Five Hegemons

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From 770 BC to 476 BC, it was called the spring and Autumn Period in history. During these 290 years, the society has been rocked by storms, which can be said to be the flames of war. According to the spring and Autumn Annals in the history of the Lu Dynasty alone, there were more than 480 military operations. Sima Qian said, “in the spring and Autumn period, there were countless people who killed 36 monarchs and 52 nations, and could not protect their country.” It is said that in the early spring and Autumn period, there were more than 140 vassal states. After years of annexation, only a few large ones remained. These big powers also attack each other and compete for hegemony. In history, the five princes who were called drowning successively were called “five bullies in the spring and Autumn Period”.

In history, there are two different versions of the “five hegemons of the spring and Autumn Period”: first, the “five hegemons” refer to Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Xiang of song, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke mu of Qin and King Zhuang of Chu; On the other hand, the “five hegemons” refer to Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, King Zhuang of Chu, King Helu of Wu and King Gou Jian of Yue.



Duke Huan of Qi

Duke Huan of Qi appointed Guan Zhong as the prime minister to promote the unification of the country. He was the first to become the overlord. Duke Huan of Qi ascended the throne in 685 BC. He made a series of reforms in politics and economy, which made Qi strong. As Duke Huan of Qi led his troops to repel the attacks of the Rong and di nationalities, and led the divisions of Qi, Lu, song and other eight countries to defeat CAI and invade Chu and prevent Chu troops from advancing northward, his prestige was greatly increased. In 651 B.C., he made an alliance with Yu Kuichen (now kaucheng, Henan Province), a vassal, and became the first overlord in the Central Plains.



Duke Wen of Jin (Ji Chonger)

Then, Duke Wen of Jin came to dominate. In 633 BC, Chu Chengyu led Chu, Zheng, Chen and other yuan armies to besiege Shangqiu, the capital of the state of song (now the south of Shangqiu County, Henan Province). The state of song sent people to the state of Jin for help. Duke Wen of Jin adopted the correct opinions of his subordinates. It won over Qi and Thailand to participate in the war and expanded its own strength. Later, it improved the relationship between Jin and Cao and Wei and isolated the state of Chu. At this time, the state of Chu ordered Yin (official name, equivalent to Prime Minister) Ziyu to be furious and attack the Jin army.

In order to avoid the sharp edge of the Chu army, Duke Wen of Jin ordered his troops to retreat 90 Li. In ancient times, when an army marched for thirty miles, it was called one house, and when it marched for ninety miles, it was called three houses. The Jin army “retreated three tongues” and retreated to Chengpu (today’s Biexian County, Shandong Province) of the state of Wei. Chengpu is relatively close to the state of Jin. It is very convenient to supply supplies, and it is also convenient to meet the Allied armies of Qi, Qin, song and other countries to concentrate their forces. In April 632 BC, the Jin and Chu armies began a decisive battle. The Jin army lured the enemy deep, and the Chu army fell into a siege and was wiped out. The battle of Chengpu created a famous example of military retreat before attack. After that, Duke Wen of Jin invited King Xiang of Zhou to meet with the princes in jiantu (now Guangwu, Henan). The emperor of Zhou granted Duke Wen of Jin the title of “Hou Bo” (the chief of the princes) and rewarded him with black and red bows, indicating that he was allowed to fight freely. Duke Wen of Jin became the overlord of the Central Plains.

During the reign of Qi, the state of Chu stopped moving northward due to the suppression of Qi, and instead annexed some small countries eastward, with a strong national strength. Qi Guohong fell behind, so Chu expanded northward to compete for hegemony with Jin. In 598 BC, the king of Chu Zhuang led his army to fight against the Jin army in Ying (now Zhengzhou, Henan Province) and defeated the Jin army. The Central Plains countries turned their backs to Chu. King Zhuang of Chu became the overlord of the Central Plains again.



King Zhuang of Chu (MI LV)

When Jin became a hegemon, the case states in the West also grew stronger. Duke mu of Qin attempted to seek hegemony in the Central Plains eastward, but because the eastward passage was blocked by Jin, he annexed more than a dozen small countries to the West and claimed hegemony in the area west of Hangu pass.



Qin Mugong (Ying Renhao)

After that, Wu and Vietnam became powerful and vied for hegemony in the southeast. In 494 BC, fuchai, king of Wu, attacked the state of Yue and besieged Gou Jian, king of Yue, in Kuaiji (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang), forcing the state of Yue to submit. Then he defeated Qi Jun. In 482 BC, he met with the princes in Huangchi (now near Fengqiu in Henan Province) and won hegemony. After being defeated by the state of Wu, Gou Jian, the king of Yue, was determined to take revenge. After decades of efforts, he turned weak into strong and destroyed the state of Wu. Taking advantage of the momentum, Gou Jian marched north and joined forces with princes of Qi, Jin and other dynasties in Xu (now knee County, Shandong), becoming the overlord.



Yue Zhuo (Si Goujian)

The great power struggle among the princes showed the weakening of the imperial power in the Zhou Dynasty. Since King Ping moved eastward to Luoyi (now Luoyang, Henan) in 770 BC, the royal family of Zhou Dynasty has declined even more. In the past, the emperor was in command of the princes, and “rites and music came from the emperor”. Now these powers are in the hands of the vassals. The “rites and music expedition” comes from the vassals, the “Zha Le expedition” comes from the doctors, and even the “accompanying officials to carry out national orders”. The new landlord class rose one after another to seize power. The slavery system in the Zhou Dynasty was in a situation of “bad rites and bad music”.


Zhuang Zi’s position

In the minds of intellectuals, the philosophy of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, especially Zhuang Zi, is the most suitable for the needs of creativity and the most suitable for the subtle part of their hearts. Between the strict rules of Confucianism and the severe abstinence of Buddhism, it provides a space for Chinese intellectuals to breathe freely. It is spontaneous, conforms to nature, and opposes man-made constraints. It has done its utmost in the process of preserving free “life”.

Zhuangzi is not only a great philosopher with distinctive characteristics in the history of Chinese philosophy, but also full of the temperament of a poet. In his works, he uses vivid, humorous and strange fables to explain his thoughts, which makes Zhuangzi’s thoughts and imagination have the integrity of water.

The structure of Zhuang Zi’s article is very peculiar. It doesn’t seem tight, but it often comes suddenly, doing what you want to do, stopping what you want to do, wantonly changing for no reason, sometimes it seems irrelevant, jumping and falling at will, but the thought can run through the line. The sentence patterns are also rich in changes, such as straight or reverse, long or short. They are more abundant in vocabulary, detailed in description, and often rhyme irregularly. They are very expressive and original.

