Guan Yu himself, in folklore and?
In romance, he has always been an embodiment of loyalty and bravery, not close to women, but also China
The only person in the world who was worshipped as a God by righteous Jianghu people was even offered by the police in Hong Kong and other Chinese areas to the police station for the blessing of Lord Guan. It’s strange that underworld elements and Jianghu Taoist Association also regard Guan Erye as the God of protection. If there is a conflict between the police and the bandits, I really don’t know which one Guan Erye will bless. If it’s not according to the law and morally speaking, it seems that under normal circumstances, it should bless the righteous and loyal side, whether he is black or white, that is to say, no matter who is on the black and white side, he must speak of righteousness and morality in life at ordinary times, Otherwise, Guan Erye won’t bless you if something happens. In this way, it’s a good way to ensure the integrity of official civil servants, and it can also make gangsters and robbers a little more righteous.
That’s all for gossip. Let’s get to the point. Is Guan Yu necessarily a standard hero who stresses loyalty and morality and is not good at womanhood, as said in the romance of the Three Kingdoms? I don’t think so. It’s not only difficult to say, but also likely to be a role that greatly deviates from our consistent impression. Let’s see what the history books say.
First of all, Guan Yu is a murderer, which I believe everyone has no doubt. He killed someone in his hometown and couldn’t stay any longer, so he escaped and fled everywhere, and finally took refuge in Liu Bei. First of all, no matter why he killed people, in short, he killed people in defiance of the law, which is estimated to be one of the reasons why the underworld and Jianghu people will regard him as a protector (1).
After following Liu Bei (2), who was not an official at that time, but just a leader of social Gang forces with an unexpected sum of money, he was led by Liu Bei as a bodyguard and followed him all day until Liu Bei betrayed, helped him at a critical juncture and took him in
After stealing Xuzhou, he became an official of xiapi prefecture (3).
Before the decisive battle in Guandu, Cao Cao decided to destroy Liu Bei’s forces on the side of his bed first, so he personally marched eastward and defeated Liu Bei at one stroke. Liu Bei immediately abandoned his family and took refuge in Yuan Shao. In this war, Guan Yu and Liu Bei’s family were captured by Cao Cao. Guan Yu surrendered to Cao Cao. Cao Cao treated Guan Yu extremely well and granted him partial treatment
? There is no data record during this period. Even a little can prove that Guan Yu surrendered after three chapters in order to protect Liu Bei’s family and Cao Cao, as written in the romance of the Three Kingdoms. It can be proved that Liu Bei’s wife had been captured by Cao Cao, but Guan Yu surrendered under the pressure of Cao Cao’s Army: “prepare to run to Shao and capture his wife. Prepare Guan Yu to tun xiapi, resume the attack, and Yu will fall” (4). In this way, His reputation for bravery and fear of death seems to be in question, because except for this surrender to Cao Cao, he has never met anyone to surrender him again, so we don’t know whether he is afraid of death. But looking at his surrender in xiapi, it seems that he is not afraid of death, because if he is not afraid of death, he can die for Liu Bei.
At the beginning of the battle of Guandu, Guan Yu killed Yan Liang, a famous general under Yuan Shao, with his courage, and Cao Cao made Guan Yu the Marquis of Hanshou Pavilion. Later, Yuan Shao sent Liu Bei to lead a small group of people to harass him, and Guan Yu died and returned to Liu Bei. According to the normal saying, Guan Yu did not forget Liu Bei’s gratitude and felt Cao Cao’s generous treatment, so he first beheaded Yan Liang and reported to Cao Cao, and then returned to Liu Bei. This practice of not forgetting his old kindness is said to be appreciated by Cao Cao, so he not only did not send pursuers to pursue him, but also rejected his men’s proposal to pursue him. Therefore, there was no case in history that six generals were killed in five passes in the romance of the Three Kingdoms (5).
At this point, the question came again. Guan Yu is really like what he said: “I know very well that Cao Gong treated me well, but I received general Liu’s kindness and vowed to die together. I won’t stay. Should I take effect to repay Cao Gong?”? I don’t think so. Let’s take a look at the background when he abandoned Cao Benliu.
