Han Xin was the founder of the Western Han Dynasty and the first one killed. So what kind of person is Han Xin? What kind of family background does he have?
The historical records once wrote a biography for Han Xin called biographies of the Marquis of Huaiyin. At the beginning of the biography, it was said that Han Xin, the Marquis of Huaiyin, was also a man of Huaiyin. When he was clothed, he was poor and good at carrying swords. These words tell us some information: first, Han Xin used to be a cloth. What is cloth clothes? That is, those without an official position – those with an official position can wear brocade, while those without an official position can only wear cloth. But please note that this cloth is not pure cotton now, because at that time there was no cotton in China. This cloth is linen. Second, Han Xin has no money. Poverty in ancient times means having no money; Poverty means no official position – in ancient times, the words “poor” and “poor” were two concepts. We can see now that Han Xin has neither money nor official position, so we can say that he is poor. The third message tells us that Han Xin is good at carrying swords. So does he have a knife or a sword? My conclusion is that Han Xin brought a sword. Why? Because ancient Chinese used to use two words in order to sound good, and the first word was often empty. For example, there is no delay, only urgency; So “Dao Jian”, I think there is no “Dao”, only “Jian”. Sima Qian also wrote later that after the uprising of Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu, Han Xin joined the army with a sword. It can be seen that Han Xin usually carries a sword. What does this information tell us? Tell us Han Xin has noble status. At that time, only those with noble status were qualified to carry swords. At that time, the metallurgical technology was not high, and it was not easy to cast a good sword. When we read some ancient documents or stories, it is often said that after a sword cannot be cast, someone must jump into the stove to cast a good sword, so the sword is very noble. We read martial arts novels. Most of the great Xia use swords. Do you think there is a great Xia who uses an axe or two hammers? That’s not proper. Only with a long gown, a book in his hand and a noble sword here, can he look chic. From this we draw a conclusion that Han Xin may be a poor aristocrat. Then the question arises. As a poor aristocrat, how did Han Xin spend his youth? What happened to him?
Sima Qian told us that Han Xin has an aristocratic identity and a sword – I guess it may be ancestral, and Han Xin can’t afford it – but he has neither virtue nor skill. According to historical books, “no one can choose an official without doing anything”, that is to say, Han Xin has no good social performance. Therefore, when recruiting low-level civil servants – called “officials” – in local areas, people don’t recruit him. Then he said that Han Xin could not “govern the living merchants”. What is a merchant? Merchants are people who sell goods. Jia is a person who opens a shop and sells things with a fixed address. This is called “a merchant sitting on a Jia”. Han Xin doesn’t have this skill. He can’t do business – he can’t do business or sit down. How should he eat? Han Xin is “feeding from others”, that is, he can only go to other people’s homes to have a meal, so “many people hate him”, that is, the local people hate him very much. A big man, who carries a sword all day, can’t do anything, and makes a living everywhere. Will such a man be liked?
Han Xin often goes to a family called Nanchang TingChang. What kind of position is TingChang? At that time, the system was called ten li as Pavilion and ten Pavilion as Township, that is, ten villages together were called one Pavilion and ten pavilions together were called one township. It can be inferred that the pavilion head is half a grade lower than the township head and half a grade higher than the village head. This person is such a post. This pavilion is called Nanchang Pavilion. It is not Nanchang City in Jiangxi Province. It is two completely different concepts. The Nanchang Pavilion leader probably had some money. Han Xin went to his house to have a meal every day, which made his wife angry. Finally, Nanchang TingChang’s wife thought of a way: get up in the middle of the night to cook, bring the rice to bed before dawn, and the whole family will eat it up. Han Xin got up in the morning and came to have a meal. He saw that the meal had been finished. Of course, Han Xin understands that people hate him. As soon as he became angry, he broke up with Nanchang Pavilion – I won’t play with you – and he has a big temper.
Then what did he do? Go fishing by the river. If you think about him, I don’t think he can catch the fish. At that time, there were several old women who washed cotton wadding along the river. They were called floating mothers. At that time, the silky cotton wadding had to be washed in the river. These floating mothers brought their own food when they came to wash the catkins every day. One of them felt pity for Han Xin when he saw that he had no food to eat, so they gave him the food they brought. When they went to wash the catkins every day, they gave Han Xin food every day. One day when she finished her drift work, she told Han Xin that I would not come tomorrow. You can figure out how to eat in the future. Han Xin said, thank you, madam. I will repay you in the future. The floating mother said that the big husband can’t support himself. What else can she say? I’m just sympathizing with you. Are you still making such big talk?
Therefore, Han Xin at this time is not a likeable person. Because he is not liked, everyone looks down on him, and if they look down on him, someone will humiliate him. One day, a local ruffian in the Huaiyin market came to humiliate Han Xin and said, “Han Xin, come here. You are a tall guy. You usually carry a sword around. I think you are a coward! As soon as he said this, a large crowd gathered around Hula to watch the excitement. This guy became more angry and said, Han Xin, don’t you have a sword? Aren’t you afraid of death? If you are not afraid of death, you will stab me with your sword! Dare you give me a sword? Dare you? Then you climb between my legs.
