High altitude, deep sea, underground… Invisible and untouchable, but it will become a new wind outlet for future agriculture!

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At an altitude of 80000 meters, at a depth of 10000 meters, and at a depth of 2 kilometers… Microorganisms are ubiquitous and diverse, with an estimated number of trillions, but 99% of them are unknown to us.

Three hundred years ago, the Dutch scientist Leeuwenhoek first discovered microorganisms, opening an era of microbial research, development and utilization. The recycling of plants, animals and microorganisms is an essential feature of agriculture. With the intervention of modern science and technology, the development and utilization of microorganisms have shown miracles in the agricultural field. Invisible and untouchable microorganisms have been regarded as a new outlet for future agriculture, which is of great significance to enhance the core competitiveness of agricultural science and technology in China and ensure national food security.

So, how important are microorganisms to future agriculture?

Eight words: “create something out of nothing and achieve nine increases”.

Article | Liu Qi, special researcher of the Counselor’s office of the State Council, member of the expert advisory committee of the central agricultural office and the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas

Editor | Li Yafei lookout think tank

This article is an original article of Wangwang think tank. If you need to reprint it, please indicate the source of the article and the author’s information in front of the article. Otherwise, legal responsibility will be strictly investigated.


Increase the chain and lengthen the industrial chain

With the development of science and technology, human agriculture has extended from the traditional meso world to the macro world and the micro world, exploring space seeds, space breeding and Mars earthization in the macro world; In the micro world, the development and utilization of microbial technology has formed six fields of “three materials, two products and one agent”, namely: microbial feed, microbial fertilizer, microbial energy fuel, microbial food, microbial medicine and microbial cleaner. Each of the six fields can develop many products, generate many new industries, and constantly lengthen, widen and thicken the agricultural industrial chain.


Facing industrial transformation, microbial agriculture takes the lead.


Increase energy and develop energy chain

Kissinger once predicted that whoever controls oil will control all countries; Whoever controls the currency controls the world; Whoever controls food controls all the people in the world.

However, fossil fuels, represented by oil, pollute the environment and are currently drying up. To solve the energy problem of rapid increase in economic and social development, we need to develop a variety of clean energy sources such as wind energy, hydro energy, solar energy, marine energy and microbial energy at the same time. In particular, microbial energy has a wide source and low cost. It is almost independent of geographical factors, so it has more advantages.

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At present, the use of biotechnology to decompose and develop the energy chain has formed four major fields: biodiesel, fuel ethanol, biogas and hydrogen production. Among them, biogas utilization has been popularized in many places in China, and biomass fuel is gaining momentum.

The new technology of using microbial fermentation technology to decompose and convert crop straw into energy and fuel has been basically mature, which has changed the disadvantages of previous chemical processes such as decomposition and transformation and environmental pollution.

It is estimated that after the promotion of this technology, only crop straw can increase farmers’ income by 500 yuan per mu, and an industrial system will be built, which includes primary processing in towns and townships, production of intermediate products by enterprises, and conversion into various end products such as fuel ethanol, textiles, pharmaceuticals, etc., to continuously lengthen the industrial chain, upgrade the value chain and expand the functional chain.

Scientists at Pennsylvania State University in the United States also use microorganisms to convert carbon dioxide into fuel, which brings new hope for mankind to walk out of the energy dilemma.

Facing the energy revolution, microbial agriculture has blazed a new trail.


Increase green and open the circulation chain

In the “three things” agriculture, microorganisms decompose and reduce plant straw and animal manure into the soil. On the one hand, they can clean the environment, and collect and utilize animal and plant residues and wastes, including human and animal manure, which is undoubtedly a purification of the production and living environment. Second, it can improve the soil, which has a good repair effect against the eight major soil diseases “plate, gluttonous, poor, shallow, acid, salty, dirty and miscellaneous” caused by the excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for a long time, fundamentally change the soil properties and improve the crop growth environment.

Studies have shown that the application of nitrogen fixing bacteria in microorganisms to non leguminous crops (such as rice, vegetables and fruit trees) not only reduces the use of chemical fertilizers, improves the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers, reduces the pollution to the environment, maintains the ecological balance, increases crop output by 5% ~ 30%, and greatly improves the quality of agricultural products. Third, we can build a three substance circulation chain of plants, animals and microorganisms interrupted by oil agriculture. Without the participation of microorganisms, green agriculture, organic agriculture, circular agriculture and ecological agriculture will be empty words.

