei Yan’s style. Wei Yan said to Fei Fan:

“Although the prime minister is dead, I can see that he is here, and the officials can bury him again. I should lead the troops to attack the thieves. Why is it that one person’s death is evil to abolish the affairs of the world? And who in Wei Yan should be the leader of Yang Yi and the general after the death!”

This statement is both public and private, but the unwillingness to obey the withdrawal and deployment is already evident. Sima Feixuan falsely trusted the snake, and after making general arrangements with Wei Yan for evacuating and staying personnel, he tricked Wei Yan into saying: “when you return Yang Changshi, a long history of civil servants, and a rarer military, you will not violate your orders.” He took the opportunity to slip out of Wei Yan camp and galloped away. At the end of the day, Wei Yan found that he had been cheated and sent people to catch up with him. Wei Yan was so angry that he led his troops back to Hanzhong before Yang Yi, and ordered people to burn the plank road from Jiange to Chengdu to stop Yang Yi’s retreat. Yanyi wrote letters to each other one after another. Later, the LORD said that the other party was plotting against him. Later, the Lord refused to make a decision. He asked Dong Yun, the Chamberlain, shijiangwan, the governor of the residence, and so on. Yun, Wan and Xian both protected Yang Yi from suspicion. Later, the LORD sent the commander, Jiang Wan, to lead the troops of Su Wei to the north to meet Yang Yi. Wei Yanxian went to nangukou and led his troops away from Yang Yi’s army. He (Wang), the pioneer in front of Yang Yi, chided San Yan’s army. Wei Yan, his son and several others fled to Hanzhong. Yang Yi sent Ma Dai to chase and behead Wei Yan, causing him to turn his head in front of Yang Yi. Yang Yi trampled on Yan’s head with her feet and scolded, “Yong Nu! Can you do evil again?” And ordered the annihilation of the three families of Wei and Yan, which shows that they hate Wei and Yan deeply. Later, Yang Yi also had a bad end. After returning to Chengdu, Yi thought that she was ordered in the face of danger and had the merit of punishing Wei Yan. She was suitable to manage the government on behalf of Zhugeliang. However, Zhugeliang had already secretly expressed that Jiang Wan was the Prime Minister of the empress with his “narrow nature” all his life. Since then, Yang Yi has “expressed her resentment in sound and color, and sighed that the chapter of Zha was issued within the five kingdoms”. At that time, most people were at a distance with their uninhibited words, and only Sima Feifan offered more comfort. However, he was still outspoken and said to Fei Fan many times: “when the prime minister died, I would be surprised if I raised an army to serve the Wei family. I would rather live in the world. It is impossible to regret.” After playing a secret song on the horse, Fei Xun became the leader. In the 13th year of Jianxing, he demoted the instrument for the people and moved to Hanjia county. Later, Yang Yi wrote many times to slander the government, and his words were fierce, so she went down to the county to stop her. Finally, she committed suicide in prison.

By understanding the whole process of the dispute over Yan Yi, we believe that Wei Yan had no intention of betraying Shu from beginning to end. However, due to his rebellious character and proud and rude temper, he was falsely accused of rebellion at the critical moment and was eventually killed. As stated in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and Wei Yan Zhuan, “the original intention of Yan Yan was not to surrender to Wei in the north but to return to Wei in the south. However, he wanted to kill the instrument. The generals in ordinary times are different, and the theory of Ji must be replaced by Liang. This means that it is inconvenient to betray.” However, Prime Minister Zhuge fully trusted Yang Yi and entrusted him with important tasks after his death, but he wanted to rebel against the law and raise a large army to subdue Wei. It’s really difficult in the world!

6? Afterword

Through the analysis and Research on the theory of Shu general Wei Yan’s treason to Shu, it is shown that Wei Yan has a Han Dynasty in his heart, which shows his loyalty; His courage is evident in his repeated military exploits; The plan of midnight and noon shows his plan; The dispute over Yan Yi shows his injustice. As one of the most important generals in the late Shu Han Dynasty, it is a pity that he died and his family was destroyed because of his rebellious character and arrogant and rude temper!

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