Everyone looked at Han Xin. Is it killing? Or climb? How about Han Xin? Sima Qian described it in three words: “who sees it?”. This “who” uses the “who” of “which is tolerable, which is intolerable”, but it is common with mature “familiar”. “Who sees” is staring at him. After looking at him for a while, he lowered his head, climbed over the rogue’s crotch, and then lay on the ground. Seeing this scene, all the people in the city laughed – all the people in the street laughed. This is the famous Han Xin who suffered “crotch humiliation”.
The humiliation of the crotch is a great humiliation for a man. As we said earlier, Han Xin is a poor aristocrat and a scholar. Everyone knows that a scholar can be killed but not humiliated. Why did Han Xin accept such a great humiliation? Is he still not a scholar? Is he a hero or a coward?
Mr. Boyang has an interesting saying. Don’t think that bending your knees is cowardice. There are two kinds of situations: the first is that you lose your soul because you are afraid and scared. You are a coward who kneels down with a “plop”; The other is to bend first and then jump up – because people can only jump high after squatting down – if they squat down to jump higher in the future, it is a hero. If someone provokes you, you will jump on it and bite it hard. What is this? It’s a crab.
Han Xin is certainly not a crab. We can also quote the viewpoint of an article by Sudongpo to explain this problem. This article is called liuhou Lun. Who is it about? It’s Zhang Liang, not Han Xin. But I think the opening paragraph of “liuhou Lun” can be applied to Han Xin. This passage goes like this: “in ancient times, the so-called heroic people must have a special day, and their human feelings can not be tolerated. It is not brave for a man to see humiliation, draw his sword and stand up and fight. There are great brave people in the world, who are not surprised when they die, and who are not angry for no reason. They are very powerful and have a great ambition.” What does this passage mean? “When an ordinary man sees an insult, he pulls out his sword.” that is to say, after being insulted, the first reaction of those ordinary people and small people is this: pull out a knife or take out a fist. I say this is not brave. What is it called? This is called recklessness, this is called blind action, not really great wisdom and courage. What is the true great courage? It is “not surprised when you die, not angry when you add it for no reason” — when you suddenly face something, you look the same, do not panic, and others do not get angry when they add a charge to you for no reason. This is the courage of a gentleman, a hero and a husband. Why do you say that? “The kidnapper is very big, and his ambition is very far” — such a person, with lofty aspirations and ideals, has a long-term goal, and he will not recklessly act blindly for this little right and wrong or petty kindness and resentment at present. Therefore, there is a saying that “a little intolerance will lead to big plans”. What is the choice Han Xin faces at this time? Either kill this guy or climb over. What’s the result of killing this guy? You will also be beheaded. Can you realize your lofty ideals in the future? It can’t be realized. And a man with lofty ideals can bear it. Sima Qian was such a man. He was tortured in the palace. This is also a great humiliation for a man. It is something that a man can’t accept. Hasn’t he endured it? Why should we put up with it? He wanted to finish the great book historical records. Han Xin also had a lofty ideal, so he “looked at it” – stared at the scoundrel for a long time – had a fierce ideological struggle, and finally sacrificed his present honor or disgrace for his lofty ideal. I think there must have been a voice in Han Xin’s heart saying to himself, Han Xin, Han Xin, a knife on the head of the heart, just bear it! This is called enduring humiliation. So we come to the conclusion that Han Xin is a hero with lofty ideals and aspirations. Such a hero will never be satisfied with such a life. The fly camp dog lives in this world. He must make a difference! So, what does Han Xin do? How did he embark on a new life path?
Since Han Xin is a hero, and “he has a great threat and a great ambition”, he will not do nothing in this era when all kinds of heroes show their skills. How did Han Xin become a man of the moment? After he joined the army, he failed in Xiangyu and Liu Bang. How did his fate change?
When Han Xin finally became a hero, he met a situation, which is “the situation makes a hero”. At the end of the Qin Dynasty, there was great chaos in the world. Chen Sheng, Wu Guang and other heroes in all directions, led by Chen Sheng, Wu Guang, all stood up to fight against the violent Qin Dynasty. At this time, an uprising also took place in Hanxin’s hometown. Xiangyu’s uncle Xiangliang pulled up a rebel army, so Hanxin “followed it with a sword” — Hanxin joined the army with his sword. After Han Xin joined the army, he followed Xiangliang first, and then followed Xiangyu. However, Xiangyu didn’t pay attention to him. Sima Qian summarized the situation of Han Xin at this time in four words: “unknown” – Han Xin was not well-known at that time. He felt that he had no future in Xiangyu, so he went to Liu Bang. What did Liu Bang ask him to be? Liu Bang asked him to be Lian Ao, who was the receptionist and the public relations man. Han Xin is a decent looking man. He is a handsome man. It is good to do reception work. At this time, Han Xin’s state is also four words: “not well-known”. Well, once Han Xin and several of his colleagues broke the military law and were beheaded in accordance with the law, one by one. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven… Killed thirteen at one go. It was Hanxin’s turn. The executioner called Hanxin out to kill him. At this time, Hanxin looked up and saw a man named xiahouying. Who is xiahouying? Xiahouying was Liu Bang’s buddy. He had been with Liu Bang since childhood. He revolted with Liu Bang and later became Liu Bang’s imperial servant. The position of imperial servant was translated as a coachman for Liu Bang. But you should know that according to the system at that time, this
Your servant is a minister level official; Of course, at that time, Liu Bang was not an emperor, but a vassal king, so this servant was at least a vice minister level. When Han Xin saw xiahouying, he shouted, “don’t our king want to win the world?”? Why kill heroes? Xiahouying said, eh! Why are there such people? Come here, come here. Sima Qian used six words to describe it: “strong in appearance, strange in behavior.”. When xiahouying saw Han Xin, he was very happy! He was a good-looking man. After talking to him, he found that he was right. If he didn’t kill him, he recommended him to Xiao He. Because Han Xin was found to be a talented person, he not only didn’t kill him, but also changed his position to a new position, which was called the millet governor, equivalent to the chief of the Department. Therefore, Han Xin has been depressed and frustrated since he joined the work. He can’t display his talents as a bodyguard, a receptionist, and a superintendent. So what was the reason why Han Xin changed his fate and made him a man of the moment in the early Western Han Dynasty?