It can be seen that microorganisms are the guardians of green waters and mountains, and the great heroes of ecological security, food security and food security. The application of biological fertilizer in the United States has accounted for more than 50% of the total fertilizer consumption, while only about 10% in China.

The central government proposed to promote the structural reform of agricultural supply side, which is to comprehensively implement the new concept of green development, use biotechnology to improve soil, purify water quality and ensure the quality of agricultural products from the source.

Facing ecological civilization, microbial agriculture is worthy of its mission.


Add value and enhance the value chain

New materials, new energy and biotechnology are the three cutting-edge technologies of modern times. Biotechnology has been integrated with life sciences and has become the “outstanding learning” most concerned by the society. The cancer medicine “Tiandixin” extracted from shiitake mushrooms in Japan has sold for more than 1600 yuan per milligram.

Take China’s edible fungi as an example. Since reform and opening up, the output has increased by more than 700 times, and the output value has jumped to the fifth largest agricultural product after vegetables, grains, fruits and Chinese herbal medicines. For example, Ganoderma lucidum, Gastrodia elata, Poria cocos and Cordyceps in Chinese herbal medicines have been separated and added to edible fungi, and it has steadily ranked fourth.

The food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has regarded mushrooms as food in a broad sense, and participated in the evaluation of world food heroes. Li Yu, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, President of the international society of medicinal fungi and a national model for poverty alleviation, who is known as “academician of mushrooms”, was also awarded the title of “food hero”.

He summarized that edible fungi have five characteristics: they do not compete with people for food, grain for land, land for fertilizer, agriculture for time, and other resources.

According to Academician Li Yu’s estimation, 10 million tons of crop straw and 10 million tons of cow dung can theoretically produce 7 million tons of bisporus mushrooms. Even with a discount, it can produce 4 million tons of bisporus mushrooms, that is, 400000 tons of dried mushrooms. If the protein content of dried mushrooms is calculated at 30%, it is equivalent to producing 4 million tons of milk, or 920000 tons of eggs, or 600000 tons of meat.

China produces about 900 million tons of crop straw and 3.8 billion tons of livestock and poultry excrement annually. Even if 10% of crop straw and livestock and poultry excrement are used to produce edible fungi, it is still an amazing value-added space.

This is only food and drugs in the six major development fields of “three materials, two products and one dose” of microorganisms, which can also be seen in other fields. What is particularly noteworthy is that this value-added is a value-added created out of nothing. It is the value-added of turning grass into gold, dung into gold and waste into gold. It is an additional value-added on the basis of the traditional recycling of three things. The waste after value-added is returned to the field as fertilizer to participate in the recycling of three things. The fertilizer effect is not reduced, and the pests and diseases can be reduced.

With the deepening of microbial research and development technology, small mushrooms are not only becoming high-end health products, high-end drinks, food and drugs, but also high-end cosmetics, textile materials, decorative materials and building materials. China has become the world’s largest producer and consumer of edible fungi, and there are dozens of enterprises with a daily output of more than 200 tons. However, the short board of seed source seriously restricts development and affects the promotion of the value chain. For example, we have to pay Japan 3 cents for a bottle of Flammulina velutipes.

The publication of “China fungus Valley (Hefei)” will make due contributions to solving the problem of short plate of seed source.

[Note: “China fungus Valley (Hefei)” is jointly built by Hefei Municipal People’s government and Jilin Agricultural University. It is jointly implemented by Changfeng County People’s government, Jilin Agricultural University and Yulong high tech. it is the first high-tech food (drug) industry in China led by the innovation of fungus seed industry.

By gathering the discipline and industrial policy advantages of Hefei’s comprehensive national science center, the project aims at the international forefront of the development of the fungus industry led by the development of the edible (pharmaceutical) fungus industry, breaks through a series of core common key technologies of the edible (pharmaceutical) fungus industry, builds Hefei’s edible (pharmaceutical) fungus industry into a leading and high-end industry gathering highland in China, and establishes the first innovation cluster of the fungus industry in China, Radiation drives the development of edible (pharmaceutical) bacteria industry in the Yangtze River Delta and the whole country.

The construction period of the project is 5 years, the total planned investment is 500 million yuan, and the output value is expected to reach 10 billion yuan within five years.]

Under the leadership of Academician Li Yu, the national industry elites will gather in Hefei to show their skills in the research and development of fungus sources, the promotion of fungus production, the deepening of fungus processing and the development of fungus market, write the Chinese fungus cause in thick ink and color, and tell the Chinese story for the great food demand of mankind.

Microbial agriculture has unlimited prospects for increasing efficiency and value.


Increase food and expand the food chain

Human edible fungi have a long history. Edible fungi are “old members” of the human food family, but today they have become “new dignitaries” and high-end banquets, with the emphasis of “no mushroom, no banquet”.


Under the guidance of the concept of big food, the healthy dietary structure of “one meat, one vegetable and one mushroom” is increasingly accepted by people, and more and more edible fungi have become new dignitaries on the table. China has announced 115 food and drug homologous foods, and rare edible fungi such as agaric, golden ear, morel, Cordyceps militaris, and Dictyophora rubra are becoming more and more popular and sought after.

At present, among the more than 2000 kinds of edible fungi that have been discovered, more than 80 kinds can be cultivated artificially, and nearly 30 kinds can be produced commercially, which makes people’s choices for eating mushrooms more diverse and rich.

As the people’s food needs become more diversified, we need food not only from the plane space such as arable land, grassland, forest and ocean, but also from the three-dimensional space; We should not only ask for food from plants and animals that can be seen and touched, but also from microorganisms that can not be seen and touched. We should constantly expand the food chain and meet the happiness of the people with more and better mushroom “vegetable food”.

Lin Zhanxi’s team of Fujian a & F University planted fungus grass in the desert to produce edible fungi, and scientists of the Chinese Academy of Sciences used carbon dioxide to produce starch, showing the reality and future prospect of microbial technology “making things out of nothing” and increasing food sources.

Facing gourmet China, microbial agriculture is brilliant on the tip of the people’s tongue.


Increase space and build a multi-dimensional chain

Edible fungi like damp and dark environments, and do not need sunlight. They can be produced under forests, grass, wasteland, wasteland, and air raid shelters. They do not compete with grain for land or other crops for space.

The popular TV series “mountain and sea” tells about the use of desert and barren mountains to grow fungus and develop edible fungi, and the construction of a multi-dimensional industrial chain such as planting grass and raising fungi. The long history of cultivation under forests and cultivation of mushrooms in rice fields is the initial stage of three-dimensional cultivation and smart use of space for edible fungi. With the progress of modern science and technology, edible fungi have entered a three-dimensional, factory and annual stage.

The intelligent mushroom room created by Academician Li Yu’s team integrates more than 40 patented technologies, which is not only suitable for large-scale factory mushroom production, but also can be placed in the form of mobile shelter in front of and behind farmers’ houses, courtyards and sun farms, so as to realize intelligent three-dimensional production.

This kind of land-saving intelligent equipment is tantamount to increasing cultivated land space resources. Compared with grain, oil, aquaculture and cash crops, the three-dimensional industrialized technology of edible fungi is the most mature and the benefits are the most impressive. It is an effective measure to protect the red line of arable land and store grain in the land.

For storing grain in the ground, microbial agriculture creates “land” out of thin air.


Increase health and prolong life chain

In the field of diet, microbial food is a healthy food. The production of edible fungi does not require the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It is rich in protein, fungal polysaccharides, triterpenes, essential amino acids, vitamins and a variety of minerals. In particular, the protein content exceeds that of fish, poultry and eggs by 19% – 42% (the protein content of grain, fruits and vegetables except soybeans is single digits). One kilogram of dried mushrooms is equivalent to 1.7 kilograms of pork.


It also spans the two major fields of green food and life and health, and meets the needs of people’s high-quality life from “full” to “good”, and from “disease comes from the mouth” to “disease comes from the mouth”. In the medical field, biotechnology is a sharp weapon to extend the human life chain. At present, there are four ways to treat cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy of biological drugs. Some cancers can be completely cured by targeted therapy.

