How did Bai Qi, the “God killer” who had never been defeated in his life, die?

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In 262 BC, Bai Qi led the Qin army to occupy the wild king of South Korea, which is now Qinyang, Henan Province. Since then, South Korea’s Shangdang Prefecture and the national capital have cut off contact. Because the capital of South Korea is near Xinzheng, from Shangdang prefecture to Xinzheng, we must cross the Yellow River from yewang. South Korea plans to sacrifice Shangdang Prefecture and ask the state of Qin to withdraw, but Fengting, the governor of Shangdang Prefecture, has other plans. He said: “it is better to surrender to the state of Zhao. If the state of Zhao accepts the Shangdang, the Qin army will certainly send troops to attack Zhao. If the state of Zhao is attacked, it will naturally form an alliance with the South Korea. Only when the South and Zhao join hands to defeat the state of Qin can there be hope.” He immediately sent people to the state of Zhao and asked them to receive the Shangdang. Is this a pie from the sky or a hot potato? The king of Zhao couldn’t make up his mind, so he called Pingyang and Pingyuan to discuss. Pingyang Jun said, “how can we have a strong Qin Dynasty? If we accept the party rashly, the disaster will surely outweigh the harvest!” Zhaosheng, the prince of Pingyuan, the master of Gongsunlong, has the opposite opinion. He said, “how much money and food will it cost to occupy a city? Now people have sent it to us for nothing. We don’t want it anymore. Aren’t we fools?”

The king of Zhao was also a greedy fellow. He even agreed to draw chestnut from the fire. He made Feng Ting emperor of Huayang and asked him to remain in the party. This time, I touched the tiger’s ass. In 260 B.C., Wang Fu, the chief of Zuo Shu, commanded the Qin army to attack Shangdang. In order to avoid the war, Shangdang residents fled to the state of Zhao. Zhaoguoli immediately sent troops to Changping to appease the people who had fled.

Qin and Zhao faced off at Changping, that is, the northwest of Gaoping, Shanxi today. The commander of Zhao Jun is a famous general, Lian Po. One day, the Scouts of the Qin army met Zhao Jun unexpectedly. Since they are scouts, they must not have many troops. Zhao Jun wanted to take advantage, so he took the initiative to attack. What happened? Although the Qin army was small, its combat effectiveness was not weak; After the first World War, Zhao Jun was defeated and lost one of his generals. Later, the two armies fought several more battles. Zhao Jun suffered losses one after another, losing two barracks and several Duwei. Lianpo saw that the Qin army was powerful, so he ordered to take defensive measures and forbid the troops to go to war.

The Qin army is coming from afar, and the advantage lies in the urgent battle. The state of Qin is not willing to let Zhao Jun drag on like this. However, there were more than forty thousand soldiers in the Zhao army and more than sixhundredthousand in the Qin army. Sixhundredthousand people and horses are so consumed. The logistics supply line is so long. How much food and grass are consumed every day? Of course, you can continue to transport to the front, but I’m afraid that most of the food and grass will be eaten by the servicemen, mules and horses on the way. And the longer the time, the more likely it is that all the vassal states will attack Qin together.

In a word, there are many dreams at night.

What should we do? Fan Ju walked on two legs, grasping peace talks with one hand and war with the other. Of course, the peace talks were false. At that time, the state of Zhao sent envoys. Fan Ju ordered that the envoys of the state of Zhao be treated with great fanfare. They had a big banquet in three days and a small banquet in five days. They were very respectful to him. Fan Ju did this to send a false signal to other countries: Qin and Zhao are in peace talks, and the two sides are in good harmony. It won’t be long before the troops will be stopped. We can’t wade through this muddy water to avoid being left behind. As for the war, fan Ju’s idea is even worse: a separatist plan. He sent people with a lot of money as campaign funds to Handan, the capital of the state of Zhao, to make a big public opinion, saying: “the state of Qin is not afraid of Lian Po. He will surrender sooner or later. We are only afraid of Ma Fu Zi Zhao Kuo. If he comes out to lead the troops, the Qin army will be in trouble.”

These rumors soon spread to King Zhao. The king of Zhao has long had a bellyful of opinions about Lian Po. Why? The king of Zhao did not like this attitude, because the situation did not allow him to delay. The supply of military grain in the state of Zhao was always tight. People were sent to the state of Qi to borrow grain. The state of Qi changed its foreign policy and did not interfere with the war in the West. It hoped to concentrate on development and accumulate strength.

The soldiers’ lack of food is bound to cause riots. So the king of Zhao was very worried. He sent people to the front many times to reprimand Lian Po, but what about Lian Po? You have your thousand ways, I have my old idea, no oil and salt.

King Zhao’s ears are not so soft. These rumors only gave him a push and strengthened his determination to change generals. He immediately ordered Zhao Kuo to go to Changping to replace Lian Po.

When the news came out, the king of Qin was overjoyed. When the enemy changes, so do I. He immediately gave Bai a talisman and ordered him to rush to the front to replace Wang Fu. For the sake of confidentiality, he also set up a high-voltage line: “who dares to divulge this secret, cut!”

But Zhao Kuo was in the dark about all this. Of course, he understood why the king of Zhao wanted to use himself, so as soon as he arrived at the front line, he immediately deployed in accordance with the intention of his superiors. The generals who had previously agreed with Lian Po’s approach were replaced without changing their thinking, replaced in large numbers, and actively deployed attacks.