Xiao He is Han Xin’s recommender and benefactor in his career. Xiao He is also an old Liu Bang. He revolted with Liu Bang and has always been in charge of all the chores of Liu Bang. In fact, he is Liu Bang’s big housekeeper and prime minister. At this time, Liu Bang’s situation is not good. He has been defeated repeatedly, and he doesn’t see any future. Therefore, one by one, the people under Liu Bang left him and went to other places – or to Xiangyu, or to stand on their own mountain – the people under Liu Bang
Ran a lot at once. Han Xin thought, hey! I have a bad life, too. I am not promising to go to Xiangliang, Xiangyu, and Liu Bang. Now those people who are older than me have left. What am I doing here? What’s more, I have asked Xiao He to submit my ideas to Liu Bang many times. He has never paid any attention to me. What am I doing here? So Han Xin also left.
Xiao He was worried as soon as Han Xin left. He didn’t even have time to report to Liu Bang. He immediately chased him and went after Han Xin overnight. At this time, some of his subordinates went to report Liu Bang, your majesty, it’s bad. The prime minister ran away! Liu Bang was shocked. Why did Xiao he run away? Xiao He is his chief steward. Everything is in the charge of Xiao He. If others run away, Xiao He also runs away… Liu Bang is so anxious that he wanders around the house. After two days, Xiao He came back. Liu Bang didn’t go anywhere when he was angry. Where the hell have you been? Why did you go? Why did you run away? Xiao He said, “I didn’t run away. I went after the people who ran away.”. Liu Bang said, who did you chase? what? Han Xin, bullshit! You don’t chase so many generals when they run away. What can you chase after a Han Shixin? You are lying! Xiao He said, no, other people are ordinary talents. If you catch a large number of them, you can find them everywhere. There is nothing to pursue; Han Xin is different from these people.
Xiao He used four words to evaluate Han Xin, which was called “unparalleled among Chinese scholars”. What is a Guoshi? Guoshi is the best talent in a country. If you add matchless, it is the unique and best talent. Xiao He said that it depends on your consideration. If you plan to stay in Hanzhong for the rest of your life and become the king of Hanzhong, Han Xin is of no use. What does Han Xin do? Hanshin is a pioneer in the world. It is to help you get such talents in China. If you have that idea, Hanshin must. Liu Bang said, of course, I also want to go out. Who wants to stay in this ghost place all his life? Xiao He said, is that true? Then you must use Han Xin. Liu Bang said, well, let him be a general for your sake. Xiao He said, that’s no good. Let him be a general and he still has to go. Liu Bang said, do you want to go when you are a general? Then be a general. Xiao He said, that would be great – “fortunately”.
What is a general? He is the commander in chief of the three armed forces and the Supreme Commander
Commander in chief. I guess Liu Bang blurted out that he couldn’t even be a general, so he would have been a general. Who knows, Xiao He said that was great, and Liu Bang had no way to turn around. Liu Bang said, that’s good. Go and get Han Youxin. Call him to me, and I’ll let him be a general. Xiao He said, it’s no good just doing this. Liu Bang asked, why not? Xiao He said, you are such a person. You are impolite and don’t respect talents. Look, you want to appoint a general and commander in chief of the three armed services, but you call and call like a cat and a dog. What’s the deal? So people like Han Xin don’t want to work under you. Liu Bang asked, what would you do? Xiao He said that there are four conditions: first, you should choose an auspicious day; In the second fast, you should put aside the wine, meat and women and eat vegetarian food for three days; Third, to build an altar, you should build a special altar for worshiping generals; Fourth, you should prepare all the etiquette, take a bath in fragrant soup, change into clean clothes, and respectfully worship him as a senior general. Liu Bang said, OK.
Although Liu Bang is illiterate, rude, abusive, and has little ability, he does have one advantage: he can listen to opinions – he will take whatever advice you give him as long as he thinks it is correct. Therefore, although Xiao he proposed these conditions, which were not very acceptable to Liu Bang, he did so.
Therefore, Liu Bang chose auspicious things, fasted, built altars, gave gifts, bathed in fragrant soup, and respectfully worshipped Han Xin as a great general. At this time, the whole army was in an uproar. All people think that we generals have made great achievements in war, and the post of general has been vacant. We only saw Liu Bang busy building altars, setting up flags, setting up incense cases and killing pigs and sheep in that place. We all thought that we could be the post of general. But when the letter of appointment was officially announced, alas, it was all prepared for the unknown Han Xin! Where did such a brat come from? So everyone didn’t think so. They were shocked and muttered.