Throughout his life, Chuang Tzu lived a poor and reclusive life. He inherited and carried forward Lao Tzu’s Taoist thought. He is an astonishing philosopher and a brilliant literary work. Once “Zhuang Zhou dreamed of butterflies”, he could not tell the difference between dreams and reality. He had a wonderful debate with his contemporaries, Keiko, about “An Zhi Yu Le”. It is said that when Zhuangzi’s wife passed away, he sang with drums. Chuang Tzu’s Fables have wild imagination, meticulous and subtle philosophy, vivid and exquisite, and freely.

Zhuangzi’s writing is unrestrained, the images are vigorous, the imagination is strange and rich, the sentiment is moist and broad-minded, which gives people a feeling of transcendence and sublimity. It is unique in the history of Chinese literature. His article system has been separated from the form of quotations, marking that the prose of the pre-Qin period has developed to a mature stage. It can be said that Zhuangzi represents the highest achievement of the prose of the pre-Qin period.

Zhuang Zhou wrote more than 100000 words in his life, the title of which is Zhuang Zi. The appearance of this document indicates that in the Warring States period, China’s philosophy and literary language have developed to a very profound and profound level. It is a treasure in ancient Chinese classics. Therefore, Zhuang Zi is not only a famous thinker in the history of Chinese philosophy, but also an outstanding writer in the history of Chinese literature. Whether in philosophy or in literary language, he has exerted a profound and tremendous influence on Chinese thinkers and writers of all dynasties, and has a very important position in the history of Chinese thought and literature.


Taoist inheritance

Miaozhen Taoism, as a hidden sect of Taoism, is a wonderful flower among many schools of Taoism. It is a continuation of Zhuangzi school in the Warring States period and Chongxuan school in the middle ages. It takes Tao Te Ching and Nanhua Jing as canons and Zhuangzi as its founder. With the birth and development of Taoism in the middle ages, it began to offer Taiyi to save the Suffering God as its primary God and believes that Zhuangzi is the embodiment of Taiyi to save the Suffering God. Advocate returning to nature and living in seclusion. In terms of doctrine, it emphasizes the reference to “truth” and advocates that through the consumption of Zhuang’s theories such as “keeping one”, “sitting and forgetting”, “Chaoche” and “regulating breath” and natural medicinal materials, the goal of prolonging life and integrating heaven and man into immortals can be achieved. At the same time, it is attached with the art of truth, that is, the improvement of artistic quality, such as the practice of “poetry”, “calligraphy”, “painting” and “music”, which makes the perfect combination of truth and beauty, and is called “elegant Tao” by later generations. Miaozhen Taoism has always been based on seclusion and retreat, and is known as the “true Taoist”. The famous leaders of Miaozhen Taoism in modern times include Taoist Li daoran of 67 generations, Taoist Yan Xuanyi, Taoist Li Xuanqing, etc.


Duan Zhuangzi’s allusions


Regard power and nobility as rotten rats

According to Zhuangzi ยท autumn water, Huishi became prime minister in the state of Liang. Zhuangzi wanted to meet this good friend. Someone hurriedly reported to Huizi and said, “Chuang Tzu came to replace you.” Huizi was in a panic and wanted to stop Zhuangzi. He sent people to search the capital for three days and nights. Unexpectedly, Chuang Tzu came to meet him calmly and said: “There is a bird in the south. Its name is babbler. Have you heard of it? The babbler spreads its wings and rises. Flying from the South China Sea to the North China Sea, it is not that Wutong trees do not rest, do not eat the fruits of bamboo, or do not drink the sweet spring water. At this time, an owl is eating a carrion rat with relish, and it happens that the babbler flies over his head. The owl quickly protects the carrion rat and gives out a ‘frightening’ roar. Now do you want to frighten me with your Liang Guo?”


Better be a free turtle

One day, Chuang Tzu was fishing in the whirlpool. Two doctors appointed by the king of Chu came to invite him and said, “I have heard of your good name for a long time, and I want to be tired of state affairs. I hope you will come out of the mountain gladly, thinking that the king will share the worries, and that the people will seek happiness.” Chuang Tzu ignored the pole and said calmly; “I heard that there was a tortoise in the state of Chu. It was 3000 years old when it was killed. The king of Chu treasured it in a bamboo box covered with brocade and enshrined it in the temple. Would you like to ask the second doctor whether this tortoise would rather have bones after death, or would you rather sneak in the muddy water and drag its tail in life?” The second doctor said, “naturally, I would like to shake my tail in the muddy water.” Chuang Tzu said, “please go back, doctor. I’d like to drag my tail in the muddy water.”


The joy of knowing fish

Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu swam on the Haoliang bridge. Zhuangzi said, “it is the pleasure of fish to travel calmly.” Hui Zi said, “I am not a fish. I know the pleasure of fish.” Chuang Tzu said, “you are not me. Do you know that I do not know the pleasure of fish?” Hui Zi said, “I am not a son. I do not know the son. I am not a fish. I do not know the joy of the fish.” Chuang Tzu said, “please follow its origin. Confucius said, ‘you know the music of the fish in An’an’. If you know what I know and ask me, I know the dream.”

Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu were playing on the bridge. Chuang Tzu said, “minnows swim calmly and freely. This is the happiness of fish.” Huizi said, “you are not a fish. How do you know the happiness of fish?” Chuang Tzu said, “you are not me. How can you know that I don’t know the happiness of fish?” Huizi said, “I’m not you. I didn’t know you were happy. And you’re not a fish, so you certainly don’t know the happiness of a fish.” Chuang Tzu said, “from the initial topic, you said, ‘where are you (an: one means how, one means where) knowing the happiness of fish?’ since you know I know the happiness of fish, you still ask me? I know it on the bridge.”


Poverty, not poverty

According to Zhuangzi Shanmu, Chuang Tzu once went to visit the king of Wei wearing coarse patched clothes and worn shoes tied with straw ropes. The king of Wei saw him and said, “why is your husband so down and out?” Chuang Tzu corrected: “It’s poverty, not poverty. A scholar who has morality but can’t embody it is poverty; a man with ragged clothes and shoes is poverty, not poverty. This is so-called untimely! Your majesty, haven’t you seen the leaping apes? If they are on tall nanmu and camphor trees, they climb their branches and come to them. They are at ease. Even Houyi and pengmeng, who are good at shooting, have nothing to do. But if they are in thorns, they can only look sideways and fear danger It is not that his muscles and bones have become stiff and inflexible, but that he is not in a position to show off his ability. “Now I am in a state of confusion and want not to be down and out. How can it be?”


