He ranks first in the 300 song lyrics, but now he is a nobody

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Compiled by zhuzumou in the late Qing Dynasty

300 Song Ci Poems

Among them, the most selected poets are not the first-line celebrities such as Sudongpo and Xin Qiji, but the poets of the Southern Song Dynasty


(No. dream window)

, he has 25 words included, Bisu and Xin

It adds up to more.


There are different opinions on the reasons. One is that zhuzumou, the editor, is a die hard fan of WuWenying. He has collated Mengchuang CI four times in his life and has a preference for WuWenying.


In addition, the late Qing Dynasty also set off a dream window fever. The writers of Ci “took Zhou (zhoubangyan) and Wu as their teachers” and regarded the graceful school they represented as authentic, “those who study dream window half the world”.


Today, many readers read 300 Song Ci poems, but they were confused when they read WuWenying’s part. They were eager to turn it over because the dream window poems were too gorgeous, strange, implicit and tortuous.


For example, such as “reflecting the dream window, disordered blue”, “falling catkins are silent, spring tears fall, clouds have shadow moon Blush”, “melancholy, two Mandarin can not be found, and the secluded terrace grows moss overnight”, it is either the sorrow of parting or the bitterness of Acacia, which is mostly obscure and difficult to understand.


The name “Lishangyin in Ci” is really not covered.




? portrait of WuWenying







WuWenying, a native of Ningbo, did not seek fame all his life. She wandered in the Jianghu and died trapped. She was a typical scholar at the bottom. In the ancient society when learning well, you will be an official. You can be regarded as a loser.




This literary giant has had a bad life, but if words are handed down, his life will be worth it.


In fact, Mengchuang CI is quite controversial in history, and its artistic value has been buried for a long time. Before the end of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, WuWenying was often classified as an alternative in the history of Ci, and countless people belittled him.


Zhang Yan, a poet in the late Southern Song Dynasty who was a little later than WuWenying, took a negative attitude towards Mengchuang’s Ci in his book “etymology”: “wumengchuang’s Ci is like a seven treasure tower, dazzling people’s eyes, broken down into fragments.” The meaning is that WuWenying’s word form is greater than the content. It looks tall, but in fact it can’t stand scrutiny.


WuWenying’s words are like dreams. He named himself “dream window” and the word “dream” as the key word, which has appeared 175 times in his existing 340 words.


Freud had a theory that dreams are the fulfillment of wishes.


What on earth does WuWenying, a talented man, place in his dreams?




? Suzhou is the local map source / photo network where WuWenying has lived for a long time




According to the records in Haoran Zhai Ya Tan written by Zhou Mi, a scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty, WuWenying’s surname was Weng, and he was a close brother of wengyuanlong, the poet.


There are two theories. One is that for some reasons, WuWenying was passed on to the Wu family in Siming (now Ningbo, Zhejiang). Another story is that WuWenying was originally surnamed Wu. Later, her mother remarried to Weng and gave birth to Weng Yuanlong. WuWenying lived with her mother and became the adopted son of the Weng family.




It can be inferred from this that WuWenying had a miserable life, and her childhood should be a life of dependence on others. This laid a sad tone for his life.


After growing up from a lonely childhood, WuWenying was very independent. His whole life’s whereabouts were basically in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, mainly in Suzhou and Lin’an (Hangzhou) in the Southern Song Dynasty, but he was indifferent to his official career all his life, wandering in the Jianghu and wandering around in cloth clothes.


From about the fifth year of shaoding reign of emperor LiZong of Song Dynasty (1232), WuWenying worked as an aide to officials in Suzhou for more than ten years. Later, he became a disciple of Wu Qian, a famous Minister of the Southern Song Dynasty, and Zhao Yurui, the younger brother of LiZong of the Song Dynasty.


So far, there is no record of WuWenying entering the official position through the imperial examination. It seems that he has no expectation of making contributions, but is content to be a full-time scholar. Some scholars also believe that WuWenying is not happy with the imperial examination.


Therefore, WuWenying’s Ci is more about his Jianghu career. He inherited zhoubangyan, the master of graceful Ci, and became a great master of Ci in the Southern Song Dynasty.


He wrote about the exile and cherished the people, including “Tang duoling, farewell”:


Where sorrow comes from. Leave the heart of autumn. The banana trees whizz even if it doesn’t rain. It’s cool in the evening. There’s a bright moon. I’m afraid of going upstairs.

I have a dream of years. Flowers empty smoke water. Yan leaves home, but the guest stays behind. The weeping willows do not linger in the skirt. Long is, Department boat.


He wrote about scenic spots, including “eight sounds Ganzhou – Lingyan accompany Yu Mu Zhu Gong to visit”:


What year is it that the sky is full of smoke? The cloud tree on the magic Cang cliff, the golden house of the famous baby, and the remnant tyrant of the palace city. The arrow path is sour, the wind shoots at the eyes, and the water is greasy and the flowers smell fishy. When the time comes, the two mandarin rings, and the corridor leaves fall.

The king of Wu in the palace is intoxicated, and the five lakes are tired of visitors. Wake up by fishing alone. Ask cangbo speechless, huafanai mountain is green. The water culvert is empty, the appendix is high, and the scattered crows are sent to the sunset for fishing. The autumn is even with the clouds.


In Mengchuang’s poems, it is almost difficult to find WuWenying’s dissatisfaction with her own situation, and there is little resentment and hatred of her talent. This is really rare among the scholars in cloth clothes, and it is completely an alternative.


In the same sentence, a person’s destiny depends on self struggle, but also takes into account the course of history.


During the period of Li Zong and Du Zong in the Southern Song Dynasty, WuWenying lived and danced in peace, and dreamed of dying, “the warm wind intoxicated the tourists and made Hangzhou a bianzhou”. On the other hand, the Mongolian army was pressing on the border, and the country was swaying.


The officials of the Southern Song Dynasty were corrupt. When the territory of the Southern Song Dynasty was two fifths less than that of the Northern Song Dynasty, the number of officials was much more than that in the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty. In addition, the practice of supplementing officials under the shadow of the door was rampant. There were also powerful officials in the court who were in disorder. It was even more difficult for aspiring people from poor families to display their ambitions.


Wu Wenying stayed away from political disputes and lived in a drunken dream.




? Cherry Blossom map source of Hangzhou West Lake / photo network





A talented man with a bad career may be accompanied by a beautiful woman, leaving some moving legends, such as Liu Yong, the prodigal son of the Song Dynasty.


WuWenying is also an emotional person. There are more than 340 Mengchuang Ci poems, among which more than 120 are about love, accounting for about 30% of the total, surpassing most poets of the Song Dynasty.


His obscure words are as difficult to understand as Lishangyin’s Untitled. Some scholars have connected the author’s emotional experience and interpreted his two unforgettable love stories. According to the textual research in the annals of wumengchuang by xiachengtao, “Mengchuang once took a concubine in Suzhou and was later sent away. He also took a concubine in Hangzhou and later died.”


WuWenying loved two women most in her life. One was a folk singer in Suzhou, and the other was a singer from your family in Hangzhou. Once they died, they were unable to grow old together with WuWenying.


Therefore, WuWenying’s love words are mostly works of mourning, leaving deep wounds in her heart.


In her early years as an aide in Suzhou, WuWenying met a folk singer (commonly known as Suji). After they fell in love, they were sincere and harmonious. They lived together in the west garden outside the changmen gate of Suzhou and lived a sweet life for several years.


This love ended in tragedy. When WuWenying left Suzhou to make a living elsewhere, Su Ji also left him in summer and autumn. It is the regret of WuWenying, a migrant worker, to meet the right person at the wrong time, just like the love of many people when they were young and frivolous.


Every autumn, WuWenying misses Suu Kyi. When WuWenying meditated alone in the lonely lamp room, he would imagine whether she was living alone in the bright autumn moon, so he had this song “new geese cross the makeup building”:


Wake up hibiscus. The wind is near the eaves, suspecting Peiyu dingdong. The green and flowing water are all traces of farewell. Songyuqiu flowers are thinner than autumn flowers, and their feelings are more bitter than autumn flowers. At dusk, the cyan clouds gather at dusk, and there is no sign of Zhenghong.

At that time, Yicheng released guests, recognized the old traces of Yanni, and took photos of the empty building. At the end of the night, my heart is troubled. Outside the lamp, the wall is sad. On a cold night in the river, the maple leaves fall, and they are afraid that the stream will break their hearts. The clouds are far away, and the moths are in the autumn.


The next part of the que CI points out the theme. “Yicheng” refers to Liu Hun of the Tang Dynasty and Wu Wenying himself. In those years, Liu Hun married his concubine Qin Ke because he was old. It was a good story for a while. But the poet didn’t know how Suu Kyi had been after she left him. He could only imagine that she was in the autumn moon, and the two were separated like heaven and earth.