In fact, it’s strange to say that when Liu Bang worshiped Han Xin as a senior general, he didn’t know Han Xin, and didn’t even say that he would ask Han Xin to talk about it, investigate it, and see what he was like. Shouldn’t you come to a cadre to investigate such an important position? No, Just Xiao He’s words, Liu Bang made such a major decision. Can he be relied on?
Therefore, after worshiping the general, Liu Bang and Han Xin had a talk. After sitting down, Liu Bang asked Han Xin, this prime minister Xiao recommended the general to me again and again. Is the general going to teach me something? Han Xin said, first of all, thank you for your trust in Han Xin. Han Xin wants to ask you if King Xiang is the one who competes with you for the world? Liu Bang said yes. Han Xin said, well, please weigh it up by yourself. In terms of personal ability and charm, and in terms of the power and influence of your own group, can you compare with Xiang Wang? Han Xin asked such a question at the very beginning. Liu Bang couldn’t answer it at once. Sima Qian wrote here that the king of Han Dynasty was “silent for a long time”, but he was silent for a long time. Finally, he said three words: “not as good as you”, which is not comparable to him.
So Han Xin stood up, knelt down and paid tribute, and said, congratulations to the king. The king was very right. Even I, Han Xin, think you can’t compare with Xiang Wang, either in terms of personal ability and charm or in terms of the strength of our whole group. Why does Han Xin want to “celebrate”? Why congratulate Liu Bang? Because Han Xin found that Liu Bang was a person who sought truth from facts and told the truth, he was easy to deal with. We are most afraid that the leader who serves the leader will not listen to the truth. If he specifically wants to listen to lies and likes you to flatter him, he can’t do this. Liu Bang is good. He doesn’t want you to flatter him. He admits that I’m not as good as Xiangyu, so it’s easy to say. Han Xin went on to say that, even so, Han Xin, I don’t think King Xiang is invincible. I used to work under King Xiang. I know King Xiang very well. Please allow me Han Xin to analyze King Xiang’s personality for you. What is king Xiang like? Xiangyu has two characteristics that seem to be advantages but are actually disadvantages. First, Xiangyu is a very heroic man. He is majestic, powerful, brave and good at fighting – according to the history books, Xiangyu is capable of carrying tripods, that is, even tripods can be lifted up – and every time he fights, Xiangyu takes the lead in fighting and charging. Once he rushes into the enemy camp and roars, thousands of people are silent, silent and frightened. You can’t compare with him, the king of the Han Dynasty. But Xiangyu doesn’t know how to use talents. He doesn’t know how to use the talents, the virtuous people, the brave people and the wise people under his command correctly. He only knows how to attack the enemy alone. He is a personal heroist. What is this kind of courage? Han Xin gave a four word evaluation: “the courage of a man” – this is the courage of a small man, the courage of a worthless man. Second, Xiangyu is very polite to people, soft hearted, respectful and kind. But on the other hand, Xiangyu is stingy and his subordinates
You should be granted an official title and a reward. But what did king Xiang do? He also granted a reward and would cast an official seal for you, but after the seal was cast, Xiangyu pinched it in his hand and grinded it in his hand. Finally, he grinded the square seal into a round one. He just couldn’t bear to give it to others. What is it called? This is called the benevolence of women. Is Xiangyu kind? Xiaoenxiaohui sent rice to the soldiers in tears. Xiangyu also did this; But when it came to being an official, he was reluctant to give it.
Therefore, the two characteristics of Xiang Yu seem to be advantages, but in fact they are disadvantages. In addition, he made some mistakes. For example, when he was enfeoffing princes, he did not reward them for their merits, but sealed the big one if he had a good relationship with himself, and the small one if he had a bad relationship with himself. In this way, Xiang Yu was greatly unpopular. Besides, how could he win the world by burning, killing, looting and plundering all the way? It is impossible for him to win the world. After you entered Guanzhong, King Han, everything you did was very good and won the hearts of the people. The Sanqin people are looking forward to you becoming king in qindi. Han Xin finally said, “the Sanqin area can be decided by the call of arms”, that is to say, if you want to send a war note, the Sanqin area will be yours immediately.
When Liu Bang heard this, he couldn’t help cheering and saying, I haven’t heard anyone make such a clear analysis of the whole situation over the years of fighting. This analysis is really thorough. So he said to Han Xin, oh, I hate to meet you so late!
It can be seen that Liu Bang’s appointment of Han Xin as a top general is a very correct decision, but there are problems. What are the problems? We can not say for sure that Han Xin is an outstanding military strategist at present – his political analysis does show his great talent, foresight and foresight; However,
It is a matter that needs practical operation and should be proved by practice. So, whether Han Xin can fight a war and help Liu Bang win the world still needs to be tested by practice. Therefore, we also need to find out whether Han Xin has any military talent, what kind of wars he has commanded, and what the results of these wars are. What contributions did Han Xin make to Liu Bang in these wars? What mistakes and mistakes have you made?
