Hua Tuo, a Chinese character, was born in peiguoqiao (now Boxian County, Anhui Province) and was named “Zhu”. It is recorded in history that he “traveled to study Xu Tu and passed the Sutra”. At first, Chen Jue, the father of Chen Deng, the then Peixiang and general weifubo, the Guangling Prefecture governor, was filial and honest. Later, Huang Wan, the Taiwei, also created him. Because of the chaos of the world, he did not become an official.
Hua Tuo’s medical skills have always been well known. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, he was able to use surgery to open the abdominal cavity and then use needle and thread to sew, just like modern medical skills. Written on:
If the disease is in the intestines, they will break the intestines and wash, sew the abdomen and rub it with ointment. After four or five days, there is no pain, and people will not feel it by themselves. In one month, they will be healed. Some people suffered from abdominal pain, and their temples and eyebrows degenerated in more than ten days. Tuo said, “it is the spleen that is half rotten. It can be cured by nourishing the abdomen.” If you drink medicine and lie down, you will see if your stomach is broken, and your spleen and fruit will be half rotten. Cut it off with a knife, scrape away the evil flesh, apply ointment to the sore, and drink medicine to cure it in a hundred days.
Hua Tuo was able to perform splenectomy 1800 years ago, which shows his excellent medical skills.
The “mabiesan” invented by him is also the earliest pure traditional Chinese medicine surgical anesthetic known in the world. Its efficacy is magical. Annals of the Three Kingdoms – Biography of local techniques:
If the disease is accumulated inside and beyond the reach of acupuncture and medicine, those who need to be cut will drink the hemp boiling powder. In a moment, they will be drunk to death without knowing, because they will be broken.
It can make the patient drunk during the operation and know nothing about it.
In the romance of the Three Kingdoms written by Luo Guanzhong, there is a description that Hua Tuo scraped bones and treated poison for Guan Yu. It says that Guan Yu was killed by the Wei army’s poisonous arrows during the Xiangyang war. Hua Tuo dissected his arms and scraped bones for Guan Yu to remove the severe poison on his bones. Guan Yu still played chess with people without changing his look. This paragraph describes Guan Yu’s great courage, and at the same time describes Hua Tuo’s excellent medical skills.
But this paragraph was actually made up by Mr. Luo. It’s true that Guan Yu cures poison by scraping bones. The annals of the Three Kingdoms, Shu Shu, biography of Guan Yu contains:
The feather was hit by a flowing arrow and passed through his left arm. Although the wound healed, the bone often ached when it rained. The doctor said, “the arrow arrow is poisonous. The poison enters the bone. When the arm is broken, the bone is scraped and the poison is removed, and then the ear is removed.” Feather then stretches out his arm to make the doctor chop it. At that time, Yu Shi asked everyone to compare their food with each other. His blood flowed from his arm and filled the plate. Yu cut and roasted the wine, and laughed at himself.
The saying here is that Guan Yu asked the doctor to cure his poison while drinking at the banquet. If we can infer from historical facts, it should have happened before the Xiangyang war, rather than during the Xiangyang war, as stated in the romance of the Three Kingdoms. Secondly, the doctor was not Hua Tuo, but a military doctor in Guan Yu’s army.
In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, in order to highlight Cao Cao’s suspicious character, Luo Guanzhong gave Hua Tuo the credit for treating Guan Yu’s poison. Later, when Hua Tuo was treating Cao Cao Cao’s headache, he proposed to perform craniotomy for Cao Cao. Cao Cao was so suspicious that he contacted Hua Tuo about treating Guan Yu’s poison. He suspected that he wanted to harm himself, so he was sent to prison for death.
To be honest, to cure Guan Yu’s wound with Hua Tuo’s medical skills should be to kill chickens with an ox knife. There is no problem. What I want to talk about here is the cause of Hua Tuo’s death. It is not that, as Luo Guanzhong said in the romance of the Three Kingdoms, he wanted to perform craniotomy for Cao Cao and suspected that he wanted to murder himself. Finally, he died unfortunately.