Skillfully discuss three swords and prosper the country with one word

During the Warring States period, King Wen of Zhao was particularly fond of swordsmanship. The swordsmen who liked them came to perform one after another, so that there were as many as 3000 swordsmen around the palace gate. They fought against each other day and night in front of King Wen of Zhao. Hundreds of people are killed and injured every year, but King Wen of Zhao is still interested in it. As a result, there is a strong trend of sword worship among the people, a surge of Xiake, a growing number of idlers, a decreasing number of people tilling the land, barren countryside and declining national strength. Other Vassal States intended to take this opportunity to attack the state of Zhao.

Crown prince Zhao Yun was so worried about this that he summoned the left and right ministers to discuss and said: “if this goes on, the country will be destroyed and the country will be controlled by other countries. If any of you ministers can not only please the king, but also stop the swordsmen from fighting, I will give you a thousand dollars.” “Chuang Tzu can take this responsibility,” said both sides The prince asked, “who is Chuang Tzu?” A minister replied, “Chuang Tzu is a hermit. His talent is enough to pass through the state, his ability is enough to defend the state, his argument can revive the dead, and his words can shake the world. If you invite him, you will be able to follow the king’s wishes and save the people from water and fire.” So the prince sent messengers to invite Chuang Tzu with money.

When Chuang Tzu saw the messenger, he heard his intention and said, “how difficult is this? It’s worth a thousand dollars?” He refused to accept the money, but went to see the prince with his messengers and asked the prince, “the prince has given me a gift of money. What advice do you have?” The prince said, “Mr. Wen, I’d like to offer you a thousand gold as your students’ expenses along the way. If you don’t accept it, what can I say?” Chuang Tzu said, “it is said that the prince wants to use my Chuang Tzu because he wants to give up the king. If I persuade the king and go against his will, I will be punished and die. What’s the use of money? If I can win the favor of the king and the crown prince, why can’t I in the state of Zhao?”

Three days later, Chuang Tzu came to see the prince in Confucian clothes. The prince took him to see King Wen of Zhao. King Wen’s long sword came out of its scabbard and treated each other with white blades. Chuang Tzu was dignified and looked bleak. When you enter the temple, you don’t follow suit. When you see the king, you don’t bow down. The king said, “the prince introduced you here. What do you want to teach me?” Chuang Tzu said, “I heard that your majesty has a good sword, so I paid a special visit to your majesty with swordsmanship.” Wang said, “what are your strengths in swordsmanship?” Chuang Tzu said, “my sharp sword is extremely sharp. My sword skills are unparalleled in the world. I will kill one person in ten steps, and I will not stay for thousands of miles.” King Wen listened, greatly appreciated, and said, “the world is invincible!” “He who is good at sword dancing should show his weakness, open his mind to benefit, and then start. May the king give me a chance to have a try.” King Wen said, “Sir, let’s take a few days off and stand by in the museum. After I have arranged for it, please show your skills and compare swords.” Therefore, King Wen of Zhao selected masters by sword competition. After seven days of continuous competition, more than 60 people were killed or injured, and five or six outstanding players were won. He asked them to wait for his highness with swords, and asked Chuang Tzu to decide the male and female. Chuang Tzu came here happily. King Wen of Zhao ordered: “these six people are all experts. I hope you can show your skills and try your best.” Chuang Tzu replied, “I’ve been looking forward to it for a long time!”

King Zhao Wen asked, “what kind of sword do you want to hold? What is the length?” Chuang Tzu replied, “I can hold any sword. However, I have three swords for the king. Please allow me to speak first and try later.” The king nodded and said, “what are the three swords like?” Chuang Tzu said, “the three swords are: the emperor sword, the princes sword and the common people sword.” The king asked curiously, “what is the sword of the son of heaven like?” Zhuangzi said: “The sword of the son of heaven, with Yanxi and Shicheng as the front, Qi and Taishan as the consternation, Jin and Wei as the back, Zhou and song as the head, Han and Wei as the handle, with the four barbarians wrapped around the four seasons, surrounded by the sea, is made of Hengshan, with the five elements. When it comes to punishing virtue, it opens with Yin and Yang, holds it in spring and summer, and moves in autumn and winter. This sword is straight without advance, and it is supreme when it is held, and it can be waved without side. When it is raised, it will be supreme. When it is lifted, it will be conquered. When it is released, it will be conquered The princes, Weijia and the world, serve the world with virtue. This is what I call the emperor’s sword. “

King Wen was at a loss. Then he asked: “what is the sword of princes?” Zhuangzi said: “The swords of the princes take the wise and brave as the front, the honest as the consternation, the virtuous as the back, the loyal and saintly as the head, and the heroic as the handle. The sword is straight and does not see the front, nor can it be lifted, nor can it be pressed, nor can it be waved. The upper part imitates the round sky, so as to follow the three lights; the lower part imitates the square earth, so as to follow the four seasons; the middle part of the public opinion, so as to secure the four villages. Once used, it is like the shock of thunder, and all the people in the four seas are obedient to the emperor Life. This is the sword of the princes. ” King Wen nodded frequently.

King Wen then asked, “what about the common people’s sword?” Zhuangzi said, “the swords of the common people are held by those who have long hair and long whiskers. Their clothes are long in front and short in back. Their eyes are angry and their words are vulgar. They cut their necks and stabbed their liver and lungs in front of the king. Comparing swords with those of the common people is no different from fighting cocks. Once they are careless, their lives will be lost, which will not help the country. The king likes the sword of the common people when he sits on the throne of the son of heaven. I am deeply sorry for the king!” King Wen of Zhao immediately got up and led Chuang Tzu to the temple. The chef was ordered to kill chickens and sheep, and good wine and food were served to Chuang Tzu. King Wen of Zhao walked around the table three times. When Chuang Tzu saw this, he said, “Your Majesty, please sit still. The minister’s sword has been played.” King Wen sat down and meditated for a long time.

King Wen of Zhao didn’t leave the palace in March after hearing Chuang Tzu’s three swords. Since then, he has given up the pain of a good sword and devoted himself to governing the country. Those swordsmen felt that they would never emerge again. They were all worried and scared. Soon they all fled or committed suicide.