Please look at the next lecture “the mystery of Han Xin’s merits and demerits”. Thank you!
Liu Bang and Han Xin had never known each other. With only Xiao He’s words, he worshipped Han Xin as a general and handed him the military power. Han Xin and Liu Bang had a very important conversation. Their excellent analysis of the current situation really showed Han Xin’s talent, vision and foresight.
Since then, Han Xin has been like a fish in water and a dragon in the sea. So, can Han Xin help Liu Bang win the world? How did he make contributions? What merits and mistakes did he make to make himself a man with both merits and demerits?
After Han Xin was appointed as a general by Liu Bang, he soon showed his military genius. He led the Han Army to fix the three Qin Dynasties, collect the Han and Wei dynasties, capture the king of Wei and capture Xia. At that time, the Han Dynasty was in the west, and Zhao was in Handan, Hebei Province. After Liu Bang had settled some places such as Sanqin and Wei, he ordered Han Xin to send troops to attack the state of Zhao. Where will the troops go? At that time, soldiers were dispatched from a pass in Taihang Mountain, which was called Jingxing pass. It was very dangerous and the road was very narrow.
At that time, the king of the state of Zhao was called zhaoxie, and his commander-in-chief was called Chenyu. Chen Yu had a very excellent subordinate called Li zuoche, a very famous military strategist in history. Han Xin has great risks in this battle: first, Zhao Guo is the home team and Han Xin is the visiting team. Just like us, where you play, the local team always takes advantage of you; Second, the army of the state of Zhao at that time was known as 200000, while Han Xin’s army was only more than 10000, which was obviously outnumbered by the enemy; Third, the state of Zhao is fighting in its own country, and Han Xin is attacking thousands of miles. This is called “enemy labor and leisure”. These situations should be very bad for Han Xin. Nevertheless, Li zuoche was very cautious. He told Chen Yu that the war was obviously unfavorable to Han Xin. He dared to fight. He must be prepared for his thousands of miles of attack. We can’t take it lightly. Marshal, please give me twentythousand elite soldiers, take a path to the rear of Han Xin’s army and cut off its food and grass; After the Han army came to our Zhaodi, he asked Marshal Jianbi not to fight, but not to fight with him. If you don’t fight with him, he will be defeated without fighting.
But Chen Yu, marshal of the state of Zhao, is a bookworm. He is very bookish. What does he say? He said, hey, I have made it clear that Han Xin’s army is known as 10000, but only thousands. Now we are dozens of times larger than the Han army. What can it be? Besides, how can our righteous teachers use your intrigues to cut off their food and grass and take the back road? Alas, it’s not fair to do so. Since we are going to fight, we must put up an array and fight with this boy openly. People all over the world will never underestimate the state of Zhao again!
In this way, he didn’t listen to Li zuoche’s advice. Han Xin has intelligence personnel. He was overjoyed when he heard that Chen Yu did not adopt Li zuoche’s suggestion – that’s great! Make an order, send troops, cross jingxingkou, just go, go to the border of Zhao, and set up camp. In the middle of the night, Han Xin issued an order saying that all the troops would give their soldiers some snacks to cushion their stomachs, and they would come back to dinner tomorrow morning when we destroyed the state of Zhao.
When you think about it, it’s just a fantasy. We’ve been rushing for thousands of miles. There are a large number of people. It’s a question whether we can fight this battle. You also say that we will have breakfast and dinner after we destroy it tomorrow morning? Isn’t that a boast? But Han Xin was a general and marshal. Everyone dared not answer back. They all said “yes” and went back to prepare. At daybreak, Han Xin ordered the troops to set out, and the troops moved forward and began to deploy. At that time, there was a river on the battlefield. On the other side of the river was the barracks of Zhao Jun. Han Xin transferred his troops across the river to arrange an array – a very dangerous array. So when Han Xin’s array was deployed, Zhao Jun laughed. Alas, Han Jun came to a fool and set up the array with water on his back, waiting to see his excitement.
The Han army here is also worried. How did it get done? Han Xin said to give orders – hold up the general’s flag, beat drums and March. what do you mean? That is to say, we should beat out the flag of his “Han Da General Han”, and then beat the drums and march with great fanfare.
As soon as Han Xin marched, Zhao Jun saw that the dead had come? They rushed out of the camp with weapons. The two armies fought for a long time. Han Xin ordered: withdraw! Throw the flags of the senior general, the middle general and the junior general on the ground; Throw the drums and gongs on the ground; We even threw our weapons on the ground… Let’s run, turn around, and go to the water army – there is a barracks on the water – and retreat back, all to the barracks on the water. The barracks on the water immediately opened the door, let the retreating Han Army in, and then prepared to fight again.
Zhao Jun came to see that the Han Army had been defeated in a mess, so everyone went to pick up the flags. Why did they pick up this thing? Because you can receive a reward when you pick up the general flag. In ancient wars, this flag was very important. If you take the general flag, you will get a big reward. In this way, Zhao Jun stopped fighting and went to pick up flags.
Earlier, Han Xin had sent twothousand light cavalry to ambush beside the Zhao camp. At this time, when he saw that the Zhao soldiers were pouring out to grab the flag, the twothousand light cavalry rushed into the Zhao camp, pulled out all the flags of the Zhao state, and inserted all the red flags of the Han army with him. Then he shouted loudly: this place belongs to the Han state!
Zhao Jun fought there and rushed forward; Han Xin’s army here has no way to retreat – it has already retreated to the water – it can only fight to the death, fight to the death, and be very brave. Zhao Jun couldn’t fight. When he looked back, he found that his base camp had been lost, and the army was in a great confusion. The soldier of Zhao Jun said, this battle can’t be fought. Let’s run for our lives! So all the birds and beasts scattered and scattered in a mass.
General Zhao Jun killed some deserters with a knife, but they could not be killed. At this time, the 2000 light cavalry of the Han army who occupied the Zhao camp and the Han Army on the water attacked the Zhao army. The final result was to kill the marshal Chen Yu of the Zhao army and capture Zhao Xie, the king of Zhao. Han Xin led the army to a complete victory.
The battle was a wonderful one. After the war, all the subordinates came to Han Xin’s military account to congratulate him and said, marshal, you led us to fight a beautiful battle, but we haven’t figured it out yet. The art of war teaches us that “the right times (back) mountain mausoleum, the left front water”, what does it mean? It means setting up camps and marching in formation. There should be a mountain behind us, so we have no worries about our future. After all, it is very difficult for the enemy to sneak attack us from the mountain behind us; It should have been water before the battle. After all, it is very difficult for the enemy to attack us through water. Generally, the barracks arranged like this are safe. However, marshal, you are just the opposite. Alas, we still can’t understand it after thinking about it.
After listening to these questions, Han Xin smiled and said, in fact, this truth is also said in the military book. It’s a pity that you don’t pay attention to it at ordinary times. What does the book of war say? In a battle like ours, where the weak win the strong and the few win the many, we must put our side to death before we can have combat effectiveness. Besides, what kind of army is our army? However, stragglers and mobs are not trained. They are temporarily assembled. This is called “driving the city people to fight”. It is tantamount to calling a group of people on the street temporarily and letting them fight without military training. Can he fight? The only way is to put them to death, so that each of them can feel that they are in danger of life, and then they must fight to the death and fight for their own lives.
It suddenly dawned on everyone. Oh, it turned out that we were not as convinced as marshal you. They were convinced by Han Xin.
At the same time, Han Xin gave another order, saying that if anyone saw Li zuoche, he was not allowed to hurt him. He must bring a living Li zuoche to general Ben. Later, Li zuoche was found. They took Li zuoche to Hanxin’s military camp. Hanxin asked him to untie him as soon as he saw Li zuoche, and then said, nice to meet you. Please. He asked Li zuoche to sit down in his account, and said very politely that I, Han Xin, am honored to meet general Li today. Now Han Xin has something to ask you, general. I want to make persistent efforts to fight Yan and Qi. Please tell me, how can I succeed?
At this time, Li zuoche said, “well, as the saying goes,” a wise man who cares a lot must make a mistake, and a fool who cares a lot must make a gain “– these 16 words are the original text of historical records, which is what Li zuoche said — so I’ll give you some advice. When you send troops to fight, you will overcome the attack, win the war, and be invincible. This is your strength, general; But your soldiers are very tired, and your national strength has also consumed a lot. This is your weakness, general. If you, general, want to make greater efforts to attack Qi and Yan after you have pacified Zhao, do you want to fight Qi? Or fight Yan? Qi is strong and Yan is weak. You may go to attack Yan, but your army is tired to this extent. Are you sure to attack Yan? If even the state of Yan can not attack, will the state of Qi submit to you in the future? It’s impossible. Today, Li zuoche designed it for General Han. I think your best way is to stop fighting. You can write a letter to Yan Guo to show off your military power and force and scare them first. The state of Yan is very weak. Seeing your great success and victory in the state of Zhao, you are likely to surrender without fighting. After Yan surrendered, you can write another letter to Qi and tell them that Yan has surrendered. What will happen to Qi? The state of Qi would follow suit. It is the best policy to win without fighting.
Han Xin said, “OK, I will do what you want, general.”. He did as Li zuoche intended, but Liu Bang was unwilling to do so. Liu Bang said, how can you, Han Xin, stand still? Let him move! So how did Liu Bang do it? Liu bangxian mobilized Han Xin’s army. At that time, another man named Zhang Er fought with Han Xin. Liu Bang himself came to Zhang Er’s army and followed Zhang Er’s army. Moreover, Liu Bang was a light chariot and a simple follower. He only brought one follower. This follower was his servant xiahouying, who was Liu Bang’s imperial coachman. In the early morning of one day, two people, driving their chariots and horses, claimed to be the envoys of the Han state – the messenger sent by the king of Han – rushed into Hanxin’s military camp before dawn. At this time, Hanxin was still sleeping. Liu Bang and xiahouying quietly walked into Hanxin’s account and took Hanxin’s official seal and military amulet in their hands. History books say “seize its seal” – seal is official seal, and amulet is military amulet. At that time, a general like Han Xin must have two things, one is his general seal, and the other is the military talisman. A military talisman is a thing carved into the shape of a tiger or other wild animals. It is cut in two from the middle. The leader takes half, and the decision-making commander takes the other half. When you want to transfer troops, you can take this half to the army. Take the other half and check it. This thing is called a talisman. What is the name of these two pieces if they are right? It’s called “conformity” – the word “conformity” comes from here. Liu Bang quietly went to Hanxin military camp and took the official seal and military talisman in his hand. Then he came out to redeploy the troops and redeployed them all again. After Liu Bang had transferred all the soldiers, Han Xin and Zhang Er woke up. They went out and said that the king of Han had come and had transferred all the soldiers. They were shocked, but there was nothing they could do. At this time, Liu Bang said, Han Xin, send troops to fight Qi. So Han Xin had no choice but to lead the army to fight against the state of Qi. Naturally, he won a complete victory.