In another poem, the wind blows into the pine, WuWenying never forgets the west garden where she lived with Su Ji. Every corner is the footprints of her lovers:


Listening to the wind and the rain, I am worried about the grass burying the flower inscription. Green and dark in front of the building carry the road, a trace of willow, a trace of tenderness. The wine in the cold spring is accompanied by the singing of warblers in the morning dream.

The West Garden sweeps the forest pavilion every day, and still enjoys the new sunshine. The wasp frequently pounced on the swing rope. At that time, the slender hand was fragrant. Melancholy double Mandarin less than a night of moss on the secluded terrace.


At the beginning, it was around the Qingming Festival. Among the flowers in the west garden, wasps jumped on the rope hanging on the swing, and Suji was swinging on the swing leisurely. At this time, the poet seems to have returned to the past. It seems that he can still smell the faint fragrance, which is the lingering fragrance she held in her slim hands.


“The wasp frequently pounced on the swing rope. At that time, the slender hand was fragrant.”


This memory is deeply imprinted in the poet’s mind, but it is no longer difficult to trace.




? Mengchuang had a regretful love in Suzhou






Years later, WuWenying met another woman. It was another sad love affair.


WuWenying, a middle-aged guest, stayed in Hangzhou. One spring, she went on a horse riding outing to Xiling Road and met a singer (commonly known as Hangji) from a rich family. WuWenying sends a letter to hang Ji. After that, they stayed in Chunjiang together, visited Nanping, West Lake and Liuqiao together, and got married. But after a separation, the two never met again.


When WuWenying visited hang Ji again at Liuqiao, she learned that she had unfortunately died young and vanished.


Later, WuWenying met a singer who looked quite similar to hang Ji in Jingkou (now Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province). She was very sorry and wrote a song “Jiang Du Chun” with the missing of Hang Ji:


Swallow falls from the south tower. The night is cold and the light is faint, and the curtain is empty. The leaves are blowing in the evening, the flowers and dew are blowing in the morning, and the autumn light is short. At that time, the moon was bright and graceful. There is a long way to go. The fog servant obeys the agreement. Unless he takes a picture, the mirror is empty.

When I was away from the museum, I knew Qiu Niang at first sight. She was like a human being and was looking forward to the double waves. Old color, old fragrance, idle rain, idle clouds, and finally shallow feelings. Those who paint the real face in the painting only look at the plum blossom. More worried about flowers turning into pears [y ? Ng], and scattered with the dream.


The allusion “Zhenzhen” mentioned in this que CI comes from the story in the song Chuang miscellany of the Tang Dynasty. It says that a scholar named Zhaoyan got a picture of a beautiful woman from a painter. Seeing her beautiful face, he said to the painter, “if the woman in this picture can survive, I would like to marry her.” The painter said to Zhao Yan, “this is a divine painting I made. The woman in the painting is called ‘Zhenzhen’. If she keeps calling her name day and night, she will be raised in onehundred days.”


WuWenying thought of this fictional story and sighed in her poem: “which famous artist can draw Hangji’s face and let her come back from the dead? Now I have no picture, so I have to take the singer in front of me as her. But such a long-term plan is not to quench thirst after all. If the singer leaves, everything will end with a dream.”


WuWenying, who has gone through the vicissitudes of life in the world, left a large number of works of recalling Ji in her middle-aged and old age, that is, those obscure words full of memories and hallucinations.


When Su and hang Erji left him one after another, and the day of eternal love was approaching, the aging WuWenying also became “old traces of clothes, old faces, colorful mirrors and joys.”

(water dragon singing: guimao New Year’s Eve)


This 240 word “preface to the singing of a warbler” is a summary of Wu Wenying’s love affairs in her life. She not only misses Su Ji, but also reposes her sorrow for the passing away of Hang Ji. This is also the longest tone in Song Ci:


The remaining cold is deceiving the sick wine and covering the aloes embroidered households. Yan came late and flew into the West City, as if it were late in spring. It is carried by a painting boat, but after the Qingming Festival, the clear smoke is rising from the Wu palace tree. When you are wandering in the wind, you will become light catkins.


For ten years, the West Lake has been surrounded by willows and horses, taking advantage of the delicate dust and soft fog. Tracing the red and gradually attracting people into the Xianxi River, jin’er stealthily sends secluded elements, leans on the screen, has a wide dream in spring, and breaks the red wet and the golden thread of Song Wan. At dusk, the banks are empty, the setting sun is light, and the gulls and herons are always returned.