Is life so confused

One day, Chuang Tzu sat in his chair and sighed up to the sky. He was so depressed that he was like out of his mind. The disciple stood beside him and said, “Sir, why are you sighing? Can a person’s body really be as withered as a tree, but his heart can be as dead as ashes? Is it not true that he who sits on the chair today is not the one who sat on the chair in the past?” Chuang Tzu said, “good question. Now that I have lost myself, do you understand?” The disciple said, “what is self? I am stupid and don’t understand.” Zhuangzi said: “All things in the world are relative to each other. Therefore, without that, there would be no this. Without you, there would be no me. This is opposite and complementary. But who makes it like this? Is it the Tao in the dark? What is the Tao like? Bones, five internal organs and six internal organs exist all over the body. What is it about self-study? Who am I closer to? Do I like them, or do I have a preference for them? In this way, do the bones, nine orifices, five internal organs and six internal organs have a relationship with each other? If they are They are ministers and concubines. Are these ministers and concubines restricting each other? Or take turns as monarchs and ministers? Is there really a master among them? Alas, once you accept the essence and achieve the body, you will unconsciously run out of energy. Isn’t it too pathetic that you can’t stop fighting and rubbing with foreign objects every day, and your spirit is exhausted like a horse galloping? If you are busy all your life without success, or if you are tired and don’t know your destination, you can’t be sad and evil! Although the body does not die, what is the benefit? It’s not a great pity that the mind and spirit also die with the body! When people are born, are they at a loss? Or do I just feel confused and no one else is confused? “


All things are one, and no one is strong enough to separate

The disciple asked: “compared with heaven and earth, who is big and who is small, who is expensive and who is cheap?” Chuang Tzu said, “man is formed in heaven and earth, is inspired by Yin and Yang, and stands between heaven and earth, just like a small stone and a small wood in a mountain. It is really too small. Why should he be arrogant? If the four seas are between heaven and earth, is it not like an ant nest in the desert? If China is in the sea, is it not like a grain of rice in a big warehouse? There are countless things in heaven and earth, and people are just one of them; compared with everything, is it not like a hair on a horse?”

The disciple seemed to have realized something and said, “Sir, do you mean that there are mountains outside the mountain and there are days outside the sky?” Chuang Tzu said, “it means this.” The disciple asked, “then can I regard heaven and earth as big and the slightest as small?”

Zhuangzi said: “No! Any object is inexhaustible in terms of measurement, and endless in terms of time of existence. It can be divided infinitely, with no beginning and no end. Therefore, people of great wisdom and wisdom have the following views on the distance: small but not small, large but not many, and infinite in knowledge. He knows the past and the present: Although the ancient times are far away, he is not confused; although the near is within reach, he is not on tiptoe to get, and there is no end to knowing time Also. He knew that the way of heaven had its ups and downs, gains and losses, and survival and death, so he did not like gains and losses, and did not worry about losses. He knew that the way of heaven was magnanimous, so he was unhappy when he was born, and had no regrets when he died. He knew the changes from beginning to end. People know far less than they do not; The time when he was born is not as long as when he was not born. With its smallest, it seeks to impoverish its largest territory. In this way, it will be confused and have no access to the world. From this point of view, how can we know that the slightest bit is enough to set the minimum limit? How can we know that heaven and earth are enough to exhaust the greatest territory? “

The disciple said, “I see. Sir, you mean: large and medium-sized have small, don’t think big is big; small and medium-sized have big, don’t think small is small.” Chuang Tzu said, “it doesn’t seem accurate. It’s better to say that there is something big above the big, and something small below. The big is infinite, and the small is infinite.”

The disciple asked, “how can we distinguish between the high and the low, and how can we distinguish between the small and the big?” Zhuangzi said: “From the standpoint of Tao, all things are noble and cheap; from the standpoint of things, they are noble and cheap; from the secular point of view, noble and cheap are not in themselves, and they are all based on the external honor and disgrace. From the perspective of external differences, because they are big and big, all things are big; because they are small and small, all things are small. If you know that heaven and earth are like a plant of rice, and the slightest thing is like a hill, it doesn’t matter whether they are big or small. In ancient times Yao and Shun abdicated and became the emperor, but Zizhi abdicated with HA Xiang, king of Yan, and the country was subjugated; King Tang of the Shang Dynasty and King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty fought for the throne, but Bai Gong killed himself for the throne. From this point of view, the rites of competing for concessions and the visits of Yao and Liang dynasties are sometimes high and low, but not always high and low. The big column can break the gate but can not plug the hole, so it has different purposes; A steed gallops thousands of miles a day, and its skills are different from those of a civet cat; An owl can catch fleas at night and see nothing at all, but it can’t see the hills even if its eyes are wide open during the day, so its performance is limited. There are different ways for emperors to practice Zen, either from one surname to another or from one surname to another; The way of inheritance among the three generations is also different, either father and son are successive, or troops are launched to crusade. But if it is out of time, it is against the common customs. It is called usurper. If at the right time and in accordance with the customs, he is called a righteous man. It can be seen that sometimes, you can’t help it. I said, disciple, how can you understand the noble and humble gate and the small and big family? “


A real person walks in the world. He is not hot in the fire and drowns in the water

The disciple asked, “how can we count those who know the great way?” Chuang Tzu said, “those who understand Tao must understand reason, and those who understand reason must understand contingency, ‘those who understand contingency will not hurt themselves because of foreign objects. People with supreme virtue will not feel hot when they get into fire, drown in water, suffer from cold and heat, or be injured by animals. This is because they can be aware of safety, be content with good and evil, and be willing to go. Therefore, nothing can harm them.”

The disciple asked, “is there really a person with supreme virtue?” Chuang Tzu said, “Confucius is.” The disciple asked, “how can I see it?” Zhuangzi said: “Confucius traveled all over the world to promote benevolence and righteousness. Although he ran into difficulties everywhere, he still persevered. His concern for the country and the people was admirable and moving. Once, when Confucius lobbied to Kuangdi and was surrounded by the people of Wei, he still played the piano and sang loudly. Passers-by saw Confucius and asked him, ‘teacher, what kind of coke do you have?’ Confucius said, ‘come here! Let me tell you: I have long taboo poverty. It is still inevitable that I am down and out, and my fate makes me I have long yearned for prosperity, but I still haven’t got wealth, which is limited by luck. At the time of Yao and Shun, there were no poor people in the world, so it was not wise; It is not a loss of wisdom to follow the reign of Zhou and have no access to the world. The situation dictates. It is the courage of fishermen not to avoid mosquitoes and dragons in the water; It is the courage of hunters not to avoid lions and tigers on land; It is the courage of a martyr to turn the white blade in front of him and treat death as if he were alive; A sage is brave enough to know that he has a destiny when he is poor, that he knows how to understand sometimes, and that he is not afraid of great difficulties! Zhongyou, sit down. My destiny has its own destiny! ” After a while, a man wearing pin Jia came over and apologized to Confucius: ‘I’m very sorry, sir! We thought it was a Yang tiger, so we surrounded it. Now we understand that we have mistakenly identified Mr. Li. Let’s retreat at once! ” Confucius can be said to be a man of supreme virtue who is flexible and resourceful! “