In the whole process of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu competing for the world, Han Xin made great contributions to Liu Bang, and the fate between Han Xin and Liu Bang has always been regarded as a good story. So how did they turn over? What mistakes did Han Xin make in the process of making contributions?
Han Xin made mistakes when he attacked the state of Qi. In this process, Han Xin made two mistakes.
The first mistake was that he was reckless. At that time, after Liu Bang took Han Xin’s seal and redeployed troops, he ordered Han Xin to lead his troops to attack the state of Qi. Of course, Han Xin also went. But when he led his troops to the border of the state of Qi, there came a news that the state of Qi had surrendered to the Han – what was the matter? It turned out that when Liu Bang ordered Han Xin to send troops, he also sent a man to the state of Qi. His name was Li Shiqi. The word “Shiqi” was written as “Shiqi”, “Shiqi” was the “food” of diet, and “Qi” was the “other” Qi “, but as a human name, it should be read as” Yiji “. Li Shiqi is also a lobbyist and a debater. He lives by giving advice and talking. This guy went to the state of Qi to do the ideological work of the king of Qi with his three inch eloquence. The king of Qi agreed to surrender to the Han Dynasty and submit to Liu Bang, the king of Han Dynasty. So the two sides agreed on the terms of surrender. Li Shiqi also sent a letter to Liu Bang, saying that the state of Qi had been settled and there was no need for war. The king of Qi kept Li Shiqi there to drink.
At this time, Han Xin’s army was still advancing. When he got the news on the way, Han Xin thought to himself, this battle can’t be fought. How can we fight after we surrender? Kuai Tong, a fan Yang debater, gave Han Xin some advice. Kuai Tong said, general, King Han ordered you to attack the state of Qi, right? Han Xin said, yes, I have this order. Kuai Tong asked, did he order you to stop? Han Xin said that this order has not been received yet. Kuai Tong said, that’s right. You didn’t receive the order to stop your March. Why did you stop? Please think about it, general. How many cities have been laid down after decades of fighting? About 50 seats. How many cities did Li Shiqi say? Seventy two seats. Please think about it, general. Li Shiqi’s words are not as important as the soldiers in front of us who have fought bravely for several years? How can this credit be counted? Han Xin said, that’s right. What do you say? No matter who he is, fight and continue to fight.
After Han Xin continued to March, the king of Qi became angry. He said it well. I was obedient and the conditions were agreed. Why did he send troops to fight? You are deceiving me! The king of Qi immediately reacted and said angrily, you Li Shiqi is a liar, and it is your conspiracy that made me disarm – because now the whole state of Qi has 72 cities, and the king of Qi has no defense. He wanted to be a family with the king of Han. What defense should he set? But suddenly Han Xin’s army came.
The king of Qi was so angry that he ordered: “cook it.” He threw Li Shiqi into the oil pan. In this way, Han Xin destroyed Liu Bang’s entire strategic deployment. Why should we fight this war when we could have solved the problem of the state of Qi peacefully?
As far as this matter is concerned, it should be said that Han Xin ignored the overall situation. In order to add his own personal credit, he was not convinced of the contribution of Li Shiqi, the “envoy of peace”. As a result, so many people died! At this time, the war between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu is in a stalemate state. We don’t want to have too much to do. We don’t want to have too many problems. It’s best that Qi is all right. Han Xin’s army should come back to Xingyang as soon as possible. And Hanxin’s doing that must have disrupted Liu Bang’s entire strategic deployment, which was Hanxin’s first mistake.
What is the second mistake? It was also born out of the Qi state. After defeating the state of Qi by force, Han Xin sent a letter to Liu Bang, saying that the state of Qi is very troublesome, and the people here are capricious. You can see that it is on the side of the state of Han, and on the side of the state of Chu. It is a “country of repetition”. It is unreliable, and the people of the state of Qi can no longer be king here. Therefore, I, Han Xin, would like to ask you to make me Han Xin a fake king of Qi. A fake king of Qi is acting for the king of Qi. Let me act for the king of Qi and keep this place under control.
When Han Xin’s letter was sent to Liu Bang, what was the situation of Liu Bang? At that time, Liu Bang was besieged by Xiangyu’s army in Yingze, today’s Xingyang, Henan Province, and was waiting for Han Xin to send troops to save him, but the news he received was that Han Xin said he wanted to be a deputy king of Qi. So when Liu Bang saw this letter, he was so angry that he didn’t even beat the table. He said, asshole!
