Number of years in office
Age at death
55 or 46
62 or 53
Peixian Fengyi, father Liu Taigong
209 BC, 206 BC, the king of Han Dynasty, 202 BC, the emperor
13 or 16
21 or 24
Heir to the crown prince
Shanyang single father, empress Gaozu
In 188 BC, Lu Houli established the Shao emperor, who was called the system in the face of the dynasty, and the Shao emperor “ascended the throne” and “reigned” all refer to the system in the face of the dynasty
God of Literature
In the 11th year of emperor Gaozu’s reign, empress Lu died. Zhou Bo and others killed Zhu Lu and established the king as emperor
Heir to the crown prince
establish the first month of the calendar year or of a new era
Take the crown prince as heir. “Jianyuan” is the first imperial year in Chinese history
the absolute beginning
Emperor Wu’s youngest son, mother zhaojieyu
Heir to the crown prince
Great grandson of Emperor Wu, father Shihuang grandson
The Prince Li of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was plagued by witchcraft. Liu Xun, the grandson of the Prince Li, was pardoned after Zhulian was imprisoned. Emperor Zhao died. Huo Guang welcomed the throne of Liu He, the king of Changyi. He removed him and welcomed Liu Xun
beginning of an emperor’s reign
the first emperor of a dynasty
Heir to the crown prince
Heir to the crown prince
Mourn the Emperor
The grandson of emperor yuan, the younger brother of emperor Cheng, and liukangzi, the king of Dingtao
Xin’s three-year-old heir father was appointed King Tao. Emperor Cheng had no children. He was summoned to the palace and established as the crown prince and heir
The grandson of the Yuan emperor, the son of King Xiao of Zhongshan
At the age of three, his father was the king of Zhongshan. Emperor AI died and had no children. The Empress Dowager and Wang Mang made Ying the emperor
act as regent
Confucian son Liu Ying
Xuandi xuansun, son of Liuxian, Marquis of Guangqi
In A.D. 5, Wang Mang killed emperor Ping and established Liu Ying as a Confucian
The Western Han Dynasty was a peak of China’s cultural development. With the all-round development of social economy and culture, and the increasingly frequent foreign exchanges, it became one of the most powerful countries in the world at that time. Chang’an was the capital of the Western Han Dynasty (now northwest of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province). The tombs are all over Guanzhong, and the cultural relics are very rich, showing the colorful style of the times of “Han and the world”.
battle between Chu and Han
At the end of the Qin Dynasty, the world was in chaos, and separatist forces appeared everywhere, and Liu Bang and Xiang Yu also rose at this time. They found the descendants of the king of Chu, established him as king Huai of Chu (later the emperor of Chu Yi), and sent troops to destroy the Qin Dynasty.
Following the arrangement of the counselor, Liu Bang first invaded Xianyang, the capital of Qin, in 206 BC. The prince of Qin surrendered. Liu Bang realized the agreement that “the first to enter the pass is the king of Han”, and became the king of Han. However, because his strength was not as good as Xiang Yu, he retreated from the attack. After that, Xiang Yu gradually took power. He killed the righteous emperor and called himself “overlord of Western Chu”. They ruled by their powerful force and enfeoffed the princes. He sealed Liu Bang in Shu and named Liu Bang as Han. In that year, China has two year titles, one is “the first year of the king of Han” and the other is “the first year of the overlord of Western Chu”. Soon, Liu Bang reorganized the army in his fief to attack Xiang Yu, and did not occupy an advantage in the early stage. However, although Liu Bang’s military talent can’t be compared with Xiang Yu, Liu Bang is good at using talents. He reuses counselors Xiao He, Zhang Liang and Chen Pingping to work for him. More importantly, he got Han Xin, a general who was not reused by Xiang Yu. It was his excellent military ability that reversed the situation. In the final battle of cuxia, Liu Bang won Xiang Yu. After Xiang Yu rejected his subordinates’ proposal to cross the Wujiang River to make a comeback, he committed suicide by the Wujiang River, ending the Chu Han war.