Interests are self-centered, who is expensive and who is cheap

The disciple asked again, “Sir, we should observe it according to the Tao. There is no noble or cheap, no big or small. Is there a certain standard of right and wrong? That is to say, sir, do you know that there is a common truth recognized by all things?” Chuang Tzu said, “how do I know?” “Do you know why you don’t?” Chuang Tzu said, “how do I know?” “Then all things are unknowable?” Zhuangzi said; “How do I know? Even so, I might as well try to tell you. How do I know whether I know or not? How do I know whether I know or not? Let me try to ask you a few questions: do people have back pain when they sleep in the wetland? Do loaches do this? People are scared when they sleep in the trees. Do apes do this? Who knows the truth about the three? People like to eat vegetables and meat, Liao deer eat grass, centipedes like snakes, owls like rats, people Who knows the true flavor of animals, insects and birds? Snipers love female apes, elks love to make friends with deer, and loaches love to swim with fish. Maoyi and Liji are considered beautiful by people; But the fish sees it and goes deep into the water, the birds see it and fly high in the sky, and the elk sees it and runs away in the wild. Who knows the true beauty of these four? In my opinion, the end of benevolence and righteousness, the path of right and wrong, is either beneficial to me or harmful to the other. Interests have their own standards. How can I make clear the difference? “

The disciple asked, “you don’t know what’s right, and even people don’t know what’s right?” Chuang Tzu said, “people are so divine! The vast lakes are burned but not hot, the rivers and Han people are frozen but not cold, and the thunder breaks through the mountains and the wind shakes the sea but not. People like this, riding the clouds, the sun and the moon, travel across the world, and are indifferent to life and death, not to mention the interests.”


It was in vain to be able to argue

The disciple asked, “can the debate confirm right and wrong?” Zhuangzi replied: “If I argue with you, if you win over me, you will be right. Will I be wrong? If I win over you, I will be wrong. Will you be wrong? Will either of us be right or wrong? Will both be right or wrong? If I can’t judge with you, then people will hold their own opinions and have something unknown. Who shall we invite to correct it? If you have the same opinion, how can we judge? Please have the same opinion with me If they are the same as me, how can they judge? If you are different from me and you, how can you decide who is right and who is wrong? Please judge with the same opinion as you and me. How can we judge if we are the same as you and me? Then neither you nor I can be sure who is right and who is wrong, and who will decide it? “

The disciple was deeply confused and distressed. He asked, “how do you deal with the problem of right and wrong?” Zhuangzi said: “Everything has two sides. From the other side, everything is the other side. From the other side, everything is the same. From the other side, you can’t see things clearly, but from the other side, you can see things clearly. Therefore, the other side has this because of the other side, and they live side by side with each other. In this case, the other side lives and dies, and the other side lives; the other side can only die and the other side can’t, and the other side can’t; because of right and wrong, the other side can’t be. Therefore, the sage doesn’t stick to the path of so and wrong, but shines on the way of heaven. This is also the other side That is also true. That also has a right and wrong, this also has a right and wrong, really have each other? Is there really no one? If both are empty, right and wrong are illusory, and they are not opposed to each other, then Tao exists in them. This is called Tao Shu. The Tao is pivoted and stands in the ring to respond to infinity. Is also an infinite, not also an infinite. In words of Tao, there is no definite right or wrong, and there is no definite right or wrong. There is no right or wrong if we follow the natural light and do not insist on our own views. Heaven and earth have a finger, and everything has a horse. Yes, no, No. It is famous for the way things are called. Things are what they are and what they can be. Nothing else, nothing is impossible. Therefore, coarseness and fineness, ugliness and beauty, rightness and skewness, and Dao Tong are one. Its division is also, become also; Its success and destruction. All things become one without success or destruction. Only those who are broad-minded and knowledgeable are one! “


At this time, it is only possible to exempt from punishment

One day, Zhuangzi and his disciples walked through the mountains. In autumn and winter, thousands of trees withered, withered grass was everywhere, yellow leaves were rolling, and crows wailed. Chuang Tzu covered his head with a worn hat, wrapped in his old clothes, and wore worn-out hemp straw sandals. Stepping on the rugged mountain road, facing the bleak autumn wind and looking at the bleak sunset, he couldn’t help roaring up to the sky and singing loudly:

Feng Xi Feng Xi, how can virtue decline!

You can’t wait in the afterlife, and you can’t pursue it in the past.

There is a way in the world, and a saint becomes a saint;

There is no Tao in the world; Saints are born!

At this time, only exemption from punishment!

Blessing is light and dry, and no one knows what to carry;

Disaster is more serious than the earth, so don’t know how to avoid it.

Already, already! Treat others with virtue.

Almost, almost! stick to the old method.

If you lose your Yang, you will not hurt me.

I walk but bend, without hurting my feet.

There is no happiness in the supreme happiness, and there is no reputation in the Supreme Reputation

The disciple was puzzled and asked, “Sir, you are always optimistic and generous. Why do you lament today?” Zhuangzi said, “is there a land of supreme happiness in the world? Is there a secret that can keep the whole body healthy? In today’s troubled times, what is right to do and what is not evil? Where is safe to live and where is safe to escape? What is reliable and what is worry free to abandon? What is reasonable to like and what is disaster free to hate?”. Disciple said: “what people all over the world respect is wealth, longevity and beauty; what they like is physical security, good taste, beauty, clothing and music; what they despise is poverty, disease and ugliness; what they worry about is that they can’t be comfortable, have a thick mouth, have a beautiful clothing, have a lustful eye and have a bad ear. Isn’t that the truth that ordinary people like to avoid evil and keep healthy? What advice do you have, sir?”

Zhuangzi said: “If you can’t do what you want, you will be afraid of great worry. Isn’t it stupid to treat life? Think of the greedy man who works hard and accumulates a lot of money but can use up all his wood. The way to cultivate his body is to know the outside but not the inside. Think of the responsible person who thinks about the good and the bad day and night. The way to cultivate his body is to know the unknown but not the secret. People are born with worry. People who live a long life are faint. Why bother not to die? The way to preserve their health is to know the far but not the near.” The disciple said: “Sir, it means that wealth and longevity are external things, which are not enough to really maintain health. Right?”

Chuang Tzu nodded and said, “a martyr is a person praised by the world and is not enough to protect himself. Do you think a martyr should be called good or not? If he is good, he cannot protect himself; if he does not think it is good, he can protect others. The ancient way is: if he does not listen to the loyal advice, he will shut up and do not argue. Wuzixu’s loyal advice and strong argument resulted in the death of the king of Wu; if he does not argue, he will not become a loyal minister. What do you think is good?”

The disciple seemed to have realized: “Sir, you mean that fame can harm people, and the pursuit of fame is not the way to maintain health?”

Chuang Tzu, without asking whether he could, went on to say, “I don’t know whether the pleasures of the worldly works and pleasures today are really pleasures or not. In my opinion, the worldly pleasures are nothing more than the whole world rising up to catch up with the fashion, rushing forward like a sheep being whipped, complacent and not knowing what to ask for. They all think they are pleasures, and I don’t know whether they are really pleasures. However, I think nothing is quiet is real pleasure, while the worldly doesn’t think it is great suffering.”

The disciple said, “I see. Sir thinks: there is no joy in supreme happiness and no fame in Supreme Reputation.”

Zhuangzi said: “Yes, yes! No happiness is the supreme happiness, and no action can protect your life. The world is uncertain. However, no action can determine right and wrong. The supreme happiness lives, and only no action can protect your life. Why do you say that? You think: the heaven is self-cleaning without action, and the earth is self-moving without action. These two actions coincide, and all things come into being. You don’t know what they are; you are in a trance, and you don’t know what they are; everything is diverse, and all things come from inaction. Therefore, the heaven and the earth do nothing without action Who can realize the benefits of inaction? “


Useless use is great use

Chuang Tzu and his disciples walked to the foot of a mountain and saw a big tree with luxuriant branches and leaves standing beside the big stream. But see this tree: it is hundreds of feet thick and thousands of feet high, pointing straight to the sky; Its canopy is as wide as a giant umbrella, which can cover more than ten acres of land. Chuang Tzu could not help but ask the woodcutter, “excuse me, master, why has so much wood been cut down by no one? It has been growing for thousands of years alone?” The woodcutter seemed to despise the tree and said, “why is this strange? The tree is a useless wood. When it is used as a boat, it sinks into the water; when it is used as a coffin, it decays quickly; when it is used as an appliance, it is easy to be destroyed; when it is used as a door and window, it is not dry; when it is used as a pillar, it is vulnerable to insect erosion. This is a useless wood. There is nothing that can be used, so it can have such a long life.”

After hearing this, Chuang Tzu said to his disciples, “isn’t it useless for this tree to die because of its lack of material? It can do something for itself because of inaction?” The disciple suddenly realized it and nodded endlessly. Chuang Tzu said, “trees are useless. They don’t want to do anything, but they can avoid the axe. White fronted cattle, kangman pigs, and hemorrhoids are considered by witches to be ominous things, so they won’t be thrown into the river. Disabled people won’t be recruited by conscription, so they can live forever. If they are physically disabled, they can still maintain their health and life. What’s more, those who are disabled in virtue and talent can avoid disaster. If they are not talented, they can also protect their health.” The more he said, the more excited he became. He said summarily, “mountains and trees can be cut by themselves; plaster and fire can be fried by themselves. Cinnamon can be eaten, so it can be cut; lacquer can be used, so it can be cut. Everyone knows the useful use, but he doesn’t know the useless use.”


One dragon and one snake, changing with the times

The two masters and disciples went out of the mountain and stayed at Zhuangzi’s old friend’s house. The host was very happy and ordered his son to kill the fakes for entertainment. The son asked, “a fake can sing, but a fake can’t sing. Which one do you want to kill?” The master said, “of course you can’t kill people.” The next day, after leaving a friend’s house, the disciple couldn’t help asking, “yesterday’s wood in the mountain died because of its lack of material; today’s master’s fake was killed because of its lack of material. The disciple was confused. Where will you go, sir?” Chuang Tzu said with a smile, “my Chuang Tzu will be between material and non material. Between material and non material, it is specious, and it is still difficult to avoid fatigue…” Chuang Tzu was about to stop talking, and his disciples urgently waited for the following: “how can we deal with the world? We can’t do with material, we can’t do without material, and we can’t do with material and non material. How is it good?”

Chuang Tzu pondered for a moment, Head up road: “If you float by virtue, it is not the case: there is no reputation and no destruction. A dragon and a snake are adapted to the times, but are unwilling to do it specifically. If you float at the beginning of all things by taking harmony as the quantity, what can you be tired of? This is also the law of the Shennong and the Yellow Emperor. As for the nature of things and the feelings of human relations, it is not the case: success will destroy, sharpness will frustrate, respect will discuss, success will lose, virtue will be thick, and dishonesty will deceive. How can you avoid tiredness? Remember, disciples, only Tao Only the land of virtue is free! “

The disciple said, “in the land of morality, people can only wander among them. How can people rest in peace in today’s troubled times?” Chuang Tzu said, “do you know how quails and birds live?”

The disciple said, “Sir means that people should live like quails and cranes. They should live all over the world. They should live as they please. They should live as birds. They should eat like birds. They should not choose the fine or the coarse. They should not choose the fat or the thin. They should be full as they eat. They should walk like birds. They should be free and carefree without leaving any traces.” Zhuangzi smiled and nodded.


Dead coke

Chuang Tzu rode a thin horse and walked slowly along the ancient road leading to the state of Chu. The cold west wind beat Chuang Tzu’s thin face and raised his bleak sideburns. Chuang Tzu looked around, but there were sorrows everywhere, skeletons everywhere, and a tragic scene after the war. As the sun sets, the twilight field gathers. Chuang Tzu walked under an old tree with withered vines and started several crows circling around the tree. After tying up his horse, Chuang Tzu wanted to find a stone to sit down and rest. Suddenly, a skeleton appeared in the grass under the tree. Chuang Tzu approached him and knocked with his horse whip. He asked him, “did you come to this point because of your greed for life and illness? Or did you come to this point because of the collapse of the country and the death of the axe? Did you come to this point because you committed suicide because of your bad deeds and were ashamed of your parents and wife? Or did you come to this point because of your cold and discouragement? Or did you end up dead?” With that, he took a skeleton and lay on it. After a while, he fell asleep.

In the middle of the night, the skeleton appeared in Zhuangzi’s dream and said, “Sir, what you just asked is like the voice of a debater. All the things you talked about are tiring from living, but not after death. Do you want to hear about the fun of death?” Zhuangzi replied, “of course.” The skeleton said, “when you die, there is no monarch at the top, no minister at the bottom, and no four seasons. You travel calmly and lose, and take heaven and earth as the spring and Autumn period. Even if you are king in the south, you can’t compare it.” Chuang Tzu was unconvinced and asked, “would you like to let the Lord of hell bring you back to life, return your flesh and blood, and return your parents, wife, villagers and friends?” The skeleton looked sad and said, “can I give up the southern King’s music and return to the work of the world?”