At this time, there were two people beside Liu Bang, Zhang Liang and Chen Ping. They kicked Liu Bang with their feet. After playing, the two said, your majesty, you can’t offend Han Xin at this time! If you think about it, we are now besieged in this place. Can we control him if he wants to be king in that place? Liu Bang thought, yes, you can’t scold Han Xin or offend him at this time, but I have already scolded him. What should I do? Liu Bang thought of an idea and continued to scold: asshole! A man should be serious when he is a king. Why should you, Han Xin, be a fake? Not promising, is it? Asshole! So Liu Bang sent Zhang Liang to send the seal of the king of Qi to Han Xin and let him be the real king of Qi.
What does this mean? It shows that Liu Bang has a strong adaptability. He immediately reacts and becomes very natural. He can bear it. Although he was angry at this time, he swallowed it and naturally changed his attitude. This is Liu Bang’s excellence. His move is similar to Han Xin’s tolerance of humiliation. But there is one thing we can be sure – although it is not written in the book, we can also guess – at the moment, Liu Bang hates Han Xin to the bone. You dare to rip me off, you dare to blackmail me! If you think about it, how can an emperor be blackmailed? Really? Who doesn’t remember this hatred? Who can forget this hatred? Now Liu Bang has no choice. He not only promised Han Xin to be king of Qi, but also rose from a fake to a real one, and gave him extra weight; But Liu Bang must be gnashing his teeth in his heart. Once I have the chance, I will never let you go. Han Xin, you will wait for me to clean you up after I turn over. We will settle accounts after autumn!
Therefore, although Han Xin obtained the title of king of Qi in this way, he also planted a curse in his relationship with Liu Bang. This curse will one day become a bad result. Of course, now is not the time.
As a last resort, Liu Bang made Han Xin king of Qi; But after the title was sealed, Han Xin still stood still. At this time, Liu Bang was besieged by Xiang Yu. He sent out many orders asking all the princes to come to rescue him, but no one came. Everyone sat on the mountain and watched the tiger fight. Liu Bang had no choice but to ask Zhang Liang what to do about it? Zhang Liang said that these people are fighting for their own interests. They all want to be princes, to get more land, and to get more rewards – horses are not fat without night grass, and people are not rich without windfall. If you don’t give them some carrots, these horses won’t go forward. Your way now is to make a wish for them, saying that after defeating Xiangyu and calming the world, you will give them somewhere. Liu Bang said, “OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK, OK.
After Liu Bang said this, all the princes gathered their troops to fight with Xiang Yu. This was the last battle of the Chu Han war. In this battle, Liu Bang used Zhang Liang’s trick to make the army sing the song of the state of Chu in all directions – the song of being besieged on all sides – and finally disintegrated Xiangyu’s morale, defeated Xiangyu, and made Xiangyu commit suicide on the Bank of the Wujiang River.
The Chu Han war was over. At this time, the world basically belongs to Liu Bang, king of the Han Dynasty. However, there is another country that refuses to surrender. This country is the state of Lu. The state of Lu continues to be loyal to Xiang Yu and will fight for him. So Liu Bang took his army and Xiangyu’s head to pacify the state of Lu. Finally, Liu Bang showed Xiangyu’s head to the people of the state of Lu to convince them that Xiangyu was dead. The people of the state of Lu put down their weapons and surrendered to the king of Han. During this process, Liu Bang did another thing. He repeated his old trick and rushed into the barracks of King Han Xin of Qi with several followers. He took away Han Xin’s official seal and military amulet, and once again seized Han Xin’s military power. In this way, King Han Xin of Qi became a barehanded king and barehanded commander. He had no military power and only had the title of king of Qi.
But Liu Bang doesn’t want to give him this title. In February of the fifth year of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang officially ascended the throne, namely the emperor. This is the famous emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty in history. After Liu Bang succeeded to the throne, he was enfeoffed and rewarded again. All the way down, sealed Han Xin what? It was the king of Chu. Liu Bang still granted Han Xin a king, but not the king of Qi, but the king of Chu. Liu Bang told Han Xin that you are a native of Chu. You are familiar with the customs of Chu. It is more appropriate to be the king of Chu. You can be the king of Chu. So Han Xin changed from a king of Qi without military power to a king of Chu without military power.
It should be said that Liu Bang’s move was very kind. He didn’t revenge Han Xin for blackmailing him to become king of Qi. He didn’t arrest Han Xin and kill him or whatever. He didn’t do that. First, he also made Han Xin king. It should be said that the treatment level is the same as before. Second, Liu Bang did not treat Han Xin the way Xiangyu treated himself – Xiangyu was very bad to Liu Bang. Liu Bang is the first hero to destroy Qin. What does Xiangyu want him to be? Let him be the king of Hanzhong. Liu Bang is a native of Chu and a southerner. If you take him to Hanzhong, Shaanxi, the morale of his entire army is unstable. Everyone wants to go back to his hometown. He is depressed. In modern terms, he is very depressed. Compared with Xiangyu, Liu Bang is much more kind. Han Xin, aren’t you from Chu? That will make you return home in prosperity – you came from that place. Now let you return to your hometown with beautiful scenery, face and dignity and enjoy your prosperity.
At the beginning, Han Xin’s life in the state of Chu was also very nourishing. Liu Bang and Han Xin should have been in peace with each other. If this continues, there will be no tragedy we mentioned at the beginning.