How did Ukraine come into being?

Spread the love

Source: trendy meditation (id:xinchaochensi)

Author: Kafka of xinhuamen

This topic was written down by the author trying to answer a question he put forward to himself, that is, what is Ukraine and Ukrainians, different from Belarus and Russia, and why Ukraine is called so different. Furthermore, on this basis, the author attempts to trace back to the origin of the construction of the East Slavic nation since the middle ages.

Starting with the Rossi

As we all know, Russia and other countries are Slavs. Slavs can be divided into three groups, namely, East Slavs, Mrs. sisra and Mrs. South Slavs. They are the three East Slavs, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus respectively; Three Western Slavic countries: Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia; Seven Yugoslav countries: Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, northern Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria.

The division of Slavs is mainly caused by historical reasons. With the great migration of ethnic groups, when the Germanic people in central and Eastern Europe entered the Western Roman Empire on a large scale, Slavs filled the gap left by the Germanic people, moved to the region to live, and formed the Western Slavs. They have more contacts with the core areas of Western Europe, and tend to be Catholic in religion, which is the core of their culture.


The other was mainly active in the border areas north of the Eastern Roman Empire. Influenced by the Eastern Roman Empire and Greek culture, it formed the eastern Slavs. The last group moved southward to the Balkans and became the barbarians in Eastern Rome. Compared with the eastern Slavic, they were more deeply influenced by the Eastern Roman imperial culture and the Eastern Orthodox Church and formed Yugoslavia.

From the perspective of the core area of civilization and the half edge / edge, Yugoslavia and sislav actually entered the circle of European civilization in the middle ages, which can be regarded as the half edge area. Even the king of the Bohemian Kingdom (i.e. the Czech Republic) is one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire, which can be described as the core circle of civilization; Neighboring Poland has also developed a strong national self-awareness in the long-term struggle with Teutonic Knights, and the neighboring Central European cultural circle has also made Krakow and Warsaw (successively the capital of Poland) become central European famous cities comparable to Budapest and Vienna.



Comparatively speaking, although Mrs. Yugoslavia is closer to the core of civilization (Constantinople), it has prevented Yugoslavia from producing its own unique culture and thought. When I reviewed it in 2020, I roughly stated that it is actually a group of Mrs. Yugoslavia. Apart from the earlier divided northern Macedonians and Slovenes, the difference between Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia is only religion, Serbia believes in the Orthodox Church, Bosnia believes in Islam, Croatia believes in Catholicism, and Montenegro is the Yugoslav lady who did not yield to Osman.

In fact, the evolution of ethnic differentiation in Yugoslavia was accelerated twice during the Second World War and after the cold war. During the Second World War, ustasha and chetnik fought against each other, completely distinguishing the Croatian nation from the Serbian nation. In the post cold war civil war in the former Yugoslavia, through the sea of blood, people who were originally brothers thoroughly identified and identified each other through blood debts.

So how did the three East Slav brothers, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, who had no strong historical memory or even blood feud with each other, come into being? This needs to start with the rose people.

In earlier times, the grasslands of Eastern Europe were full of rivers, lakes and swamps, in which the Russ, or boaters, rowed and lived. In fact, the Rossi people at this time should be said to be Vikings in northern Europe. They conquered a large area of the Eastern European plains. With the passage of time, Rus gradually became the East Slavic lady, which was a process in which a small group of Vikings who ruled the country finally integrated into the vast sea of Slavic groups. Russia and Belarus are derived from the word Rus. In Russian, rose is ????, The Russian is the adjective form of Ross ????????

Kievros, an early feudal country with Kiev as its capital, was established by the Viking Oleg on the Eastern European plains from the middle of the 9th century to the 1930s. It was the earliest Russian country. At that time, it was just a small inland country in Eastern Europe from Kiev in the south, to Lake Ladoga in the north, from Pskov in the West and to mulom in the East. Later, it gradually expanded to become a powerful country in Eastern Europe. In 980, Vladimir I married Princess Anna of Byzantium, and declared the Orthodox Church as the state religion from 988 to 989, forcing all residents to accept the baptism of the Orthodox Church, which promoted the development of the orthodox culture in Russia.