Sing on drums and send your wife up

Less than a year after returning home, Zhuangzi’s wife died of illness. A good friend, Huizi, came to offer condolences and saw Zhuangzi sitting cross legged on the ground, singing with a drum. Huizi asked, “I’ve been with your husband and wife to give birth, provide for the aged and keep the family. Now that I’m dead, it’s enough that you don’t cry and sing. Isn’t it too much and inhuman?” Chuang Tzu said, “that’s not what I meant. When she just died, how could I not feel sad alone? After thinking about it, I found that I was still an ordinary person, didn’t know the truth of life and death, and didn’t know the way of heaven and earth. I wouldn’t feel sad after thinking about it.”

Huizi was still indignant and asked, “what about the principle of life and death?” Zhuangzi said: “At the beginning of her life, there was no life; not only no life, but also invisible; not only invisible, but also no Qi. Yin and Yang mixed in the dark, changed into Qi, Qi became tangible, and shape changed into life, and now it has changed into death. The changes of life and death of the old man are like the alternation of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Although she died, people still slept in the giant room of heaven and earth, and I cried sadly, thinking that I could not understand the arrangement of fate So I stopped mourning and sang. “

Huizi said, “even though the reason is so, why should we be embarrassed?” Zhuangzi said, “death and life are destiny. It has the nature of night and day. Your body is not yours, it is the Commission of heaven and earth (entrusted to) Shape also; Life is not yours, it is the Commission of heaven and earth; Life is not yours, it is the order of heaven and earth; The sun, who is not yours, is the Commission of heaven and earth, so the living also borrow; What has become life through it is nothing but dirt. Death and life are like the alternation of day and night. Therefore, life is not enough for happiness and death is not enough for sorrow. Death and life are all transformed by one Qi. Human relations do not understand this theory, so there is a sense of sadness and happiness. What can be unbearable when the truth is clear and the emotion is rationalized? What’s more, those who get it will come at the right time; The loser is the winner. In time of peace and prosperity, sorrow and joy cannot be ignored. “


Live in peace and contentment

In the twinkling of an eye, several years later, it was the time for Zhuangzi to die. The disciple stood in front of the bed and sobbed: “great fortune! What will you become? Where will you go? Will you become a rat liver? Will you become an insect arm?” Zhuangzi said, “parents are in charge of their children, and they make them go from east to west, north to south, and the son is obedient. Yin and yang are to people, just like parents. They want me to die and I don’t listen, but I am a disobedient person. What can I blame them for? My husband takes me in shape, helps me to live, eases me to grow old, and relaxes me to die. So being kind to my living is also kind to my death. Disciples should be happy for me!”

The disciple could not help sobbing. Chuang Tzu said with a smile, “you don’t understand that life is also death, and death is also the beginning of life. People’s life is also the gathering of Qi. Gathering is life, and scattering is death. Death and life are companions, and all the Qi in the sky. Why are you sad?”

The disciple said, “I don’t know the truth of life and death. But I have benefited a lot from following you so far, but I can’t repay you. Mr. Xiang was poor all his life, and there was no funeral after he died. That’s why I feel sorry for him!” Chuang Tzu smiled calmly and said, “I use heaven and earth as my coffin, the sun and the moon as my walls, the stars as my jewelry, and all things as my burial objects. Aren’t my burial tools very complete? Are there any better and more burial objects than this?” The disciple said, “without coffins, I’m worried about crows and eagles pecking at Mr.” Chuang Tzu said calmly with a smile, “what’s the difference between being eaten by crows and eagles on the ground and being eaten by mole ants and mice on the ground? Why do you take the food of crows and eagles and give it to mole ants and mice?”

Chuang Tzu’s life, as he said: not deliberately but high, no benevolence and righteousness and practice; Rule without merit and fame, and be idle without rivers and seas; To live without Daoism is to forget everything and to have everything; His life also goes by heaven, and his death also materializes; Static and Yin share the same virtue, dynamic and Yang share the same wave; Do not be the first for good, do not start for evil; His life is like floating, his death is like resting, and he lives alone with the gods. Chuang Tzu, ancient Grand immortal!


chuang chou dreaming a butterfly




chuang chou dreaming a butterfly

The dream of Zhuang Zhou in the past was Hu Die, which was lifelike. It is self-evident that you are fit for purpose! I don’t know Zhou. Suddenly, you feel that you will feel the same.

I wonder if Zhou Zhimeng is Hu diehe? Hu Die’s dream is Zhou Yu?? Zhou and Hu Die must be separated. This is called materialization.




Zhuangzi dreamt of butterflies

Zhuang Zhou dreamed that he had become a butterfly. He was very relaxed and comfortable. At this time, he completely forgot that he was Zhuang Zhou. After awoke, he was very surprised and puzzled about whether he was Zhuang Zhou. Think about it carefully. I wonder if Zhuang Zhou dreamed of becoming a butterfly or a butterfly dreamed of becoming Zhuang Zhou? Zhuang Zhou and butterfly must be different. This is called the unity of things and me.


Evaluate Zhuangzi

Zhuang Zhou wrote more than 100000 words in his life, the title of which is Zhuang Zi. The appearance of this document indicates that in the Warring States period, China’s philosophy and literary language have developed to a very profound and profound level. It is a treasure in ancient Chinese classics. Therefore, Zhuang Zi is not only a famous thinker in the history of Chinese philosophy, but also an outstanding writer in the history of Chinese literature. Whether in philosophy or in literary language, he has exerted a profound and tremendous influence on Chinese thinkers and writers of all dynasties, and has a very important position in the history of Chinese thought and literature.

Zhuangzi inherited and carried forward the thoughts of Lao Tzu and Taoism in philosophy, and formed his own unique philosophical ideology and unique style of study and writing. He put forward that “Tao” is an objective and real existence, regarded “Tao” as the origin of all things in the universe, and said that the natural inaction of heaven. In politics, it advocates the rule of inaction, and in the way of human existence, it advocates returning to simplicity. He regarded advocating benevolence and righteousness and right and wrong as punishments imposed on people, and criticized the “benevolence and righteousness” and “rule of law” of the rulers at that time. He sharply criticized the etiquette, law, power and potential of the secular society, and put forward the incisive views of “saints do not die, big thieves do not stop”, and “those who steal the hook will be punished, and those who steal the country will be vassals”. In the way of human existence, he advocates nature, advocates the spiritual realm of “heaven and earth coexist with me, and all things are one with me”, and believes that the highest realm of life is carefree, absolute spiritual freedom, not material enjoyment and false reputation. These thoughts and propositions of Zhuangzi have a far-reaching impact on future generations and are a valuable spiritual wealth in the history of human thought.

Zhuangzi had a great influence in the Wei and Jin Dynasties from the 3rd century to the 5th century. It, together with Zhouyi and Laozi, is called “three metaphysics”, and also has an important position in the history of Chinese literature. Zhuangzi became one of the classics of Taoism in the Tang Dynasty (618-907).