In 202 BC, Liu Bang became emperor and the founding of the people’s Republic of China was called the Han Dynasty. In May, Chang’an was the capital, and the Western Han Dynasty was born.
Rest with the people (202-141 years ago)
Namely, recuperation policy
Rest with the people is what we often call the “cultivation and interest” policy in history
The policy of recuperation and recuperation refers to that after great turbulence or long-term war, the rulers do not engage in the rule of labor and money, severe punishment and severe law, but instead adopt the policy of lenient punishment and thin tax, maintain the people’s strength and increase the population, so as to achieve the purpose of restoring and developing the economy and stabilizing the rule. The policy of recuperation began with emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty and has been implemented by several emperors (emperor Hui, empress Lu, Emperor Wen and Emperor Jing) for sixorseven years. The result is “wealth at home and substantial national strength”. Ban Gu said, “Han Xing, eliminate the tiredness and rest with the people; as for filial piety, add courtesy and frugality; as for filial piety, Jing zunye. Between 50 and 60 years, as for changing customs, the people are mellow.”
govern by doing nothing that goes against nature
After emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty declared himself Emperor, in view of the experience of the death of Qin Dynasty, he adopted the Taoist concept of “Huang Lao’s rule” and “Inaction”.
First of all, adopt the “system of prefectures and states”, where prefectures and counties coexist with feudalism. The emperor enfevered the Marquis and the Kingdom, in which the Marquis only enjoyed the tax revenue within the fief, had no military and administrative power, and was under the jurisdiction of the county, while the kingdom had independent political and military power. In addition, we should pay attention to building water conservancy and reducing taxes internally, so as to create conditions for the resumption of agricultural development; Externally, he was friendly to the Huns and maintained peace in the border region. This series of policies in the Han Dynasty generally maintained peace for a while, but also led to a series of problems. The internal policy of light corvee and low tax made some local powerful forces grow larger and larger, forming land annexation; Externally, the Huns invaded more and more frequently, threatening the peace of the border region.
In addition to implementing these policies, Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty also became suspicious of the princes with different surnames who had made great contributions to the struggle between Chu and Han. At this time, Han Xin was executed by Empress Lu by Xiao Heyong, and then Peng Yue, yingbu and others were eradicated one after another. Almost all the princes with different surnames disappeared and replaced by the princes with Liu surname. Liu Bang said to the crowd at the white horse alliance, “if it’s not Liu but the king, the world will attack him.”
Liu Bang was injured during the crusade against the yingbu rebellion and died. It was 195 BC.
Empress Lu’s dictatorship
After the death of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, the regime was gradually controlled by Empress Dowager Lu, the Empress Dowager of the emperor Gaozu. The succeeding crown prince, Emperor Huidi of the Han Dynasty, was stimulated by Empress Lu and ignored political affairs. After the death of emperor Huidi, Empress Dowager Lu established two puppet emperors in succession, gradually weakened the Liu family, and made Zhu Lu king, holding power for eight years. This situation was not eliminated until after the death of empress Lu, Zhou Bo and Chen Ping seized the power of the forbidden army and killed Lu Chan and others.
enlightened administration of the Han emperors Wen and Jing
After the death of Empress Dowager Lu, because Zhu Lu held the military power, and the meritorious officials were more dissatisfied with Lu’s dictatorship, the Taiwei Zhou Bo and the Prime Minister Chen Pingshi planned to seize Lu’s military power. As emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty had only two sons left, the courtiers took the strong Zhao family of the queen mother of the Huainan River and the kind Bo family of the queen mother of the Dai Dynasty as the reason. Therefore, the puppet emperor established by Empress Dowager Lu was not born to Emperor Hui, and welcomed the establishment of the Dai Wang Heng, namely the emperor, as Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty. He reduced the burden of the people and the punishment. After his son king ascended the throne, he also continued this policy. Therefore, this period was called “the rule of Wen Jing” in history. Both Wenjing emperors were advocates of Taoism, advocating inaction and recuperation. During this period, the country has developed steadily and its national strength has been greatly enhanced.