Anna Komnene

In 1060 A.D., it was caught in a feudal scuffle. After the 1230s A.D., the unified Russian state no longer existed, and the history of Russia entered the period of feudal separatist rule.

At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongol Empire invaded and established the chincha Khanate in Eastern Europe. In 1223, the Russ and the Allied forces of other nationalities faced off with the Mongols and Tatars on the Bank of the kalka River (), and the Allied forces were defeated. Since then, the Russ have surrendered to the chincha Khanate.

After the collapse of the Russian state, from the perspective of the central historical view of Russia, the Grand Duchy of Moscow came to the stage of history. But don’t worry, we are talking about Ukraine. Then, we will start from Poland.

Cultural infiltration in Poland

As early as the 6th century to the middle of the 10th century, the original commune of sislav began to disintegrate gradually, and the feudal land ownership came into being. In the middle of the 10th century, the Polish tribes with gnezno as the center gradually unified other tribes. Mieszko I (reigning from about 960 to 992), the Grand Duke of the piastre Dynasty, established the early feudal state. In 996, Poland was baptized by Catholicism.

In the middle of the 12th century, Poland was divided into several principalities, and Poland entered the period of feudal separatism for 200 years. Wadiswar I unified Poland and was crowned king of Poland in Krakow in 1320. His successor, kasimir III, conquered mazovshe. However, Europe is very crowded, and the nascent Polish country soon faced malicious attacks from the surrounding countries. There is a backlog of Livonia knights, Teutonic Knights, Brandenburg (frontier Earl country) and bohemian kingdoms, especially the Teutonic Knights’ strong combat power and expansion posture. On the other side, the Luxemburg Dynasty has controlled Brandenburg, Hungary, Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire at this time.

At the same time, Lithuania also encountered problems during this period. Lithuania in this period was a vast country in terms of territory. Lithuania was just born at this time, just like the grassland people in China’s history, like the Moravian Empire, Bulgarian Empire and other countries in European history. They just surrounded Moscow and conquered the vast land of the Russian people.

This land they conquered was called Ruthenia in the medieval literature, the place of the Latin rose people. But if we can not deal with the continuation of the Dynasty and the rule of the country, it will soon be integrated into the vast ocean of the rose people. From the fact that several children of his Archduke, archidas, have been baptized by the Orthodox Church, this is very possible.

Linguistically, Lithuanian, Latvian (i.e., Livonia) and ancient Prussian belong to the Indo European Baltic language family, which is parallel to Germanic, Slavic and Finnish (Finnish and Estonian are close relatives). Therefore, Lithuania is hiding in the gap between the orthodox world (Ross) and the Catholic world (Holy Roman Empire and post Baptist Poland), Originally, Lithuanians believed in primitive shaman worship, but with the armed missionary movement of the Northern Crusades, under the pressure of the Teutonic Knights, Lithuania had no choice but to choose between the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church. (to say more, at this time, Livonia, which is roughly Latvia, has been conquered by the knights, and Prussia is actually the result of the religious conquest of the Teutonic Knights.)

The kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania implemented the Clevo Union (1385), and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiellon married the Polish king Jadwiga (the reason why he was the king rather than the queen of Poland, which was the legacy of his father, Hungary and King rajos I of Poland) with the lineal lineage of the Piast Dynasty, and was crowned king of Poland, known as king wadislaw II of Poland. In 1410, the Polish Lithuanian allied forces gave the Teutonic Knights a devastating blow in the battle of Grunwald; In 1466, dongbomurray was recovered. Wadiswaf II yageron fulfilled his family’s promise to take over the kingdom of Poland and recover the crown territory.



Clevo United Poland and Lithuania, two independent countries, under the rule of one monarch, and the monarchs elected by the two countries will be the same person. Constitutionally, this is called a “monarchy”, that is, although they are the same monarch, the entities of the two countries still exist. Poland and Lithuania also have their own independent state administrative institutions and armies, which is not uncommon in Europe

The competition in Europe became more intense. In 1569, when the yagelon Dynasty was facing extinction, the then king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Siegmund II promoted the “Lublin union”, that is, Poland and Lithuania changed from a monarchy to a federal state, and Poland was called the first Republic of Poland in history.