The gene engineering application industry, which is dominated by gene engineering drugs, has become one of the fastest-growing microbial drug industries in the world, with a very broad development prospect.

It is reported that the “tumor gene missile”, a biological drug specially used to treat tumors, will be developed soon. It can find and kill tumors purposefully, and will make it possible to cure cancer.

Facing healthy China, microbial agriculture has made great contributions.


Speed up and speed up the output chain

In 1978, the output of edible fungi in China was only 57000 tons, with an output value of less than 100 million yuan. By 2021, the output has reached more than 40 million tons, an increase of more than 700 times; The output value is more than 300 billion yuan, an increase of more than 3000 times. No country in the world has created such a miracle of rapid growth in human food.

Compared with general agricultural products, edible fungi have a short production cycle and high output. Moreover, the cultivation is not limited by climate, season, geographical environment and so on. If there are strains, they can be planted and eaten in a few days. When encountering natural disasters such as floods and droughts and missing the planting of crops, edible fungi are “magic soldiers for disaster relief”.

Therefore, Academician Li Yu called for listing edible fungi as famine relief crops and paying attention to the disaster relief role of mushrooms. At the same time, it can also become a life-saving crop for human beings to cope with new disasters. Once the sudden extinction of animals and plants occurs, the emergency production of edible fungi can save lives.

Edible mushroom raw materials can be seen everywhere and can be produced at any time. Three or four crops can be produced every year, and some even five or six crops can be produced every year. Factory production continues year after year. The shelf life of dried mushrooms is more than one year. It is a reliable source of food in response to natural disasters, epidemics and even war conditions.

In recent years, according to the characteristics of frequent earthquakes and typhoons and frequent epidemics, Japan has increased the production and import of edible fungi and promoted the development of disaster relief food using mushroom, vegetable and meat grain as raw materials, which is worthy of our reference.

Microbial food such as edible fungi is a reliable source of high-quality protein, which scientists believe is the development direction of food in the future. In the context of the increasing demand for high protein at home and abroad, it is urgent to pay attention to the in-depth series development of microbial foods such as edible fungi and accelerate the speed and quality of food output.

For remediation and emergency, microbial agriculture is irreplaceable.


Increase initiative and innovate the science and technology chain

After one million years of primitive civilization, ten thousand years of agricultural civilization and more than 300 years of industrial civilization, human society is stepping into the “fourth civilization”, that is, the era of ecological civilization.

At this stage, we need to overcome not only the blindness of industrial civilization to consume resources excessively and pollute the environment, but also the passivity of agricultural civilization to use resources in the natural state, and open an active era of consciously using high technology to develop and utilize microorganisms.

In recent years, high technology has opened up six fields of “three materials, two products and one agent” of microorganisms, promoted the transformation of agriculture from a closed two-dimensional structure to an open three-dimensional structure since the petroleum agriculture, and enabled microorganisms to actively participate in the development of agriculture, three things, circulation, promotion, three things and natural integration. New varieties, new products, new technologies, new industries and new business forms of microorganisms are gushing out. New things such as biological fermentation, fungus factory, biological breeding, active ingredient extraction, food and drug homology, life science and so on are emerging one after another, which makes people dizzy and shows the infinite charm of “microorganism, big industry”.

There is no doubt that the active role of science and technology in the microbial world has ended the old era of human “passive agriculture” and opened a new era of “active agriculture”. The microbial science and technology chain innovation, which is changing with each passing day, even with every passing second, will vigorously promote the solution of a series of major problems in the field of agriculture, rural areas and farmers under the background of ecological civilization, and add strong impetus to the high-quality green development of China’s agriculture.

For active integration, microbial agriculture is a cross-border iteration.

Microbial agriculture is a new industry that is “raised in the depths of the boudoir and unknown to people”. Its distinctive characteristics of “nine increases and five non contests” need to be advertised, create a strong social atmosphere, form a strong social consensus, and enable policy makers to incorporate into the planning and strive to promote development; Let entrepreneurs compete for investment and devote themselves to building industries; It makes consumers yearn for it and deduces fashion pursuit.

In this way, microbial agriculture, the new blue sea of agriculture in the future, can become a strong force in the agricultural field with blue light and infinite vitality.

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