In the battle of Guandu, there was a great contrast between Yuan and Cao in terms of military strength and logistical supplies. Yuan Shao defeated about 30000 of Cao Cao’s troops with more than 100000 troops. After Guan Yu cut Yan Liang and solved the siege of white horses, Cao Cao “… Return the army to the Guandu. Shao enters the Baoyang Martial Arts…. Shaolian camp is a little ahead, and it is a garrison in the sand, dozens of miles from east to west. The public also divides the camp and is equivalent, and the war is unfavorable. At that time, the public soldiers were less than ten thousand, and the wounded were thirteen. Shaofu enters the Linguan ferry, starting from the earth mountain tunnel. The public also makes it in order to respond. In the Shao shooting camp, the arrow is like rain, and all the walkers were frightened. At that time, the public food was small, and discussed with Xun Jianshu about the desire to return” (6). It can be seen that after the siege of white horse was solved, not only the situation of Guandu battlefield was still not conducive to Cao Cao, but also the supply of grain and grass was seriously insufficient. So at that time, many people had contacts with Yuan Shao secretly, trying to make a way for Cao Cao after his failure. After defeating Yuan Shao, Cao Cao once seized a large number of secret correspondence between Cao Cao’s army generals and Xuchang officials and Yuan Shao. Cao Cao burned it without asking (7), saying: “when Shao is strong, you can’t protect yourself, let alone everyone!” (8)?
In addition to the unfavorable battlefield situation, Cao Cao’s rear area was also threatened by sun CE, another major military force from Jiangdong, “Cao Gong and Yuan Shao refused Guandu, and CE Yin wanted to attack Xu. Welcome the Han Emperor, rule troops secretly, and deploy generals” (9).
Therefore, in such a big background that is quite unfavorable to Cao Cao, does Guan Yu’s return to Liu Bei necessarily mean that just because of Liu Bei’s “kindness”, he “vowed to die together, not to betray it. I will not stay in the end”, and then rebelled again? I find it hard to say. Because the last time when he was in xiapi, Guan Yu surrendered because Cao Cao’s soldiers pressed the border. This time, although he killed Yan Liang at the beginning of the battle of Guandu and became a famous general of Cao camp at one stroke, Cao Cao’s subsequent situation is really not optimistic. There is a wide gap in troops, food and grass, plus the threat from the rear sun CE. Generally speaking, according to common sense, Cao Cao is bound to lose nine times out of ten. However, it was precisely because Cao Cao had so many unfavorable factors that he finally won the battle that seemed to be doomed to defeat, and the battle of Guandu became one of the four classic battles in history. Just at this time, if Guan Yu goes to Liu Bei, the former master of Yuan Shao camp, whose troops are absolutely dominant, if Yuan Shao wins, will he get better treatment? I guess it’s OK. Then why doesn’t he directly join Yuan Shao? Looking at the front, Guan Yu killed Yan Liang and solved the siege of white horse in one fell swoop, which led to the failure of Yuan Shao’s early tactical plan. At the same time, it also hit the morale of Yuan Shao army. “Both good and ugly are famous generals of Yuan Shao,… Hearing birds, the Shao army was shocked” (10). As a person of Yuan Shao, if you go to take refuge immediately, I’m afraid you won’t have a good face, so you should go to the old master Liu Bei first and be safe, And the reason is “swear to die together, you can’t recite it. I won’t stay in the end”, which is very good-looking in face.
Unfortunately, Guan Yu said this after something happened.
After being captured by Lv Bu in Xuzhou, Liu Bei went to take refuge in Cao Cao, who had sent a senior general Xia Houdun to reinforce him. Later, Cao Cao gave some soldiers to Liu Bei and led the army and Liu Bei to attack Xuzhou. At that time, Lv Bu could not resist the attack of Cao Jun, so he sent a man named Qin Yilu to Yuan Shu for reinforcements. He knew that Qin Yilu was favored by Yuan Shu and forced him to marry a clan woman of the Han Dynasty, His wife Du was still in xiapi.
When Guan Yu besieged the city, he asked Cao Cao to say that Qin Yilu helped Lv Bu to ask for help. As a punishment for him, after the army broke the city, he hoped to give his wife Du Shi to himself, and Cao Cao agreed. Knowing that later when the city was about to break down, Guan Yu talked about it to Cao Cao again and again. What kind of person Cao Cao was, he immediately became suspicious that Du Shi was a beautiful woman. So after the destruction of the city, Cao Cao gave an order to bring Du first for himself to see. At this glance, I found that she was indeed a peerless beauty, and immediately lived for herself.
Of course, Guan Yu would be very unhappy and dissatisfied with Cao Cao’s act of seizing love like this. At the same time, he told Cao Cao that it was because Qin Yilu helped Lu Bu to ask for help, so as a punishment for him, he wanted to give his wife Du Shi to himself. In fact, it was because Cao Cao Cao saw through his coveted idea of Du Shi. (11)
Later, the Qin Yilu also surrendered to Cao Cao. Cao Cao named him Zhang Chang, and Du gave birth to a son at Cao Cao. Ju said it was the flesh and blood of Qin Yilu, so his surname was Qin Lang. Cao Cao liked him very much. He once said, “does anyone love fake children like orphans?” (12) , because Qin Lang grew up with Cao Pi and Cao Rui at Cao Cao’s place, he was rich and famous for a while, and was almost left alone by the Ming Emperor (13). From this point of view, Cao Cao likes Du very much, loves Wu and Wu, and even Qin Yilu’s son has been stained with light.
However, in this way, Du Shi was already a pregnant woman with a large stomach when he was surrounded in the city. Think about Guan Yu and Cao Cao, who were both fascinated by a pregnant woman, and could make Cao Cao, who had always been famous for his talent, renege on his promise, and still renege on Guan Yu, a brave general of ten thousand enemies. It can be seen that Du Shi’s beauty is not trivial, It should be called a peerless beauty.
Guan Yu naturally has to bear such a powerful dream lover who has been violently robbed of his love by Cao Cao. It may have been said to his several close friends like brothers, so later when Zhang Fei retreated when Cao Cao attacked Xuzhou again, he wanted to take Qin Yilu with him. After all, he was Qin Lang’s father and might be useful in the future. That knows that the loser actually wanted to turn back halfway, but was stabbed to death by Zhang Fei (14). When Zhang Fei persuaded him to leave, he said to the effect that: someone robbed your wife, and you were still an official for him. Why didn’t you use this? This sentence is also quite suitable for Guan Yu. Thinking that Cao Cao robbed his dream lover for nothing, his heart must be very angry.
Based on the above situation, the argument that Guan Yu is not a good woman is obviously nonsense. On the battlefield of the confrontation between the two armies, he was so obsessed with a potbellied and beautiful pregnant woman that he repeatedly mentioned to the commander Cao Cao that he would take her as his own. Of course, he was an extremely standard lecher. But at this time, Cao Cao, who had been a good-natured and unruly man since he was young, saw through his deception trick and snatched away his dream lover and beautiful pregnant woman in the oblique stab. At that time, Guan Yu must be afraid and hate in his heart, afraid that his deception trick was seen through by Cao Cao, and hate that his dream lover was taken away by Cao Cao. In addition, at the time of Guandu, Cao Cao’s side was going to lose, looking from left to right, looking up and down. At this time, if he relied on his reputation of killing Yan Liang to take refuge in Yuan Shao, who was obviously much more powerful, it was naturally the best choice. Maybe in those letters burned by Cao Cao Cao, the letter about Yu to Yuan Shao and Liu Bei was also unknown.
But knowing the result of his gaining righteousness and fame in this way, he lost one of his own lives. Later, when Guan Yu was defeated in Maicheng, Sun Quan thought that “wolves cannot be raised, and they will be harmed later. Cao Gong did not immediately eliminate them, but proposed to relocate the capital. How can he live now! (15)” therefore, Sun Quan rejected the proposal of a group of his subordinates to surrender, and killed Guan Yu with a knife. If our previous assumptions are true, Guan Yu can also be qualified to say that “all the tricks were done, but Qing Qing’s life was missed”.
(1) Annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu Shu and Guan Yu Zhuan: run for Zhuo county. The first lord joined the disciples in the village, and Yu and Zhang Fei resisted the aggression.
(2) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu Shu” and “biography of the first lord”: good friends with heroes, young people fight for attachment. Zhang Shiping, Su Shuang and other big businessmen in Zhongshan have a lot of money. They peddle horses in Zhuojun. They see different things, but most of them are gold. The first lord is the reason to use and unite the disciples “.
(3) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu Shu” and “Guan Yu Zhuan”: the first lord attacked and killed chezhou, the governor of Xuzhou, so that Yu could guard xiapi city and do Taishou affairs “.
(4) Annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu Shu and biography of Guan Yu: in the fifth year of Jian’an, Cao Gong fought eastward, and the first lord ran to Yuan Shao. Cao Gong captured Yu and returned home. He worshiped him as a general, and the ceremony was very thick. Annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wei Shu, Emperor Wu Ji:… Prepare to go to bengshao and get his wife. Prepare Guan yutun xiapi, resume the attack, and Yu Jiang. “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu Shu” and “biography of the first master”: Cao Gongdong conquered the first master, and the first master failed. Cao Gong collected all his people, took the wife of the former Lord and returned with Guanyu. The first Lord went to Qingzhou.
(5) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu” and “biography of Guan Yu”: Yu saw the cover of Liang Hui, drove his horse to stab Liang in the crowd, beheaded him, and Shaozhu generals could not be the one, so he solved the white horse siege. Cao Gong, namely, sealed Yu as the Marquis of Hanshou Pavilion. At the beginning, Cao gongzhuangyu was a man, and after observing that his mind had no intention of staying for a long time, Zhang Liao said, “Qing tried to ask him with affection.” After Liao asked Yu, Yu sighed, “I know very well that Cao Gong treated me well, but I received general Liu’s kindness and vowed to die together. I won’t stay. I want to take effect to repay Cao Gong.” Liao Dynasty reported to Cao Gong with Yu Yan, and Cao Gong was righteous. Naiyu killed Yan Liang. Cao Gong knew that he would go and rewarded him again. Yu sealed all his gifts, said goodbye to the book, and ran to the former Lord yuan Jun. When the left and right wanted to chase him, Cao Gong said, “each of them is his own master. Don’t chase him.” “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu Shu” and “biography of the former master”: “Cao Gong and Yuan Shaoxiang refused to cross the border, Runan yellow turban, Liu PI and other rebels should be Shao. Shao sent the former master’s soldiers and PI and other slightly promised. Guan Yu died and returned to the former master”.
(6) See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the book of Wei, and Emperor Wu Ji.
(7) “The annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “the book of Wei” and “the chronicle of Emperor Wu”: “if you can’t catch up with it, collect all its supplies, books and treasures,… In the public collection of Shao books, you can make a promise and burn the books of people in the army”.
(8) See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the book of Wei, and Emperor Wu Ji.
(9) See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the book of Wu, and the biography of sun CE.
(10) See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the book of Wei, and Emperor Wu Ji.
(11) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Shu Shu Shu” and “biography of Guan Yu”: Cao Gong and Liu Bei surrounded Lu Bu in xiapi, Guan Yu Qi Gong, and the cloth envoy Qin Yilu went to ask for help, begged to marry his wife, and promised him. When it is broken, it is often revealed to the public. The public suspected that he had a different color, so he greeted him in advance. Because he kept it for himself, Yu Xin was uneasy. “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Wei Shu”, “Emperor Ming Ji”: (Qin) Lang’s father’s name is Yi Lu. He was an envoy of Lu Bu and learned Yuan Shu. His wife was a patriarchal daughter of the Han Dynasty. His ex-wife Du left PI. When cloth was surrounded, Guan Yu repeatedly asked Taizu to take Du as his wife. Taizu doubted his color and city subsidence. Taizu saw it and accepted it.
(12) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Wei Shu” and “Emperor Ming Ji”: (Qin) Lang followed his mother’s livestock in the public palace, and the Taizu loved it very much. Every seat, the guests said: does anyone love fake children as lonely?.
(13) Records of the Three Kingdoms, Wei Shu, Ming Di Ji: (Qin) Lang roamed among the princes and experienced the world of martial arts and literature without special mention. And the Ming emperor ascended the throne, and was granted an official within the palace as a cavalry general. During the service, Lang often followed every car in and out. At that time, the emperor of Ming Dynasty liked to do things. There were a few people who made great changes with a slight degree. Lang couldn’t stop at last, and he didn’t taste a good person. The emperor was also dear; Every counselor should call his small character “Jesus” more, and add a few rewards, so as to build a great place in the capital. Although the four sides know that Lang and incompetence are beneficial, they still regard the nearby supreme, and many bribes are left, and the rich are all princes The emperor took Yan Wangyu as the general, and assisted the government with the leading general Xia HouXian, the general Cao Shuang of Wu Kai, the lieutenant Cao Zhao of tunqi school, and the general Qin Lang of Xiaoqi,… The emperor said, “I’m trapped and can’t.” Immediately after being released, he took the emperor’s hand and forced it, so he went out and said, “there is an imperial edict to exempt Yan Wang Yu and other officials, and they must not stop in the province.” Yu, Zhao, Xian, Lang Xiang returned with tears.
(14) “Annals of the Three Kingdoms”, “Wei Shu”, “Emperor Ming Ji”: (Qin) Yi Lu came back and thought it was long. After Liu Bei left Xiaopei, Zhang Fei followed him and said, “if someone takes your wife and does it well, it’s Chi Chi. If it’s evil, let me go?” Yi Lu from the number, regret to return, fly to kill.
(15) See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu and the biography of Guan Yu.