Siegmund II transferred a large area of rusenia land owned by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Poland, and adjusted its domestic politics on this basis. Generally speaking, it can be said that the russnia area allocated to Poland is the origin of modern Ukraine, while the remaining parts are roughly modern Lithuania and Belarus.


Union of Lublin

In terms of the domestic culture of Poland, the Principality of Lithuania and the Polish Lithuanian Federation, as Poland has a dominant population and a developed urban commercial culture, in fact, Polish culture has an absolute advantage. For example, the legal documents of the Lublin Union were written in Polish, not Lithuanian, while the official language before the establishment of the Lithuanian office was the official Slavic language. When Latin was still dominant, the first language was Latin, followed by Polish. However, the language of Lithuania was basically the same as that of the rural people of Ross, and few people spoke it.

The rural dialect of Ross here is actually the predecessor of Belarusian. Modern Lithuanian is actually inseparable from Belarusian, polish and even Ukrainian. A large number of common words are the historical imprints of the four nations.

In Ukraine, Belarus and Poland, there were a large number of “akhenazi Jews” in history. They even produced their own language Yiddish, that is, medieval German, which borrowed a large number of Hebrew words and Jewish customs. Later, after the Lublin Union, the Polish Lithuanian Federation was in an open attitude of multi-ethnic and multi religious, In particular, the Polish nobles needed to colonize the lucernean land allocated to them when the first Republic was established, and a large number of them needed to be manor stewards and urban population based on sucking agriculture. Akhenazi Jews immigrated here. In the Second World War, they were the group that died the most and suffered multiple persecutions from Germans, poles and Banderas.

What needs to be pointed out here is that the concept of nation-state rose in the western context, not earlier than the signing of the peace treaty of Westphalia in 1648, and even the clear concept of nation-state should be after the modern bourgeoisie stepped onto the political stage. Before that, culture, language, faith and descent were often separated. In the period of Poland and the Lithuanian Federation, a Lithuanian was often a Polish politically (Polish country), a Lithuanian by descent (Lithuanian blood), a Greek religiously (believing in the Eastern Orthodox Church) and could speak the Slavic, polish and Latin languages of the church at the same time.


Signing of the Treaty of Westphalia

Take Mr. tadush, a poem by the poet mitskewicz, which initiated the National Anthem of modern Lithuania, as an example. In it, “Lithuania! My motherland! You are like health. Only those who lose you understand your normality.” It is full of patriotism, but it is written in Polish. Mitzkavic, who graduated from the University of Vilna (that is, Vilnius in Belarusian or the local language of ruseniadam, spelled vilnia, and Vilnius in Lithuanian, spelled Vilnius), is a Polish patriot of Lithuanian origin.

During the decline of ancient Russia, especially when the Golden Horde actually ruled the land of south Russia, Poland and Lithuania looked down on Moscow. Even when Ivan Reid (Ivan IV) was the first Czar, Poland and Lithuania regarded Russia as barbarians, and the barbarians were on the defensive against Poland and could not expand. However, with the gradual unification of Russia by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the adoption of Mongolian centralization rather than the traditional state autonomy of Russia, Moscow has gradually become a competitor that can not be underestimated.

(in the middle ages, Europe paid great attention to the origin of claims, but it was not generalized. An independent country could call itself autonomous. For example, after the split of Kiev Ross, many countries were grand duchy, because Dux or Duke itself meant leader, of course, there were also people who called themselves prince, and to rise to kingdom, Rex in Latin, meaning border manager, it needed the pope or the Roman emperor as God With the permission of emperor Luo, for example, Poland was upgraded to a kingdom by the Pope, while Prussia was upgraded to a kingdom by the emperor Shenluo. Therefore, Ivan Reid’s self calling “czar” and Peter I and then “emperor of the Russian Empire” means “I am barbarian”

The turning point was the Great Northern War. The defeat of the Polish Federation and the victory of Russia laid the foundation for Russia to become the Russian Empire and Tsar Peter I to be crowned emperor Peter I. then around the former Polish king, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, the Saxon elector Marquis II, gave up the throne of the Polish kingdom of Lithuania, resulting in the war of succession to the Polish throne, Further, the “free veto” and other internal contradictions in Poland have led to more chaos in Poland. Finally, when Stanislav, the lover of Ekaterina the great, was king, Russia and Austria divided Poland three times. Through three times, the Polish Lithuanian Federation no longer existed.