Zhuangzi’s influence on later generations is not only reflected in his unique philosophy, but also in literature. His political propositions and philosophical thoughts are not dry sermons. On the contrary, they are cleverly, vividly and attractively expressed through vivid, humorous and witty fables, and through wanton and graceful language. The whole book seems to be a collection of fables. These fables show extraordinary imagination, form strange images, and have groundbreaking and enlightening artistic appeal.

Lu Xun spoke highly of Zhuangzi’s prose and said: “Wang Yang opened the door and was graceful. No one can be the first to write the works of the late Zhou Dynasty.” (outline of the history of Chinese Literature)


Zhuangzi ancestral hall




Zhuangzi Temple

Taoist temples. In the first year of Yuanfeng of Song Dynasty (1078), Wangjing, the magistrate of Mengcheng County, began to build Zhuangzi temple. Su Shi wrote: “Zhuangzi is also a Mongolian, and he is known as an official of the Mongolian lacquer garden. For those who are not over a thousand years old and have no Temple in Mongolia, Wang Jing, the magistrate and Secretary of Mengcheng, began to build the temple, asking for the text to remember…” this temple was built at the former site of the lacquer garden on the North Bank of the vortex river. The main buildings include Xiaoyao hall, Mengdie tower, fish watching platform, etc. The annual sacrifice was never interrupted. It was flooded during the Tianshun period of the Ming Dynasty. Zhuangzi’s ancestral hall is included in the complete works of Sudongpo.

In the 8th year of Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (1580), Wu Yiluan, the county magistrate, rebuilt in Dongguan, the county seat. The rebuilt ancestral hall of Zhuangzi is large-scale and quite spectacular. There are three Xiaoyao halls, three Mengdie halls, three rolling awnings, three daoshe halls, and one fishpond bridge. On the left is the Mengdie building and on the right is the fish viewing platform. The Xiaoyao hall is located in the middle of the hall. The statue of Zhuang and Zhou is made in the hall. It is sacrificed every spring and autumn. In 1632 (the 5th year of Chongzhen reign of the Ming Dynasty), lishifang, the county magistrate, rebuilt the Xiaoyao hall, built an additional Wuxiao Pavilion, built a pool for Zhuangzi Haoshang fish watching garden, and wrote a new record of the newly built Zhuangzi temple, which was inscribed in the temple. A stone tablet more than Zhang high was erected in front of the gate, engraved with the four big characters “hometown of Zhuang Zhou”.

The existing Zhuangzi temple was newly built by Mengcheng County Government on the site of the former Zhuangzi temple in the Song Dynasty. It covers a total area of 52 mu, with a total construction area of 1086 square meters. The whole temple consists of two parts: the temple complex and the Wanshu garden. The main buildings are dashanmen, Yingbi, Shanmen, Xiaoyao hall, Guheng gate, Puchi, Wuxiao Pavilion, Guantai, Guanyu bridge, Mengdie tower, Nanhua Jingge, east-west stele corridor, daoshe, guest house, etc.


[Chuang Tzu’s hometown]

Zhuangzi, named Zhou, was one of the main founders of the Taoism school in the pre Qin period, and wrote Zhuangzi. After the rise of Taoism, Zhuang Zhou was honored as the Nanhua immortal, and Zhuang Zi was honored as the Nanhua Scripture. His philosophical thoughts are mainly “quiet and inaction”, despise wealth and wealth, deny the existence of ghosts and gods, and believe that all things are in constant change, all things are relative, and his thoughts have certain dialectical factors. His articles are full of imagination, rhetoric, romanticism and humor. They are the most rich chapters in the philosophical and political theories of the pre Qin scholars, and have a great impact on future generations. However, the historical records of Zhuangzi’s hometown are very brief. The biography of Laozi Hanfei in the historical records only says: “the Mongolian people are also.” It does not specify where the country is covered. There were three places in Mongolia during the Warring States period. There are different opinions about which place Zhuangzi’s hometown is. So far, there has been no debate.

One is Mengcheng County, Anhui Province. The historical records – biographies of Lao Tzu and Han Fei recorded that the king of Chu Wei, Wen Zhuang and Zhou Xian, sent envoys to invite him with a large sum of money and promised him that he would not be moved. Zhuang Zhou laughed at the envoy of Chu and would not be an official for life. Zhang Shoujie’s “historical records of justice” also said: “Chuang Tzu was fishing on the Pu River. The king of Chu sent a doctor to the river and said:” I wish I could be tired in the territory. “Chuang Tzu ignored the pole.” According to the notes to the water classics – huaishui chapter, “Pu water is also called sand water”, and the sand water flowed through the areas of Woyang and Mengcheng in Anhui Province. In the first year of Yuanfeng of the Northern Song Dynasty (1078), Zhuangzi temple was built in Mengcheng County, Anhui Province, for which Su Shi wrote a record of Zhuangzi temple. At that time, Wang Anshi’s poem “Mengcheng Qingyan hall” contained the sentence “people have the style of Zhuang and Zhou Dynasties”. In addition, many puzzling words in Zhuangzi have many similarities with local dialects. Since there is Zhuangzi temple in Mengcheng County, Anhui Province, Zhuangzi’s hometown should be here.

One is Shangqiu, Henan. Today, there are Zhuangzi Hutong and Zhuangzi Pavilion ruins in Qinglian temple, Shunhe Township, Shangqiu, Henan Province. A large number of iron statues have been excavated. Sima Zhen quoted Liu Xiang’s other records in his historical records to say that Zhuang Zhou was a Mongolian in Song Dynasty. The state of song was a descendant of the Yin and Shang Dynasties. It was located in the eastern part of present-day Henan and some areas of Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu close to Henan. Shangqiu was the capital of the Song Dynasty. According to the historical records of the Song Dynasty’s Weizi aristocratic family, “kill Duke Hua in Mengze.” Jia Kui was quoted as saying in Ji Jie: “Mengze is the name of song Ze.” Du Yu was also quoted as saying, “the state-owned Meng County in the song and Liang dynasties.” It turned out that the “Liang state” did not refer to the state of Wei, but to a place in the state of song. There was a county in it, called Meng county. Li Daoyuan, in his notes to the water classics, said at the foot of Meng County in Jishui river system: “that is, the capital of Zhuang and Zhou dynasties. (Zhuang and Zhou dynasties) were officials of the Mongolian lacquer garden. Guojingchun (GuoPu) said that there were proud officials in the lacquer garden. Du men was in this capital to mourn the loss of Huishi.” Rice water flows from west to East through the north of Shangqiu, Henan Province. It can be seen that Zhuang Zi’s hometown should be in Shangqiu, Henan Province.

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