The reason why Hua Tuo died in history was that he wanted to be an official and engage in politics. Hua Tuo was originally a scholar. As it has been said above, he “traveled to study Xu Tu and learned the sutras”, and later became famous for his superb medical skills. However, in the Han Dynasty, to paraphrase the old saying, “all things are inferior, only reading is high”. Doctor, in the history books, it is impossible to classify it into the biography of Fangji. From this, we can see something or two.
Hua Tuo was deeply ashamed of his status as a doctor. Shi said that “he was a scholar at first. He saw his career through medicine and often regretted himself”. Therefore, Hua Tuo was always looking for opportunities to embark on an official career. Unfortunately, everyone regarded him as a good doctor, while no one regarded him as a scholar who could engage in politics. There is nothing wrong with this. It would be a pity if a good doctor gave up his doctor status and went into politics. As Hua Tuo, his ideal is to go on an official career. This idea is not wrong. If he goes on an official career with his talent and knowledge, it may not be a good thing.
Unfortunately, Hua Tuo not only made a big mistake, but also exposed his moral defects and paid the price of his life.
At that time, Cao Cao, king of Wei, suffered from headache, especially later. Hua Tuo’s medical skills were excellent, so Cao Cao “made Tuo exclusive” and Hua Tuo became Cao Cao’s “imperial doctor”. After seeing Cao Cao’s illness, Hua Tuo said, “it is difficult to cure this disease. If we continue to attack and cure it, we can prolong the years.” It means that the disease is difficult to cure for a while, and it takes time to cure. In the process of treating Cao Cao, Hua Tuo began to deliberately delay the process. He also used the excuse that “when he got a letter from home, he wanted to return his ears for a while, but he went home”. After he got home, he falsely said that his wife was ill and did not return after several overdue periods. His original intention was to blackmail Cao Cao and seek official positions.
Cao Cao wrote many times in calligraphy, and ordered the prefectures and counties to dispatch him, but “(Hua) Tuo was still not good at the way because he could be anorexic.”. Cao Cao was so angry that he asked people to go to the hospital. However, he carefully asked for confirmation first and did not convict Hua Tuo: “if his wife believes in illness, Xiao Dou will be given 40 days’ leave; if he is dishonest, he will receive it.” So Hua Tuo’s lies were exposed and he was sent to prison.
After Hua Tuo was put in prison, Xunyu, the top adviser under Cao Cao, pleaded for Hua Tuo and said, “Tuo’s skill is practical and his life should be forgiven in his county.” Cao Cao refused and said, “if you don’t worry, there should be no such rat in the world.” By this time, Cao Cao’s contempt for Hua Tuo was already evident.
As a doctor, he deliberately delayed and threatened to treat patients as a means to embark on his career. Hua Tuo’s move was really detrimental to medical ethics. He could be called an unscrupulous doctor. It was reasonable for Cao Cao to look down on him.
So after the death of Hua Tuo, although Cao Cao’s head wind disease still broke out from time to time, he never regretted it, and said, “Tuo can heal this. A villain wants to raise my disease with self-respect, but if I don’t kill this son, I will never break this root for me.” This remark hit the nail on the head and revealed Hua Tuo’s thoughts and the reason why he was killed. It’s a pity that Hua Tuo, a great doctor of his generation, was first-class in medical skills, but he wanted to play with Cao Cao, a great hero of his generation. He looked down on Cao Cao too much.
The only time Cao Cao regretted killing Hua Tuo was when his beloved son Cang Shu was seriously ill. He said, “I regret killing Hua Tuo and forced him to die.” this can be seen from his love for him. No wonder Cao Pi later said that if Cang Shu was alive, it would be a problem if he could be the crown prince.
It can be seen from this that Hua Tuo, although he had the best medical skills, was really not very good. He even tried to use the patient’s illness to coerce him, so as to realize his wish to go on an official career. It was a pity that all the tricks were exhausted and Qingqing’s life was lost. Not only did he die, but also “Ma boi San” and his exquisite surgery were lost. If all these have been handed down, Chinese medicine may be able to fill the gap in surgery, but now only his fitness method “five animal play” is left, which is really a pity.