As a land under the rule of the former Polish Lithuanian Federation, russnia began its history of evolution to Ukraine.


The picture shows the comparison between the federal boundary of Poland and Lithuania and the modern territory when Lublin was united in 1569

The dispute between Russia and its neighbors: the birth of Ukraine

Name of Ukraine“ ???????” Ukrainian preposition ? (near) and NOUN ?????? (boundary, area) composition is usually interpreted as “in the boundary area”. From the etymological analysis, Ukrainian comes from the ancient Slavic language, and the name “Ukraine” is also related to the ancient Slavic language. Some Ukrainian scholars believe that “Ukraine”, as a national name, refers to “a part cut out of a whole piece of land, and then the cut out part will soon become a new whole (free state)”; Other scholars believe that the origin of the word “Ukraine” may be related to“ ????”? “ ??????” The two words are related.

In ancient Slavic and“ ????” Coexisting synonyms“ ?????” It means “a piece of land, the farthest part of the territory, the edge of tribal territory”. East Slavic“ ?????” Add suffix ?? Composition“ ???????”? It means “an important piece of land, a remote area of tribes”. Therefore, in fact, the etymology of Ukraine has the meaning of “the land of borders” (of the Ross world).

Historically, Ukraine was known as “little Russia” and “little Russia”, which were used by Imperial Russia to address Ukraine. We can see that before the recent outbreak of the Ukrainian Russian conflict, Putin also mentioned this concept in several speeches. The concept of “small Russia” refers to the concept of a big country or a small country in ancient Greece and Rome.

Ancient Greek and Roman historians regarded a country as a small country, which did not mean that the country was small, but that the country was the residence or birthplace of ethnic groups and tribes since ancient times, and these ethnic groups and tribes were the core of the primitive nation and the original country. A big country is a country formed through colonization by the nationals of a small country. It can also be said that a big country is derived from a small country.

After learning of the division of Ross, Constantinople called the southwest Ross in Kiev and Dnieper River Basin known to them since ancient times “little Russia”, and the rapidly developing northeast Ross “great Russia”. According to Byzantine arrangements, several dioceses including the Diocese of galic were set up in the “little Russia”, and the title of “little Russia” was first used among the religious leaders or congregations of these dioceses.

The use of the name “little Russia” is very unfavorable to Poland. After the rise of the Principality of Moscow, it often used the origin of “big Russia” and “small Russia” to seize the land of Ukraine, while the poles opposed turning their Russian land into the land of the Principality of Moscow. Therefore, Poland began to use the word “Ukraine” instead of “little Russia” or even “Kiev Ross”.

After the Lublin Union in 1569, Poland acquired the regions of podraschet, Warren, podoli, polatslav and Kiev, and Ukraine and Belarus became part of Polish territory. Poland divides Ukrainian land into six provinces: galic, Warren, potoli, brazlav, Kiev and Berz, which are called “Ukraine under Polish rule”.


According to the constitution of Poland in 1791 (the eve of partition), the title of the king of Poland is Stanislaw Auguste. By the grace of God and the will of the people, he is the king of Poland, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, routnia, Prussia, mazovshea, zamogetia, Kiev, wallinia, borderia, podrazia, Livonia, Smolensk, sevoria and the Duke of Chernigov.

It can be seen that the rule of the king of Poland claims to spread all over the surrounding areas. It should be mentioned that considering that the disputes between Poland, Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights have a long history, and the Teutonic knights is the origin of the Principality of Prussia, the king of Prussia and even modern Germany, which is also a true portrayal of Polish history, “Pingdu Zhenlu”.

The class, ethnic and religious oppression of the Polish rulers after the founding of the Commonwealth of Poland led to widespread resistance by the people of Lucerne. Usually in the form of manor serfs, the land conquered and occupied by Lithuanian nobles was transferred to polish nobles. Then polish nobles set up manors and introduced Jews to manage the manor for rent collection. What happened at the same time with the political Bosnian state after the union of Lublin in 1569 was forced religious naturalization. In 1596, the Greek ritual Catholicism (Eastern Catholic Church), or “Brest union”, was born under the encouragement of Poland, The integration of Catholicism and Orthodox Church in Poland means that Poland has forcibly naturalized the Orthodox Church in the russnia region under its rule into Catholicism. In the situation of religious etiquette, everything is still Greek, but it must recognize the Pope and itself as a part of Catholicism.