However, during the reign of emperor Jing, he listened to Chao CuO’s opinions and cut the vassal. Acting too hastily, the result was the “rebellion of the seven kingdoms of Wu and Chu”, the only unrest in this period, which lasted less than a year, and was finally pacified by Zhou Yafu, the son of Zhou Bo. After the rebellion of the seven kingdoms, the court tried to deprive the princes of their power and strengthen centralization.
The Great Han Dynasty (141-49 BC)
The mid western Han Dynasty was the most powerful period of the Han Dynasty. After the death of emperor Jing, Prince Liu Che ascended the throne, namely Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. As soon as he came to power, he changed the strategy of “governing by inaction”, attacked the Huns three times, expelled the Huns to Mobei region, opened up the western regions, and created the “Silk Road”; Internally, it implemented the “order of pushing kindness” to weaken the power of the princes and kings; The “salt and iron conference” was held to nationalize the cause of salt and iron making. However, Emperor Wu’s war with the outside world also came at a price. After three defeats against the Huns, Emperor Wu continued to attack the Huns, which made the Huns’ border disease resurge again; During the reign of Emperor Wu, the tax revenue of the state increased again, and at the same time, the punishment was also tightened again, so some riots occurred in the later period of Emperor Wu; It costs a lot, so we created “equal loss” and “equal accuracy” officials to compete for profits with the people. In addition, “deposing hundreds of schools and respecting Confucianism alone” has made Confucianism an inherent cultural trend in China.
In his later years, Emperor Wu issued the famous imperial edict of Luntai, which also expressed the deep introspection of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. The country gradually stabilized, so that although Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty had the loss of the Qin Dynasty, there was no disaster of the Qin Dynasty.
The image of decay (49 bc-9 AD)
Decline in Yuancheng
Emperor Xuan died at the age of 43, and the crown prince, emperor yuan of Han, ascended the throne. After the Yuan emperor, the annexation of powerful landlords prevailed, the centralization of power gradually weakened, and the social crisis deepened day by day. In addition, Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty was addicted to gentleness. Wang’s power is growing. Since Wang Feng, the relative of the queen mother, was appointed by Wang’s nephew as the grand general of the grand Sima. Wang’s power in the imperial court is increasingly consolidated.
Lose to AI Ping
After the death of emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty, empress Zhao Feiyan joined forces with the crown prince to squeeze out the Wang family. The crown prince ascended the throne for emperor AI of Han Dynasty. Empress Dowager Fu, the grandmother of emperor AI, and Empress Dowager Ding, her biological mother, were put into the main palace. Seeing that the situation was gone, Wang Mang, the great Sima, suggested to the Empress Dowager Wang that he should give way temporarily. As a result, Wang Mang resigned and returned to Xinye Xinxiang to seal the country.
Emperor AI of the Han Dynasty’s “habit of breaking sleeves” gradually weakened the Han Dynasty. Dongxianbai, a 22-year-old favorite minister, was the assistant of the grand Sima.
After the death of emperor AI of the Han Dynasty, Wang’s power rose again. At this time, Wang Mang gradually intervened in the court politics as a gentleman. Finally, he killed Xiaoping and abandoned Ruzi. On January 10, 9, he officially proclaimed himself Emperor, changed the Han Dynasty into a new one, and died in the Western Han Dynasty.
Western Han Dynasty Administrative Region
First level administrative region: there were more than 60 counties in the early Han Dynasty, with a total of 103 counties and countries in two years. The officer was originally called the prefect, and was renamed the prefect when the emperor Jing. Second level administrative region: the county (Hou state, Yi, Dao) Yi is the food Yi granted by the Empress Dowager and princess; Dao is a county-level administrative region located in ethnic minority areas. In Ad 2, there were 1587 county-level administrative regions such as counties, Houguo, Yi and Dao. Counties with more than 10000 households are called county magistrate, and counties with less than 10000 households are called county magistrate. Xingbu (also known as Cishi BU): since the fifth year of Yuanfeng (106 BC), there have been 13 Xingbu on the county, and each Xingbu governs several counties (countries). But at this time, the administrative department is a supervision area, not a real administrative area.