The orchid is still old, duruo is still alive, and the water town is still a tourist destination. After farewell, I visited Liuqiao without any letter. I went to the flower committee to bury the jade and bury the incense. There were several storms. Long waves of envy, remote mountains shy, fishing lanterns in spring. At that time, the peach root ferry was short, and the brothel was like a poem written on the broken wall, with tears and ink on the dust. Looking at the extreme from the dangerous Pavilion, the grass is everywhere, and sighs that the temples invade half of the ramie. Dark spot inspection, happy spitting from the mark, still dyed mackerel gauze, lost the Phoenix, broken Luan languid dance. He is eager to write. He has a lasting regret in the book. The blue haze has sunk over the wild geese in the Liaohai sea. Love each other and play into the mourning Zheng column. Sad for thousands of miles south of the Yangtze River, complaining about music and heavy moves, is there a soul breaking?



? map source / photographing network




After love, there are still friends who left WuWenying.


From Mengchuang’s poems, it can be seen that WuWenying, as a wanderer in the Jianghu, has a wide range of friends, and there are more than 60 people who are paid with words. Among them, the relationship between him and Wu Qian and Jia Sidao has aroused widespread concern in the field of history.


Forced to make a living, WuWenying gave four poems to Wu Qian and Jia Sidao respectively, and made friends with both of them.


Wu Qian and Jia Sidao are sworn enemies, and they are also figures with diametrically opposite historical evaluations. Jia Sidao later entered the biography of treacherous ministers, while Wu Qian is a positive figure, juxtaposed with Wen Tianxiang and other loyal officials in the history of Song Dynasty.


When Wu Qian was appointed as the pacifier of eastern Zhejiang, he was also WuWenying’s boss. At that time, WuWenying lived in Yuezhou (now Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province) as a guest of staff under Wu Qian. He formed a deep friendship with him and deeply admired Wu Qian’s worries about his family and country.


Later, Wu sneaked into the court and became the prime minister. He was defeated in the power struggle with Jia Sidao. In the third year of JINGDING (1262), he was poisoned by Jia Sidao’s followers and demoted. Since then, Jia Sidao has been in full power and has been in power for 16 years.


WuWenying evaded politics for many years, unwilling to be involved in the intrigues of the imperial court, and dared not publicly mourn Wu Qian. However, after returning to Hangzhou in his later years, he wrote a song “happy slow in Xiping”, lamenting the death of the sages and the decline of state affairs:


The bank presses the post booth, the road is full of colorful watches, and the trees on the bank are old in color. Red cable new sunny, green Yin cold food, the end of the world tired customers return. Sighing at the waste Green Flat smoke belt garden, the dust fragrance of Youzhu swayed late. At that time, swallows silently opposed the twilight. In memory of whispering wind and appreciating the moon, the dream provoked the green poplar silk for ten years.

The painted boat is the city, the makeup is bright, the sunset is cloudy, and the people change for spring. Who is more concerned with washing stones with moss roots, summoning souls with chrysanthemum wells, driving wine all over the province, facing the flowers immediately, and still recognizing the withered red roadside branches. The song breaks and the banquet stops, the glory dew grass, the desolate hills. Wandering here, it drizzles in Xicheng, and the flowers fly after Yangtan gets drunk.


The last sentence quotes the story of Yang Tan crying for Xie an after he was drunk, that is, mourning Wu Qian who died unjustly.


WuWenying’s attitude is to stick to his position even if people are modest.


The last stop of WuWenying’s career in her later years was to join the honor king zhaoyurui as a guest and make some birthday greetings for the prince’s family in exchange for a meager income.


This talented man in cloth clothes for life was still in trouble after wandering for half his life, and soon he died of poverty and illness. This was also the common fate of many low-level scholars at that time.

More than ten years after WuWenying’s death, the Southern Song Dynasty perished

(there is a dispute over the year of birth and death of WuWenying)



A figure who has not been passed down in the history of Song Dynasty, has never done any great feats in his life, and is even reluctant to write in local chronicles, has left more than 340 que Ci poems. Among the two Song Ci poets, the number is second only to xinqiji, Su Shi and liuchenweng, and he has become a great master of Song Ci.




? Zhu zumou, one of the “four masters in the late Qing Dynasty”, compiled 300 Song Ci poems, and wumengchuang was the most selected.


In his words, there is no Xin Qiji’s ambition to “end the affairs of the monarch and win the fame of the deceased”, no Lu You’s grief and indignation that “when you die, you know everything is empty, but you can’t see the same Kyushu”, and no Wen Tianxiang’s determination that “since ancient times, no one has died, and take care of history”. Although it is obscure, it describes the life and death, bitterness, bitterness and sweetness, and infatuated love of ordinary people in the great era.


The world of Song Ci can not be without WuWenying, the ordinary people buried in history.


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