At the end of the 16th century, the situation of ethnic, class and religious contradictions was extremely tense. By 1648, it developed into a large-scale uprising in Ukraine, and Cossacks became the leading force of the Ukrainian people. With the awakening of Ukrainian people’s national consciousness, the word “Ukraine” has gradually evolved into a national title. Here, the Ukrainian etymological meaning of “border area and border” is both the border of Russia and Poland.

In 1654, czar Alexei declared that he was the “protector” of Ukraine and the “czar of big Russians, small Russians and other Russians”. The “small Russians” here refers to Ukrainians. Through the peliaslav treaty, Ukraine started the process of integration into Russia.



Through three times of partition of Poland and foreign wars, the imperialist Russia finally occupied most of the present-day Ukrainian territory. After the Russian occupation, Russia, according to its own habits and domestic political requirements, also started ethnic cleansing (oppressing the Jews who were originally Polish aristocratic manor stewards and city merchants), religious cleansing (changing the Eastern Catholic church back to the Eastern Orthodox Church) Language purification (Prohibition of speaking polish and publishing Polish works, followed by the same prohibition of Ukrainian after the emergence of Ukrainian national consciousness).

In 1863, in order to “russify” Russian owned Poland, Russia banned the teaching of polish in schools, but Lithuanian was a blessing in disguise, and was added to the local curriculum under the background of balancing Poland. Several Lithuanian nationalists have set up a publication called liming, which specializes in literary and artistic works written in Lithuanian. One thing that makes Lithuanian national activists feel aggrieved is that mitskiewicz’s “Mr. tadush” is clearly the best work to publicize Lithuania, but it is written in Polish.

After thinking, they came up with a way to translate the poem into Lithuanian. If Lithuanian can express the poet’s hot feelings, it means that Lithuanian is not a low-level language (in the middle ages, it was generally recognized that polish was an elegant language in the Federation of Poland). In 1898, a Lithuanian poet named kudirka drew the best from the rough and wrote the first sentence of Mr. tadush, “Lithuania! My motherland!”, I used it in my poems. Later, this poem was set as the National Anthem of Lithuania. But not only did they do so. The Polish people were also thinking about this poem. Nowadays, it is generally believed that mitzkiewicz is a Polish patriotic poet. The funniest thing is that the Belarusian patriots are also ready to move, because the birthplace of mitzkiewicz and the story background of this poem all take place in Belarus.

In the era of awakening of modern national consciousness, there were always some Ukrainians with national consciousness different from “Russians”. At the same time, they also formed a national identity different from “poles”, rather than attached to the above two. This comes to Galicia, which is often mentioned in Weibo and wechat, Lvov.


This figure is quoted from reference materials (see the bottom). After referring to many materials, the author added his own understanding and roughly divided modern Ukraine into eight parts, namely:

1? In the outer Carpathians, the ethnic identity is Russian (note that it is not Russian), and they believe in Eastern Catholicism, which has been occupied by Hungary for a long time;

2? Galicia, the seat of Lvov, the birthplace of Ukrainian nationalism, the birthplace of banderasm, the strongest Ukrainian national identity, believes in the Eastern Catholic Church (because Galicia and the outer Carpathians belong to Austria after the three partition of Poland);

3? Vorinia, who identifies with the Ukrainians, but some regions are pro Russian and believe in the Orthodox Church (both Galicia and vorinia belong to the core of Polish culture for a long time, but they belong to Russia after the three partition of Poland, and the imperialist Russia has carried out long-term intervention and transformation);

4? Ukraine on the right bank, like Ukraine on the left bank, is the core area of the Ukrainian concept. After the peliaslav treaty, Russia has a claim, but it still belongs to Poland in the contract concluded with Poland until it is included in Russia after the partition of Poland;

5? Ukraine on the left bank belongs to Russia after the peliaslav treaty, and other features are the same as Ukraine on the right bank