Bai Qi knew that more than 400000 Zhao Jun was not a soft persimmon and could be pinched by him. If they still hide behind the strong camp and don’t come out to fight, they will be the tiger eating the sky and have no choice.

How to offset Zhao Jun’s strong camp? Bai Qi decides to lead the snake out of the cave. He sent a weak brigade to take on the task of luring the enemy and challenge him in front of the Zhao camp. When Zhao Jun came out, they resisted for a while, turned around and ran away; Send 25000 elite soldiers to cut off the rear path of Zhao Jun; Another 5000 cavalry men ambushed on the way, wedged in the middle of the chasing Zhao army at the fastest speed, and cut them into two sections so that each could break through.

In terms of tactics, this is an almost perfect operational plan, which is very professional. The key to success lies in whether the Zhao army comes out to pursue, but whether the cavalry can hold their ground and really cut off the contact between the Zhao army. You know, if they really fight, they will be attacked on both sides. These 5000 cavalry may become Zhao Jun’s sandwich biscuits.

All the arrangements were in place. One day in August that year, the Qin army went to the camp of Zhao Jun to challenge. This is to Zhao Kuo’s taste. He dressed neatly, ordered his men and went out to fight. It didn’t take long for Qin Bing to retreat. The opportunity was not lost. Zhao Kuo refused to give up. He waved his sword, and Zhao Jun immediately shouted after him.

The Qin army fought and walked away, retreating into the camp. Seeing that the Qin soldiers were so vulnerable, Zhao Kuo became more and more emotional and waved the flag. The three armies immediately set up an array to attack the Qin army’s barracks.

Baiqi is already ready. Hundreds of thousands of Qin troops are in full readiness. Zhao Jun is in a hurry. Where can he attack them? Just then, a sentry hurried to the camp: “report! Tell the general that there is a Qin army behind us, which has cut off our contact with the camp!”

Zhao Kuo is not a legendary nerd. He was familiar with military books since childhood. Although it was the first time for him to command a battle, he did not panic in the face of such a dangerous situation. He immediately ordered to stop the attack. The former army monitored the main force of the Qin army in the camp. The latter army turned around and stormed the Qin cavalry wedged in. At the same time, they sent people back to the camp and ordered them to help from behind.

Zhao Kuo charged ahead and the two armies bled into the sea. The soldiers of Zhao Jun knew that the situation was unfavorable. Under the encouragement of the commander, they fought bravely. However, the Qin army never retreated and could not break the road.

Zhao Kuo made a quick decision and changed his deployment again. The soldiers outside were ordered to cover. The soldiers inside laid down their weapons, picked up tools, built camps and stood by for help. In this way, the situation was temporarily stabilized, but more than 400000 Zhao troops were divided into three sections, and the situation was extremely critical.

By September, Zhao Kuo had been surrounded for 46 days. Zhao’s army was already short of food and grass, which was an important reason why the king of Zhao was anxious to fight a decisive battle; Now the army is besieged, and food and grass cannot be transported in, and the soldiers do not have a grain to eat. In these forty-six days, Zhao Kuo did not sit still and wait for death, but had been organizing a breakthrough. He divided the soldiers into several teams and took turns to attack, but he failed to highlight the encirclement of the Qin army.

Without food, the first step is to kill horses and the second step is to eat people. The bodies of soldiers killed in the war will be eaten up immediately; At the end of the meal, the wounded soldiers who could not move also became a meal for their comrades in arms. During the forty-six days that Zhao Kuo insisted on, Bai Qi was also on pins and needles: the soldiers fought for days and days, exhausted; Supplies are always in short supply, so we need to keep pressing for food and money. As an experienced commander-in-chief, he knew that he was going to carry out the final devastating attack on the Zhao army. Obviously, his men were not enough. Therefore, envoys came in an endless stream, and the documents for help continued to fly to Xianyang.

This situation was obviously the first time for the king of Qin. Both the Qin and Zhao countries have worked hard to uphold the national power. This is a decisive battle between the two countries. The king of Qin did not dare to neglect. He rushed to Hanoi, the area just north of the Yellow River captured from South Korea. He gave all the local men over the age of 15 the rank of minjue, and then organized an army to Changping to cut off Zhao’s links with China and cut off their food routes.

The Qin army was supported by a new force. What about the state of Zhao? We can’t send a single soldier at all, unless we don’t aim at the border defense of the Huns and transfer Limu’s army to the front line. This is certainly impossible. The practice of robbing Peter to pay Paul is better than that of gouging out flesh from the heart.

The last moment has come. Zhao Kuo forced himself to cheer up, propped up his weak and tired body, dressed neatly, and personally led the temporarily selected soldiers who could barely support them. Suddenly, he rushed out of the camp gate and rushed at the Qin army. Success or failure, anyway, this is the last battle.

Qin Jun’s crossbow is very famous. Everyone must have seen it in the movie hero. At the command of the generals, the arrows flew like rain. Zhao Kuo took several arrows in his body and cried out. He fell to the ground and died. Seeing this, who can accuse him of being a nerd? He absolutely does not lack the ability, quality, and bloodiness of soldiers.

The commander was killed in battle, and there was no food for many days. The surrounded Zhao army quickly fell apart. According to the records of the historical records, 400000 Zhao troops were captured. What will happen to their fate? The outcome of the twenty thousand captives of the Zhao army in the Huayang war has been strongly implied. Bai Qi said, “the people of Shangdang would rather belong to the state of Zhao than follow the state of Qin. The people of the state of Zhao must be more hostile to the state of Qin. They have always been capricious and left behind a disaster.” So he ordered that all the soldiers should be buried alive, and only 240 young soldiers should be released. In fact, they were a group of half grown-up boys who reported back to Handan.

After many fierce battles, the figure of 400000 captives may be on the high side. Maybe more than 200000, which is more appropriate. According to the historical records, the state of Zhao lost a total of 450000 people in this battle, while Bai Qi claimed that more than half of the Qin army was killed, that is, 300000 people died in the war. The killing of 50000 Zhao troops on the battlefield would not, in any case, result in such a high death rate for the Qin army, otherwise the final outcome of the war would inevitably be rewritten. Considering that the Qin army was on the offensive, the casualty rate was high, 200000 to 300000, which was basically reliable.

Whether fourhundredthousand or twohundredthousand, these two figures are equally amazing. In any case, Bai Qi should be responsible for the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. There is no doubt that this is an indelible stain on him, so some people called him “human butcher” at that time. However, I am not in favor of using current values to trick historical figures. Any historical figure, no matter how wise he is, can not escape from the era, just as you can not grasp your hair and leave the earth. As a general of the state of Qin, Bai Qi had to consider how to weaken the fighting capacity of the enemy. Once these hundreds of thousands of people go back, they will soon meet with the Qin army again. Let alone in vain, even idiots can think of it. In addition, the state of Qin has always used legalist thought to govern the country and advocated severe punishment and law. If you don’t kill them or let them go, detain them first. These hundreds of thousands of mouths will have to eat. It’s enough for nothing. Therefore, although Bai Qi’s decision can not stand the test of time, it also has his own reason, which is in line with his consistent logic as a famous general. To borrow a sentence from Wang Xizhi’s preface to the Lanting Anthology: the future looks at the present, but also looks at the past. If we constantly criticize him, who can guarantee that such a reasonable and correct accusation will not become a laughing stock in the future?

Bai Qi buried 400000 prisoners captured by Zhao Jun alive. Several years later, Xiang Yu also buried more than 200000 soldiers of the Qin army in Xin’an, today’s Mianchi, Henan Province. His logic was the same. The only difference is that the Qin army is indeed not very stable. Because people from Eastern countries were often bullied and insulted by the officials and people of the state of Qin when they entered Guanzhong through corvee service. Now that we have the opportunity, the Allied forces of the princes will naturally take the opportunity to retaliate and humiliate them from time to time. Those soldiers who surrendered were suspicious and talked privately about Zhang Han, the general who led them to surrender. Xiangyu’s temper is well known. It would be more difficult for him to take appropriate measures to eliminate friction and do “patient and meticulous ideological and political work” than landing on the moon. He patted his head and ordered a night attack to bury all the Qin soldiers alive.

Bai Qi and Xiang Yu are not exceptional cases of organized and planned mass killings. In China, at the end of the Tang Dynasty, Huang Chao poisoned Chenzhou, Zhang Xianzhong of the Ming Dynasty washed Sichuan with blood, and the “ten days in Yangzhou” and “three slaughters in Jiading” made by Duoduo in the early Qing Dynasty; Abroad, Stalin killed more than 20000 Polish officers in the Katyn Forest, the Japanese committed the Nanjing Massacre, and Hitler had a plan to exterminate the Jews. Compared with Baiqi and Xiangyu’s burying alive, these methods are less energy-saving, less environmental friendly and more vicious.

Coincidentally, the Qin Dynasty and Xiangyu’s regime were almost equally short-lived; Bai Qi and Xiang Yu didn’t live many years after that. Bai Qi was forced to commit suicide in the second year. Xiang Yu was young, took a little longer, and lived another five years. As we all know, suicide in Wujiang is also suicide.

Is there any truth that comes down in one continuous line?

After a year’s rest, in October of the next year, Baiqi pacified Shangdang county. Zhao Jun has just suffered the disaster of extinction, which is a good opportunity to work hard and destroy the state of Zhao. Bai Qi ordered Wang Fu to occupy Pilao, which is today Hejin, Shanxi Province; Sima Geng captured Taiyuan; He himself was ready to lead the army and go straight to Handan.

The news spread, Han and Zhao shocked the whole country. They immediately sent Su Dai, a lobbyist, to bribe fan Ju with a large amount of gold and silver. It’s good to see. The Su Dynasty was a man of argument, and fan Ju also started from this. When two smart tongues meet, which one moves faster?

Su Dai said: “Once the state of Zhao perishes, the king of Qin can be called the emperor, and the king of Wu’an will certainly be granted the title of Sangong. He has captured more than 70 cities for the state of Qin, pacified Yan, Ying and Hanzhong regions of Chu in the south, and captured 400000 troops of Zhao Kuo in the north. Even the famous Duke of Zhou, Duke Zhao and LV Wang in history can do nothing more than that. If the state of Zhao perishes and the king of Qin becomes the emperor, it is certain that the king of Wu’an will be the Sangong. You can stoop to him Under? Even if you are unwilling, there is no way. The Qin army besieged Shangdang, and the people of Shangdang turned to the state of Zhao. No one in the world would like to be a citizen of Qin. If you destroy the state of Zhao, the land in the north will fall into the state of Yan, the land in the East will be merged into the state of Qi, and the land in the South will fall into the state of Han and Wei. You won’t get much people. In my opinion, it’s better to take advantage of the panic of South Korea and Zhao to let them cut some land, so as not to let Mr. Wu’an establish meritorious deeds again. “

This moved fan Ju. He immediately suggested to the king that the Qin army was too tired to continue fighting. King Qin had already obeyed fan Ju’s orders and immediately agreed to accept the cities ceded by South Korea and the state of Zhao and stop fighting to make peace.

From a purely technical point of view, Baiqi’s command of the troops was at the right time, thanks to the country; Fan Ju suggested that the withdrawal of troops was selfish and would harm the country and the people. After Bai Qi heard about it, he was extremely dissatisfied, and from then on he had a view on fan Ju; Fan Ju was also wary of Baiqi, who had made outstanding contributions. At this point, Bai Qi is almost incorruptible, while fan Ju is much worse than Lin Xiangru. Discord between generals and prime ministers will hurt the country and harm itself.

But the state of Zhao promised to cede six cities, and then suddenly broke the contract. The king of Qin was so angry that he launched another attack on Handan in February 258 BC. At this time, when Bai Qi was ill and unable to move, the king of Qin sent the five doctor Mausoleum as the main general. The King Mausoleum fought for a while, but no progress was made. The king of Qin sent troops to reinforce it, but there was no effect. At this time, Bai Qi recovered. The king of Qin thought of using him, but Bai Qi was unwilling. He said, “it is not so easy to fight Handan. All the vassal states have deep resentment against Qin, and reinforcements arrive every day. Although Qin eliminated the main force of the Zhao army in Changping, the Qin army also lost more than half of its troops, and the domestic troops were empty. They traveled thousands of miles across rivers and mountains to attack other people’s capitals. The Zhao army resisted in the city, and the vassal armies attacked outside the city. They cooperated with each other and attacked inside and outside. They must defeat the Qin army. This battle cannot be fought!”

From the previous fight to the present no fight, did Bai Qi mean to threaten the monarch? There may be some such elements, but more importantly, it is based on the correct analysis of the political and military situation. At that time, the state of Zhao was in a mess, and the Qin army was just chasing after the victory; Now, almost a year has passed, and Zhao Guoguo has enough time to lick his wounds and practice the organizational defense of the new army. Otherwise, they may not dare to break the contract rashly.

The king of Qin certainly didn’t listen to Bai Qi’s words. He was the first to force Bai Qi to take command, but Bai Qi refused to carry it out; Another soft one sent fan Ju to invite him in person. Bai Qi still refused. “I’m not in good health,” he said. “I really can’t play.”

It is conceivable that what Fan Ju saw at that time would not be a good face. Bai Qi has old grievances, and fan Ju will not be happy. The cracks of contradictions between the two sides will be further expanded.

Don’t you give up this sesame seed for nothing? Can’t I squeeze out oil when I’m a big Qin? King Zhao of Qin no longer competed with Bai Qi. Instead, he sent Wang Fu, Bai Qi’s deputy in the battle of Changping, to Handan to chew hard bones.

The protagonist of the battle of Handan was Wei Wuji, one of the four princes of the Warring States period and the son of the state of Wei. The outcome of the Qin army was complete defeat. When the news came, what was Bai Qi’s attitude? Bai Qi’s original words in the historical records are: “Qin didn’t listen to his ministers’ plans. How can I get along now?” It means that if you don’t listen to the old man, you will suffer a loss. I started to fight, but you didn’t; Later, if you didn’t fight, you would fight again. What was the result? Is it beautiful?

In the same way, there can be two kinds of tone, one is sadness, the other is complacency. It is estimated that Bai Qi had both emotions at that time, but the former was the majority. After all, he made so many contributions to the country that he did not have to take the country’s failure to prove his greatness. But in the listener’s ears, the first meaning may be hard for them to recognize. Even if there is, they will actively filter it out. In economics, this is called the Occam razor rule. Its simplest expression is that if two competing theories can deduce the same conclusion, the simple theory is better. Therefore, people should use the simplest means to reach their conclusions and eliminate all things that cannot be recognized. At that time, the king of Qin and fan Ju had just been slapped in the face. It was too late for them to become angry. How could they carefully figure out Bai Qi’s loyalty? Similar plots are also found in the romance of the Three Kingdoms. Tianfeng, a counselor, opposed Yuan Shao’s attack on Cao Cao and was put in prison. Later, when Yuan Shao was defeated in Guandu, the jailer went to congratulate Tianfeng and said, “your defeat proves that you are right. Your hard life will soon come to an end!” Tian Feng sighed and said to the jailer, “you don’t know what the Lord is like! If he wins the war, he may let me go. Now that he has lost the war and is full of anger, where can he face me? Look, I have no good end.” Not long after, an emissary came with Yuan Shao’s sword and ordered Tianfeng to commit suicide.

Although one is a counselor and the other is a general, the ending of Bai Qi is strikingly similar to Tian Feng. The king of Qin was so angry that he forced Bai Qi to go to war, but Bai Qi still refused to comply; Send fan Ju to invite him again. Bai Qi didn’t give him face. The king of Qin finally reached the limit of endurance. He ordered that Bai Qi’s title of Wu’an be removed, demoted to a soldier, and immediately moved to Yinmi. This Yin dense, roughly in today’s Jingchuan county. Bai Qi did not start immediately because he was ill and had difficulty moving. Three months later, the situation of the Qin army became more and more critical, and the envoys for help rushed to Xianyang one after another. Thinking of Bai Qi, the king of Qin was ashamed and annoyed. He never wanted to see him again, so he forced Bai Qi to leave Xianyang immediately.

Bai Qi had no choice but to leave the city with a small family full of resentment. Not long after he left, King Qin discussed with fan Ju and said, “this guy is still unconvinced and complaining.” So Bai Qi made a prediction of his fate to Tianfeng 400 years later: the king of Qin sent messengers with swords to catch up with Bai Qi and ordered him to self adjudicate.

Bai Qi is really not convinced. He received the sword and sighed to heaven, “Why have I sinned so far from heaven?” That means, what crime have I committed that I must end up today?

Sima Qian used a word here called “Liangjiu”. It took me a long time. Later, he finally figured it out and said, “I should die. In the battle of Changping, hundreds of thousands of Zhao’s soldiers fell. I cheated and made a hole. It was enough to die.” That is to say, I really deserved to die. Hundreds of thousands of people of the Zhao army surrendered during the Changping war. I took deceptive measures to bury them all alive. This one alone deserved to die.

Lu Xun praised the “historical records” as “a masterpiece of historians, and a Lisao without rhyme”. I read historical records and often read it as prose or even novels. Bai Qi’s last words were not so much his own voice as another form of “Taishi public words”. It’s hard to believe that Bai Qi can figure it out. The so-called imagination is just to give yourself a step down. However, people’s feelings, especially those of the state of Zhao, will certainly support this “Taishi public statement”.

The place where Baiqi committed suicide was in Duyou, which is today renjiazui on the North Bank of the Weihe River in the eastern suburb of Xianyang city. For Bai Qi, most people in the state of Qin are naturally sympathetic. After Qinshihuang ascended the throne, he thought of his hard work and high achievements and enfevered his son Bai Zhong in the sun. After a thousand years, Bai Juyi was bred. Bai Juyi recalled his ancestor Bai Qi in the two ways of Bai’s family in Taiyuan, and wrote: “later, it was not his crime, but du you died. The Qin people took pity on him and set up a temple in Xianyang, which still exists today.” The tombs and temples of Baiqi in the Tang and Song dynasties have not been preserved to this day. In 1970, during the construction of the 3503 factory of the people’s Liberation Army, the tomb path of Baiqi tomb was found, and several weapons, swords and other cultural relics were unearthed, which are now preserved in the Xianyang Museum.

The flame of Yiling is extinguished, and the vitality of Changping is low. When the general is ill, he gives his sword to the west of Xianyang. This is the poem “Guo Bai Qi Mu” by Cao ye, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The feeling of sympathy is expressed in words. Cao ye lived in the late Tang Dynasty. At that time, the government was corrupt and the central government was unable to control it. Of course, he expected to be able to turn the tide from the sky. But how would he feel if he went to gukou village in the northwest of Gaoping City? Gukou, also known as shagu, waitou and vindication Valley, has baiqitai and skeleton King Temple in the village. The temple was built in the Tang Dynasty. It is said that when Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty was king Lu, he toured here. He was shocked to see the bones and heads everywhere. He ordered people to clean up the bones for burial. Then he built the skeleton king temple, which was dedicated to Mr. and Mrs. Zhao Kuo. Bai Qi was indeed innocent, but would Zhao Kuo sympathize with him?

There are famous generals outside and famous ministers inside. If they unite with each other sincerely and make concerted efforts, foreign countries dare not invade. This is addition, 1+1=2; If you are not convinced of each other, and you fight with me, that is subtraction, 1-1=0. Just as the old saying goes: make up the stage for each other, and a good play will be staged; They demolished each other and collapsed together. Lian Po, Lin Xiangru, Bai Qi and fan Ju can be regarded as the patterns of addition and subtraction.

After reviewing the ancient books and carefully figuring out that Bai Qi probably died of that sigh or complaint: “Qin didn’t listen to his ministers’ plans. What’s the matter now?” Without this sarcastic remark, the outcome might not be so extreme. These words have brought Bai Qi to death, and also increased my favor for him. Without these words, Bai Qi is a murderous, cold-blooded professional soldier. With these words, he becomes a man, a man: this may be wrong, but I must say it. Because this is our man’s temper. He will never hide it.

I like this temper. Life is a lifetime, but looking down. How do you feel when you meet under the spring a hundred years later?

We can also see some clues of Bai Qi’s character from the perspective of combat ideology. As a man, he likes to fight the war of annihilation, including the war of yique, the war of Huayang and the war of Changping; He is also good at long-distance pursuit and seeks to maximize the fruits of victory. This was an advanced idea at that time. Because Sun Tzu’s art of war advocates “don’t chase down the enemy when he is poor”, and the book of the Lord Shang, art of war, also requires that “you can’t pursue the north more than ten miles after winning a war”, that is, you can’t pursue more than ten miles after winning a war. Bai Qi never cared about this. This hearty character may be regarded as “no politics” and no contingency. But if it is not so, how can Baiqi become Baiqi? These are both sides of a coin.

Of course, only the king of Qin can really let Bai Qi die. This man’s character, another famous general Wang Jian, saw it clearly and summarized it comprehensively. There were only five words: “he did not believe in others.”. Some versions of this “Chi” are “rough”, which means the same pronunciation and means rough temper. A rough and suspicious king must have instinctive wariness in the face of a high achievers; He didn’t obey orders and said sarcastic words. Such a person is a talent who can be used for me. If he doesn’t, he is a threat. Why should he keep it.

But fan Ju was still responsible for the death of Bai Qi. “Historical records” used four words, saying that fan Ju “killed him by speaking”. The meaning is very clear, that is to fan the flames and add fuel and vinegar until the king of Qin lost control of his emotions. In the end, it is the people around the chief who are good at both hands and eyes. They can accomplish things at critical moments, and even worse.

Fan Ju’s doing this also fully conforms to his character. Sima Qian summed up that “a meal of virtue must be paid, and a vengeance must be repaid”. If you take care of my meal, I will repay you; If you dare to stare at me, I will take revenge on you. Generally speaking, it means that love and hate are clear, emotions are strong, but principles are not emphasized.

Fan Ju still used his alias Zhang Lu after worshiping the prime minister in the state of Qin, and the people of the state of Wei did not know it. One day, when Xu Jia was sent to the state of Wei, fan Ju changed into a ragged suit and went to the post house to find him. Xu Jia was surprised and said, “Uncle fan, are you still alive? Did you come to the state of Qin to lobby?” Fan Ju said, “Hey, don’t mention it. In the past, I made a mistake. I didn’t dare to lobby. Now I just work as a servant and make a living.” Xu Jia sighed: “are you still so poor?” So he kept him to eat, and sent someone to bring him a coarse silk robe and give it to fan Ju. Thanks to this dress as a gift, otherwise Xujia would not have a good end. Nevertheless, the scene behind him was enough for him to drink a pot.

The two chatted while eating. Xu Jia asked casually, “do you know Zhang Jun, the Prime Minister of the state of Qin? I heard that the king of Qin trusts him very much, and all the world affairs are decided by him. The success or failure of what I do this time also depends on him. Young man, do you have any friends familiar with him?” Of course, fan Sui was no longer young, but since he did not have high officials and rich salaries, in Xu Jia’s eyes, no matter how old he was, he was equal to zero. Fan Ju said, “it happens that my master is very familiar with him. Even I can ask for him. Let me introduce you.” This fellow Xujia has not forgotten to play big cards at this time. After hearing this, fan Ju said disapprovingly, “my horse is ill and the axle is broken. I will never go out without a cart drawn by four horses.” Fan Ju said, “it’s all right. I’ll borrow the owner’s cart for you.”

Fan Ju went back to get a cart drawn by four horses, drove the shaft himself, and carried Xu Jia into the prime minister’s residence. Seeing that fan Ju was driving in person, the servants he knew all shied away. Xu Jia felt very strange. At the door of the prime minister’s office, fan Ju said, “please wait a moment. I’ll inform you.” Poor Xujia, dragging the reins of his horse, waited at the door until the flowers were withered. No one came out. He asked the doorkeeper, “Uncle fan has been in for so long, but he hasn’t come out yet. What the hell is going on?”. The doorkeeper said, “who is uncle fan? There is no such person here!” Xujia said, “it’s the man who came in with me just now.” He glanced at Xujia and said, “Uncle fan, he is our prime minister!”

When Xu Jiadun was thundering, he quickly took off his coat and knelt on his knees with bare arms, so that the doorkeeper could plead guilty to fan Ju. Fan Ju asked people to hang up the magnificent tent, summoned many attendants with great dignity, and then gave a command: “pass on Xujia!” Xujia knelt in, kowtowed repeatedly, and said, “I didn’t expect you to reach such a noble position by your own ability. I dare not read the world’s books and participate in the world’s major events any more. I committed a great crime that should have been boiled to death and threw me into the desolate and barbaric captive area. I have nothing to say. My life and death depend on you!” Fan Ju sneered and said, “how many sins do you have?” Xu Jia replied, “it’s not enough to count my sins by pulling out my hair!” Fan Ju said: “You have three sins. In the days of King Zhao of Chu, Shen Baoxu helped the state of Chu to defeat the Wu army. The king of Chu granted him 5000 families as a food town. Shen Baoxu refused because his ancestral tomb was in the state of Chu. He did not help the state of Chu in order to get a reward. My ancestral tomb is in the state of Wei, but you suspect that I have an outsider. I know the state of Qi secretly and speak ill of me in front of Wei Qi. This is your first crime. Wei Qi threw me into the toilet and insulted me wantonly. Don’t add any insult Stop, this is the second count. What’s more, you peed on me when you were drunk. How can you bear it? This is the third count. The reason why you can save your life is that you still have some old friends. Give me a thick silk robe. “

With these words, fan Ju drank Xujia out, and then went to the palace to report to the king of Qin. He suggested accepting the request of the state of Wei for peace, but refused Xujia as an emissary and ordered him to return home immediately. Before Xu Jia left, he came to say goodbye to fan Ju. Fan Ju gave a big banquet and invited all the envoys of various feudal states to the lobby. He filled the hall with rich dishes, but he asked Xu Jia to sit under the hall, with chopped grass and beans in front of him. A prisoner who had been tattooed on his face was sitting on his left and right, and fed him horse feed. Fan Ju also scolded him and said, “go back and tell the king of Wei to bring Wei Qi’s head right away. Otherwise, I must wash the girder with blood!” When the news came back to the state of Wei, the Prime Minister of Wei and Qi was also wrong. He threw down his seal and quietly fled the state of Wei to Zhao Sheng, the plain king of Zhao, to seek shelter.

Fan Ju was indeed favored by King Zhao of Qin. Determined to avenge fan Ju, King Qin wrote a letter to Prince Pingyuan, saying, “I’ve heard about you for a long time. I’ve heard that you have love and righteousness. I’d like to make friends with you. Please come and see me. We’ll have ten and a half days of fun with him.” In the world, who is not afraid of violent Qin? Coupled with the high hat sent by the king of Qin, Mr. Pingyuan was so impressed that he went all the way west to the state of Qin.

The king of Qin didn’t renege on his promise. He drank several drinks with Prince Pingyuan before showdown. He said, “in the past, King Wen of Zhou got LV Shang and honored him as the grand duke; Duke Huan of Qi got Guan Zhong and honored him as the father of Zhong. Now fan Ju is like my uncle. His enemies are hidden in your house. Please hand them over. Otherwise, don’t think of Hangu pass.” Prince Pingyuan said, “Wei Qi is my friend. Even in my home, I can’t give it to you, let alone not yet.” The king of Qin didn’t ask Pingyuan for help, but found the king of Zhao. At this time, the king of the state of Zhao was zhaoxiaocheng, whose name was zhaodan. The king of Qin told Zhao Dan, “the king’s brother is here, and fan Ju’s enemy is at your brother’s house. If you don’t bring Wei Qi’s head quickly, I will send troops to attack the state of Zhao immediately, and your brother can’t think of Hangu pass!” Hearing this, King Zhao immediately sent troops to surround Pingyuan Jun’s home. Wei Qi took the lead in escaping and found Yu Qing, the Prime Minister of the state of Zhao. Yu Qing, who didn’t know what evil he had committed, also left Xiang, took Wei Qi with him, and ran back to the state of Wei, asking for help from xinlingjun, intending to escape to the state of Chu. In this matter, the state of Qin is certainly excessive, but Wei Qi is not a good thing. It is not worth leaving his hometown for him.

Because of this, although xinlingjun is famous, he still murmurs in his heart. He said, “what kind of person is Yu Qing?” Just waiting to win, He said: “when Yu Qing was not well-developed before, the king of Zhao gave him a pair of white Bi and a hundred pieces of gold when he met him for the first time; when he met him for the second time, he was the supreme minister; when he met him for the third time, he was the prime minister. At that time, who in the world did not know Yu Qing? Now Wei Qi is in trouble, Yu Qing did not hesitate to abandon his high officials and high salaries and flee with him. You also asked him what kind of person he is. It is really difficult for people to understand, and it is not easy to understand others.” Xinlingjun was ashamed to hear this. He drove out of the city to meet him. Wei Qi finally learned something. Knowing that xinlingjun hesitated, he wiped his neck.

This is a vindictive grievance. A meal of virtue pays for itself, and Xujia can save his life. That’s an example, but it’s more than that. Zheng Anping saved fan Ju’s life. Wang Ji brought him to the state of Qin. Both of them played a key role in his later development. After fan Ju ascended the phase, Wang Ji came to ask for an official. It was not difficult. The king of Qin was very proud. He appointed Wang Ji as the prefect of Hedong and granted him permission not to report for three years; Zheng Anping was promoted to be a general, and he was asked to lead troops to reinforce Wang Fu and continue to besiege Handan.

It is the duty of the prime minister to recommend talents and serve as an important task. How talented are the two men recommended by fan Ju? According to his intelligence, there is no difference. However, the actual results were astonishing: Zheng Anping led his troops to attack Zhao, defeated and surrendered; Wang Ji had an affair with other countries and was beheaded in public.

It should be noted that Zheng Anping’s surrender to the enemy took place after Bai Qi twice resisted orders. The reason why fan Ju pushed Bai Qi out so actively, I’m afraid it has nothing to do with this.

Seeing this, I think we can draw a conclusion: Bai Qi’s famous general is worthy of his name, and fan Ju’s famous appearance is in vain. Speaking of it, fan Ju’s “killing Bai Qi by talking” is actually a manifestation of “Revenge of Jain”. Bai Qi flashed his face. Afterwards, he made some sarcastic remarks. A meal of virtue must be paid, which can be regarded as a virtue; It is really a bad habit to repay the grievances of the Jain. Such behavior, to put it bluntly, is the loyalty of friends. Mixing the world on the street, wandering between black and white, may be able to mix into a big brother; A little more lenient. It’s OK to be a county official. If you dominate the military and civil affairs of a state, you may make a mess. The prime minister is really incompetent.

About recommending talents, Qi Xi is the most popular virtue figure. Qi Xi, with the word Huangyang, served as a lieutenant in the Jin state during the spring and Autumn period. Later, when he grew old, he asked him to return to his hometown. Duke mourn of Jin asked him, “who is more suitable to replace you?” Qixi said, “you can solve the fox.” Duke Jin mourned with a smile and said, “Xie Hu is your enemy.” Qixi said, “Lord, you asked who could replace the lieutenant, but you didn’t ask who was my enemy!” After Xie Hu died, Duke mourn of Jin asked Qi Xi for a candidate again. Qi Xi said, “Qi Wu can.” Duke Jin mourned in surprise and said, “isn’t Qi Wu your son?” Qixi said faintly, “the Lord asked about the choice of a lieutenant, not who is my son.”

This is the story of “external lifting does not avoid enemies and internal lifting does not avoid relatives”. Xie Hu, one of them, is indeed an honest man. He once recommended his enemy xingboliu as the Sheriff of the Shangdang. Xingboliu came to thank Xie Hu and said, “I recommend you for business; I hate you for personal affairs. You go. My hatred for you has not changed!” This man is Geng Jie. It can be seen that Qi Xi did nothing wrong. Of course, the performance of praying for the afternoon is also very satisfactory.

Qi Xi’s performance is almost saint. It is meaningful to aspire to it, but it is lack of operability. We might as well take a look at another prime minister, Pei Du of the Tang Dynasty, when he faced the old situation of seeking an official. Please note that the official seeker is morally flawless and a loyal gentleman.

This is recorded in Tang Yulin. It is said that after Peidu became prime minister, he actively recommended and thanked his friends who had not been an official before, as well as the children of others who had been kind to him, and never forgot. One of the ministers, who had an impeccable moral character and had nothing to say in ordinary times, suddenly said, “I have old friends with Pei Jingong. When I was not an official before, we had an agreement that no matter who developed, we should support each other. I have been in politics for many years, but peijingong refused to put me in a position of importance.” When the words reached Peidu’s ears, Peidu smiled at the messenger and said, “I really missed my appointment. Have you seen Ganoderma lucidum and coral?” The man said, “Ganoderma lucidum and coral are rare treasures.” Pei Du said, “have you ever visited mountains and rivers?” The man said: “I have traveled a lot of famous mountains and rivers. Only Lushan waterfall is like the Milky way, unparalleled in the world!” Peidu said: “Ganoderma lucidum and coral are treasures, but camphor, nanmu and alder are still needed to build houses. Waterfalls can be painted, but they do not help people’s lives. To irrigate good fields, it is still necessary to get the river. The man’s virtue and demeanor can serve as an example for ministers. Anyone who reads them will respect them. But he is rich and resourceful, and he is cowardly and suspicious. In the past, people were simple, but the land was not thousands of miles away, officials were not hundreds of people, and people had no power within There is no treachery or evil outside my minister’s rebellion. Painting is a prison, people dare not escape; Only wearing ochre as punishment, people dare not commit crimes. Although it is called Liejun Jianguo and Marquis earl, even if it is a big country, it is only equivalent to a county today, which is easy to govern. Now the emperor has set up 18000 official posts, 350 counties, 46 generals, 800000 troops, ritual and music relics, and officials and scholars, all far more than in ancient times. How dare I recommend Wang Zuo without his talent? “

“Tang Yulin” is not an official history, so we can’t sit down completely at this time, but the truth is generally good. In a word, it is necessary to measure materials. However, fan Ju recommended Zheng Anping and Wang Ji. Has this been achieved? Zheng Anping’s defeat was understandable, but his surrender was unforgivable; As for Wang Ji, it is even more unacceptable that he knows everything from home to abroad. According to the law of the state of Qin, fan Ju should be wiped out because of the same criminal responsibility for the oversight of the recommendation. But the king of Qin’s favor hasn’t expired, so he hasn’t been investigated at all.

Fan Ju’s recommendation of private individuals and slander of generals undoubtedly put personal likes and dislikes above national interests. To put it bluntly, he did not have the sincerity to serve the state of Qin. He analyzed the situation of the world for the king of Qin and formulated the strategies of “communicating with each other from afar and attacking with close quarters” and “consolidating the trunk and cutting the branch”. The fundamental purpose was to achieve personal status, not to unify the world for the state of Qin. Of course, we may be a little out of date when we ask him so. During the Warring States period, the flow of talents was very frequent. If you were unhappy, you could lift your butt and leave. The idiom “Chu Cai Jin Yong” is the product of that situation. Therefore, it was difficult for people at that time to have the concept of the motherland. There is no sense of the motherland. How can you ask him to be loyal to other countries.

If I were fan Ju, I might not abuse my personal power and slander the generals, but it would be difficult for me to sincerely serve the state of Qin. What is the state of Qin? King Qin, or the bureaucracy? In any case, the country is a large area of soil and can’t speak; The people are farmers, peddlers and pawns everywhere. They can talk but no one listens. The most effective one is the dictatorship. It is like a huge machine. Everyone is a screw. In general, no one can change the operation of the machine independently. Everyone can control people and also control people. In fact, what Wang Ji said to fan Ju when he was running for office was quite good. He said, “there are three things that can not be predicted, and there is nothing you can do about them. One day, Yanjia, the king of Qin, was the first one who can not be predicted; when you suddenly return to the west, you are the second one who can not be predicted; when I died of a sudden illness in a ravine, I was the third one who can not be predicted. Once Yanjia, the king of Qin, hated me again, there is nothing you can do about it; if you suddenly return to the west, you hate me again, there is nothing you can do about it; if I die suddenly in a ravine, you hate me again, there is nothing you can do about it.” The meaning is very clear: have the right not to use, expired. While the king of Qin still trusts you and I am still young and energetic, you can be my official.

He said this at a high level because he saw clearly the essence of the problem: there were dictators in fact and autocratic ministers under him. It is complementary, similar to the north and south poles of a magnet. This is the time they live.

No matter how high the kite flies, there is always a hand holding it on the ground. War is a continuation of politics. No matter how brave the general is, no matter how tenacious the officers and men are, they will still lose in the hands of paperwork. This is their destiny. However, in this whole set of bureaucratic mechanism based on dictatorship, everyone is a victim. Their struggle was basically a zero sum game: the king of Qin delayed the destruction of Zhao and increased the cost of the war; Bai Qi lost his life; Fan Ju lost his reputation. Although he finally retreated in a hurry and came to a good end under the persuasion of CAI Ze, the bad name of slandering and killing the top general will never disappear. As long as the historical records is not lost. People will remember it from generation to generation.

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