6? Zaporoze means “outside the torrent”, Za means “outside”, which is synonymous with “outside” in outer Baikal, while boroze means torrent. The Dnieper River has a big turning here. It is the main production area of free Cossacks. You can see the quiet Don River and how steel is made, which are also mentioned;

7? Free Ukraine, once the base of Crimean Khanate invading Russia. After Russia gradually gained the upper hand, it became a colony of Cossack cavalry. According to the historical understanding of China, it is probably similar to the “main production area of Liangjiazi in six prefectures”;

8? Crimean region, during the existence of Crimean Khanate. In fact, the war with the Tatars dominated the lives of the Cossacks.

The nationalism of modern Ukraine originated from the deterioration of relations between Austria and Russia. As we mentioned above, during the existence of the Polish Lithuanian Federation, it once promoted the transformation of the Eastern Orthodox Church into Catholicism, that is, the Eastern Catholic Church. After the rule of the imperialist Russia, Russia changed back and forced the Eastern Catholic Church to be re naturalized into the Eastern Orthodox Church. At that time, when the pan Russian people wanted to Moscow, it actually did not cause any waves.

However, since the outer Carpathian and Galicia regions belonged to Austria and later Austria Hungary after the three partition of Poland, the forced return did not occur. On the contrary, in order to disgust the Russians, Austria promoted the National Awakening of “Ukrainians” on a large scale. Nowadays, the Cathedral of the Eastern Catholic Church is located in Lvov. Austria’s wishful thinking is to make Galicia a “Piedmont of Ukraine”, that is, to evolve from a corner of Galicia to a nation-state of Ukraine, which is the cause of the Sardinian piedmund Kingdom’s unification of Italy.

After the collapse of the Austro Hungarian Empire, Galicia was inherited by Poland. Due to the long-term infiltration of Polish culture, Poland does not consider Galicia as a “foreign region and Lvov as a foreign city”. 52% of Lvov residents claim to be poles, while 75% of Lvov residents’ first language is polish. However, considering the long-term policies of the Austro Hungarian Empire, Galicia is a rural area, The countryside is actually Ukrainian. For poles, Lvov and Galicia actually embody the special feelings in Polish history and culture, which is the sustenance of the ancient glorious first Republic of Poland (the Polish Federation).

When Poland was subjugated in 1795, four fifths of the peasants living in Belarus believed in the Eastern Catholic Church. If the superiority of polish was not restricted and Poland was not subjugated in the 18th and 19th centuries, in fact, Belarusian would be a Polish dialect and Belarusians would be a Polish people. Genetically, there was no obvious difference between the East and the West Slavs, Belarusians are genetically closer to poles than Russians with more chincha lineages. What is particularly important is that Belarusians were highly polish in the first Republic (i.e. the Polish Federation). But all this became a hypothesis as Belarus returned to the rule of the Russians.

So why is Ukraine so different? From the perspective of vocabulary, Ukrainian is the closest to Belarusian. It is said that the two have 84% of the common vocabulary, followed by Polish, followed by Russian. However, Belarusian is declining. Even in Belarus, the number of people who speak White Russian is becoming less and less, less than 20%.

Compared with Ukraine, what Belarus lacks is not the infiltration of the historically developed Polish culture, but the cultural symbols that distinguish Russia. An important reason why Lvov is the birthplace and strongest voice of Ukrainian nationalism is that Lvov is a heterogeneous Eastern Catholic religion.

The civilization infiltrating Belarus is the only Russian culture, so this is the reason why Belarus is different from Ukraine. From a larger perspective, looking at the changes of the whole Eastern Europe, the most important identification factor in the national identification is “XXX makes us different from the Russians”.

It can be seen that a nation is a community created and imagined. It is created by past experiences and common choices, and built by common will.

Later, we will talk about the changes between Russia, Ukraine and Poland after the first World War, the Second World War and the Soviet Union.

reference material:

1. Lvov and Ukraine, the change of identity between Russia, Russia and Ukraine,

2. historical origin of the name “Ukraine”: China Social Science Daily

3. national reconstruction, Poland / Ukraine / Lithuania / Belarus, 1569-1999, [US] Timothy Snyder, Nanjing University Press

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *