Introduction to Shang Dynasty and overview of Shang Dynasty history

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Posthumous title

Number of years in office

Accession time


Deed (former 2257 &\8211; former?) ? Zhaoming ? Xiangtu ? changruo ? Cao ? Ming ? Shang Gaozu (Wang Hai) ? Wang Heng ? shangjiawei ? report B ? report C ? report D ? show Ren ? Shang kuizong ?


Shang Tang

Shang Taizu

Before&# 8212; Front 1589

The ancestors of Shang Dynasty granted the land of Shang Dynasty to Dayu for flood control, and the capital of Shang Dynasty was Bo (now Shangqiu, Henan Province). He appointed Zhong ASPI and Yi Yin as his prime minister, and gradually grew stronger. Xia Jie was cruel and unruly, and the people were boiling with resentment. So he set up an army to conquer Xia, defeated Xia army, and established the Shang Dynasty. After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, Tang Xing, Ming Ju and other laws were revised, and people’s lives were more concerned. Shang Tang ascended the throne for 17 years, practicing the throne of the emperor, and the emperor collapsed for 13 years.

Son to fall


King of Shang Dynasty


Front 1588 &\8211; Front 1588

Shang Tang’s eldest son, surnamed Zi Yi, died early. In the Shang Dynasty, he was a brother and his last brother. Shang Tang had no younger brother and should be passed on to TAIDING. TAIDING died early and had the posthumous title of King Dai. Therefore, Sheng, a disciple of TAIDING, ascended the throne, was king AI (waic)



Shang AI King


Front 1588 &\8211; Front 1587

Wai Bing, a divination Bing, was born and died at an unknown age. Tang’s second son, Tang, succeeded to the throne after dying of illness. He reigned for 3 years, died of illness and was buried in an unknown place. Wai Bing, who was not qualified to inherit the throne, inherited the throne of Shang Dynasty only because Tang’s eldest son, TAIDING, died of illness and his son was young. He fell ill and died after only three years in office.

Zi Yong


King Yi of Shang Dynasty


Front 1586 &\8211; Front 1583

Zhong Ren, whose birth and death years are unknown, is the third son of Tang, the younger brother of Wai Bing, who died and was succeeded by Zhong Ren. He had been in power for 4 years, died of illness and was buried in an unknown place. After Zhongren succeeded to the throne, Yi Yin was the assistant governor and obeyed the legal system formulated by Tang. The government was stable After four years in power, he died and was said to be his nephew Taijia





Front 1582 &\8211; Front 1571

Taijia, whose birth and death years were unknown, was Tang Di’s eldest grandson, taidingzi, and uncle Zhongren who succeeded to the throne after death. He reigned for 23 years, died and was buried in Licheng (now Jinan City, Shandong Province). Taijia was assisted by Yi Yin, the elder of the four dynasties. Yi Yin wrote several articles, such as Si Ming and empress Zu, to teach Taijia to follow his ancestors’ legal system and strive to be a Ming monarch Under the supervision of Yi Yin, Taijia performed fairly well in the first two years after he took the throne, but not since the third year. He gave orders at will, indulged in pleasure, tyrannized the people, confused the government, and personally broke the laws and regulations formulated by Tang. Although Yi Yin tried to persuade him, he couldn’t listen. Yi Yin had to send him to tonggong palace near Shangtang cemetery (now southwest of Yanshi County, Henan Province) to live and let him reflect on himself, Yi Yin Fang Taijia “. Taijia lived in tonggong. Seeing that his grandfather was the founder of the country, but his tomb was very simple, he learned from the old man guarding the tomb that his grandfather was hard-working, kind and frugal. Compared with what he had done, he felt really bad. He secretly felt guilty and decided to change his past wrongs. He began to care about the elderly in tonggong, abide by the legal system and be kind to others. Three years later, Yi Yin was very happy to see Taijia sincerely repent, so he led the Minister of civil and military affairs Bring the king’s robe and crown, meet him back to merdu, and rule over him. From then on, Taijia learned from his past mistakes, quit early and love the people. Following the laws formulated by Tang, the world was governed in an orderly manner, and the Shang Dynasty was also gradually prosperous. Yi Yin was even more happy to see Taijia become a Ming Jun. he wrote an article titled “Taijia Xun” to praise him, calling him Taizong. Another story is that after Zhongren died, Yi Yin usurped the throne and expelled Taijia. Seven years later, Taijia sneaked back to the capital, killed Yi Yin and reset.



King Zhaowang of Shang Dynasty


Front 1570 &\8211; Front 1542

Woding, whose birth and death years are unknown, was succeeded by taijiazi after his death. During his 29 year reign, he died and was buried in Diquan (now Luoyang City, Henan Province).

Sub argument


King Xuan of Shang Dynasty


Front 1541 &\8211; Front 1517

Taigeng, whose birth and death years are unknown, taijiazi, brother woding, who succeeded to the throne after his death, died and was buried in Diquan for 25 years.

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Small nail

Shang Jingwang


Front 1516 &\8211; Top 1500

Xiaojia, the date of birth and death is unknown. Tai Geng Zi is also said to be the younger brother of Tai Geng in the world table. Tai Geng succeeded to the throne after dying. He died and was buried in Diquan for 17 years.


Yong Ji

Shang Yuanwang


Front 1499 &\8211; Front 1487

Yong Ji, whose birth and death years are unknown, was born and died. Tai gengzi, younger brother Xiaojia, succeeded to the throne after Xiaojia died of illness. He reigned for 12 years, died of illness and was buried in Diquan When Yong Ji was in power, the Shang Dynasty had declined, and many small countries refused to pay tribute.





Front 1486 &\8211; Front 1412

Tai Wu, whose birth and death date is unknown, is Tai gengzi, Yong Ji’s younger brother. The oracle bone inscriptions call him Da Wu and Tian Wu. After dying of illness, Yong Ji succeeded to the throne and reigned for 75 years. He died of illness and was buried in Neihuang (now 30 miles south of Neihuang County, Henan Province). During the reign of Tai Wu, Yi Zhi, the son of Yi Yin, and Wu Xian were appointed as prime ministers. The state policy was overhauled, and all small countries followed suit. The Shang Dynasty was prosperous, so his descendants honored him as Zhongzong.



Shang Xiaocheng King


Front 1411 &\8211; Front 1401

Zhongding, whose birth and death years are unknown, was once Zhongding and taiwuzi. After his death, Tai Wu succeeded to the throne and reigned for 13 years. He died and was buried in Diquan. When Zhongding was in power, he moved his capital to Ao (near Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, or in the northeast of Rongyang County, Henan Province). At that time, the Yi people in the southeast rose. LAN Yi attacked the Shang Dynasty, and Zhongding sent troops to repel LAN Yi. After Zhongding’s death, the brothers vied for the throne, resulting in the chaos of the nine generations in succession. The Shang Dynasty was once in decline.


External Union



First 1400 &\8211; Front 1386

Wairen, whose birth and death years are unknown, is the younger brother of Zhongding. After Zhongding died, he succeeded to the throne and reigned for 15 years. He died and was buried in Diquan. After Zhongding’s death, wairen succeeded in seizing the throne and compromised with the younger brothers, resulting in chaos in the succession of the Shang Dynasty, known as the chaos of the ninth generation in history The Shang Dynasty began to decline.

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River beetle

Ping Wang before Shang Dynasty


Front 1385 &\8211; Front 1377

He Yingjia, whose birth and death years are unknown, was the younger brother of wairen. Wairen succeeded to the throne after his death. He reigned for 9 years and was buried in Xiang after his death (now in Neihuang County, Henan Province) When he Pengjia was in power, the Shang Dynasty declined again. He moved his capital to Xiang and sent troops to invade LAN and ban Fang in the southeast.



King Mu of Shang Dynasty


Front 1376 &\8211; Front 1358

Zuyi, whose birth and death date is unknown, is zhongdingzi, who is said to be Kawako. He panga succeeded to the throne after dying of illness. He was in power for 75 years. He died of illness and was buried in Diquan. When Zuyi was in power, he moved his capital to Xing (also known as Geng, now east of Wenxian County, Henan Province). He sent troops several times to subdue the LAN Yi, ban Fang and other countries, lifted the threat of the Yi nationality in the southeast to the merchants, and the national movement revived again. In the oracle bone inscriptions, he is called Zhongzong Zuyi, and together with Dayi and Taijia, he is called “Sanshi” (meaning three ancestors with outstanding achievements).

Zi Dan


King Huan of Shang Dynasty


Front 1357 &\8211; Front 1342

Zuxin, the date of birth and death is unknown Zuyizi After his death, Zu Yi succeeded to the throne and reigned for 16 years. He died and was buried in Diquan.

Zi Yu


King of Shang Dynasty


Front 1341 &\8211; Front 1337

Wo Jia, the date of birth and death is unknown& lt; Shiben > As Kaijia, zuxindi After his death, Zuxin succeeded to the throne, died and was buried in Diquan.



Shang Zhuang Wang


Front 1336 &\8211; Front 1328

Zuding, unknown year of birth and death, zuxinzi, nephew Wo Jia After his death, Wo Jia succeeded to the throne, died and was buried in Diquan.

Zi Geng


Shangqing King


Front 1327 &\8211; Front 1322

Nangeng, whose birth and death were unknown, was wojiazi, Zuding’s cousin. After Zuding died, he succeeded to the throne, died and was buried in Diquan. When Nangeng was in power, the national fortune of the Shang Dynasty declined again, and then moved its capital to Yan (now Qufu County, Shandong Province).


Yang Jia

Shang mourns Wang


Front 1321 &\8211; Front 1315

The year of birth and death of Yang Jia is unknown Zu Dingzi succeeded Nangeng after his death He died and was buried in Diquan for 7 years. During the reign of Yang Jia, civil strife continued in the Shang Dynasty, and slave owners and nobles slaughtered each other Yang Jia can no longer control the situation



Shang Shizu


Front 1314 &\8211; Front 1273

Pangeng, the year of birth and death is unknown Zu Dingzi, brother Yang Jia Yang Jia succeeded to the throne after his death He died and was buried in Yin (now xiaotunzhuang, Anyang County, Henan Province) When pan Geng ascended the throne, the Shang Dynasty was faced with serious crisis after several generations of civil strife, political corruption, aristocratic luxury, fierce Royal internal strife, sharp class contradictions, and frequent natural disasters. In order to save the decline of the Shang Dynasty, pan Geng decided to give up the original capital and move the capital to the desolate Yin in order to curb the luxury of the silk aristocracy, ease class contradictions, and reduce some natural disasters The nobles tried their best to oppose the move of the capital, so pan Geng issued a proclamation, strictly ordering them to obey and move to the empress Yin He also tried hard to stop the nobles’ attempt to move back to the old capital& lt; Chancery Pangeng > It is the record of his speech before and after moving to Yin He also advocated frugality, improved the atmosphere, reduced exploitation, and finally settled the situation The hard work of slaves made Yin a very prosperous city. For more than 270 years, the capital of Shang has been here. Shang Dynasty is also called Yin and Shang Dynasty Pangeng moved to Yin, revived the Shang Dynasty again, and became a civilized country in the world at that time.

Zi song

Xiao Xin

Shang Zhangwang


Front 1272 &\8211; Front 1270

Xiao Xin, Zu Dingzi, pan Geng. Business is declining again.

Zi Lian

Small B

Shang Huiwang


Front 1269 &\8211; Top 1260

Xiao Yi, Zu Dingzi, Xiao Xindi.





Front 1259 &\8211; Front 1201

Wuding, reigning for 59 years, xiaoyizi. Wuding was the best king after pan Geng. His politics improved and the Shang Dynasty revived. When he was young, he lived in the folk for a period of time and knew the hardships of the people. After he ascended the throne, he worked hard and determined to revitalize the cause. He went out to invade the ghost, the Turkmen, the Qiang, the human and the tiger. The scale of the war was not small. He often used thousands of troops, and the largest one was 13000 troops. During these expeditions, the king of Shang conquered many small countries, expanded his territory and captured a large number of prisoners. At that time, the bronze industry at the level of social productivity development made a breakthrough. In addition, it also made great achievements in textile, medicine, transportation, astronomy and so on.



Empress Shang Pingwang


First 1200 &\8211; Front 1190

Zugeng, wudingzi.

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Front 1189 &\8211; Front 1157

Zujia, wudingzi, Zugeng younger brother.


Lin Xin



Front 1156 &\8211; Front 1153

Lin Xin, Zu Jiazi.



Shang kangzu


Front 1152 &\8211; Top 1145

Geng Ding, Zu Jiazi, Lin Xindi.

Zi Qu


Shang Wuzu


Front 1144 &\8211; Front 1110

Wu Yi, son of GengDing. Killed by lightning.



Shang Kuang Wang


Front 1109 &\8211; Front 1097

TAIDING, wuyizi. When he was in power, marquis Jili of Zhou (Jichang’s father) was more powerful, and TAIDING was afraid to kill him.





Front 1096 &\8211; Front 1076

Diyi, taidingzi. During Emperor Yi, the Shang Dynasty was even weaker. He made peace with Jichang by making peace.



King Zhou of Shang Dynasty


Front 1075 &\8211; Top 1046

Zhou of the Shang Dynasty, surnamed Zi, named Xin, had one name, Gu yinshou, the same as Zhou, Emperor Yizi. Shang and Zhou dynasties were intelligent and brawny. He attacked the eastern barbarians on a large scale and won a victory, which contributed to the spread of the Central Plains culture. But Shang Zhou was cruel and lustful. He favored Daji, tortured the people, overhauled the palace, and the people could not make a living. At this time, the Western Zhou Dynasty gradually grew stronger and finally destroyed the business. King Zhou burned himself to death. Business is dead. Shang Zhou and Xia Jie became synonymous with tyrants – “the king of Jie and Zhou”.



The Shang Dynasty is the second important dynasty in Chinese history. From about the 17th century BC to the 11th century BC, it experienced three major stages. The first stage is “business first”; The second stage is “early business”; The third stage is “late business”. It is said that the 17th generation and the 31st King lasted for 600 years. Generally speaking, the Shang Dynasty was in the heyday of slavery. The slave owners and nobles were the ruling class, forming a huge bureaucratic governing structure and army. Slave owners could either buy or sell slaves or kill them at will; After the death of the slave owner, the slaves had to be buried. It can be seen from the tombs of the emperors and dignitaries of the Shang Dynasty that at least dozens of slaves were buried, and at most thousands of slaves were buried.

Before the Shang Dynasty, when the Tang Dynasty destroyed the Xia Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty was established, the Shang tribe was a tribe mainly engaged in animal husbandry, which thrived in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The Shang Dynasty established its rule and established its capital in Bo (now near Shangqiu, Henan Province); Later, the capital moved to Yin (today’s Xiaotun village, Anyang, Henan Province) during the pan Geng period, so the Shang Dynasty has always been called the Yin Shang Dynasty. The sphere of influence of the Shang Dynasty also greatly exceeded that of the Xia Dynasty. Archaeologists have found a large number of Oracle Bone Inscriptions from Xiaotun village in Anyang, which shows that the characters in the Yin and Shang dynasties have been fully and widely used and developed more mature; The structure of Chinese characters has been basically formed in oracle bone inscriptions. Through the study of oracle bone inscriptions, we have a more detailed and reliable understanding of the Shang Dynasty. In Shang Dynasty, the records of astronomical phenomena and the use of Ganzhi chronography were reflected in oracle bone inscriptions. In the Shang Dynasty, agriculture, animal husbandry and aquaculture developed rapidly, especially the handicraft industry. The smelting and manufacturing of bronze ware were quite mature, and various commonly used utensils, ritual vessels and wine vessels were very exquisite. The famous Simuwu square tripod, weighing 875 kg, is one of the outstanding representatives.

The story of “King Wu’s attack on Zhou” records the process of the collapse of the Shang Dynasty. King Jifa, the leader of Zhou tribe in the Weihe River Basin, united with other tribes to fight against the Yin and Shang Dynasties. At that time, King Zhou of Shang Dynasty, who ruled the Yin and Shang Dynasties, was also a tyrant like Xia Jie, which had already aroused people’s hatred. In order to fight against King Wu, King Zhou armed a large number of slaves, but these slaves defected in the front line. In fact, it was a slave uprising. King Zhou burned himself to death in fear. The Shang Dynasty perished and was replaced by the Zhou Dynasty.

The Shang Dynasty is the second hereditary Dynasty in Chinese history after the Xia Dynasty. From Tianyi (Tang) to Dixin (Zhou), there were seventeen generations and thirty-one kings, which lasted nearly 600 years.

It is said that the Shang nationality is a descendant of the Gaoxin family. It lives in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and has a long history. During the Shun period, the Shang clan produced an outstanding military leader, Qi. Later, the merchants called him the “mysterious king” as the ancestor, and compiled a Ode to praise him, “the destiny of the mysterious bird, came down and gave birth to the business, and the vast land of yin and earth” (the bookofsongs · Shang song · mysterious bird). When Taikang lost his country, Qi’s grandson Xiangtu began to develop in the East. According to the bookofsongs, “Xiangtu is fierce, and there are interceptions overseas.”. By the middle of the Xia Dynasty, Sun Ming, the sixth of Qi Dynasty, “worked hard for his officials and died in the water” (“national language · Lu language part 1”), and merchants worshiped him in the suburbs. Ming Zi Wang Hai “served as a cow” and developed to Hebei. By the time of sun Tang of the fourteenth generation of Qi, Shang had become a relatively powerful country in the East. “Guoyu · zhouyu II” said: “the king of cloud is diligent in business and thrives for four generations in ten.


Tang is Tianyi. His surname is “Zi”. The oracle bone inscriptions call him Dayi. Later generations customarily call him Chengtang. He is a well-educated leader of the Shang clan. It is said that he was once imprisoned in a water prison. After he was elected leader, he saw that the Xia Dynasty was becoming more and more decadent, and the tyranny of the Xia Dynasty had caused people to betray their relatives, so he began to establish a new dynasty. First of all, with virtue and strength, the neighboring tribes were annexed one after another. Secondly, Fang Guoge (now North of Ningling County in Henan Province), Wei (east of Huaxian County in Henan Province), Gu (northeast of juancheng city in Shandong Province) and Kunwu (south of Huaiyang in Henan Province) of the Xia Dynasty were eliminated, and “the eleven expeditions are invincible in the world”. Finally, they launched an attack on the capital of the Xia Dynasty. The two sides fought in mingtiao (Fengqiu East in Henan), and the Xia division lost. After exterminating the Xia Dynasty, Tang Hui returned to Boyi, where he met with princes and formally established the Shang Dynasty, with its capital in Bo.

After Shang Tang established the country, it learned from the profound lessons of the demise of the Xia Dynasty, abolished the tyranny of cruelly oppressing the people during the Xia Jie period, and adopted the policy of “governing the people with mercy”, which eased the contradictions within the Shang Kingdom, stabilized the political situation, and strengthened the national strength day by day. He made expeditions to many countries around him and won a series of victories. Therefore, it is recorded in Mencius Teng Wengong Xia that Tang was “invincible in the world during the eleventh expedition”. The poem Shang song Yin Wu also has the record that “there was a soup in the past, since the di Qiang people, no one dares not to enjoy it, and no one dares not to come to the king”, which reflects that the Shang Dynasty has become a powerful country under the rule of Tang.

After Shang Tang and Zuo Xiang, they made great contributions in handling government affairs, stabilizing the political situation and developing production. After the death of Zhong ASPI, Yi Yin played a particularly prominent role in the political arena and became an important assistant and a veteran in the political arena during the Shang and Tang Dynasties.

After Shang Tang died, because his son TAIDING died early, Wai C, the younger brother of TAIDING, succeeded to the throne; After Wai Bing died, his brother Zhongren succeeded to the throne; After Zhongren died, he succeeded Taijia, the son of TAIDING, the eldest grandson of Shang Tang. According to the historical records of Yin Benji, “emperor Taijia was established for three years. He was unidentified, tyrannical, disobeyed Tang law, and disordered morality, so Yi Yin put him in tonggong.” Taijia lived in tonggong for three years. He repented and blamed himself. Yi Yin returned to Taijia and granted the government. Later, Taijia practiced virtue and obeyed the law, and the princes submitted to it. The people’s lives were more peaceful. This story reflects Yi Yin’s unremitting efforts to implement Shang Tang’s strategy of governing the country and make the Shang Dynasty long-term stability. This story has been around for a long time, and Yi Yin has also won the reputation of “Da Ren” and “Da Yi”.

Interpretation of country name

It is said that Qi, the ancestor of Shang, once helped Yu to control the flood and was granted the title of Shang (now the south of Shangqiu, Henan Province), and later called his tribe (or tribe) as “Shang”. After Tang extinguished Xia, he took “Shang” as his country name. After his descendants Pangeng moved to Yin (now the northwest of Anyang, Henan Province), they were called “Yin” or “Yin Shang”.

Changes of the commercial capital

However, the greedy nature of the ruling class determines that the struggle for power and interests within the royal family is inevitable. Recorded in the historical records of Yin Benji; “Since Zhongding, we have abolished Shi and established more disciples. Disciples may vie with each other to establish themselves on behalf of each other, which is more chaotic than the ninth generation. Therefore, the princes do not reign.”. From Zhongding, the ninth emperor of Jing Dynasty happened to be in the period of Pangeng, which indicates that during this period, the Interior Department of the king of Shang was in constant civil strife for the throne, resulting in constant foreign aggression. During this period, the Shang Dynasty moved its capital many times.

According to documents, the Shang Dynasty moved its capital five times. According to the Bamboo Annals, Wang Zhongding of the Shang Dynasty “moved from Bo to Xiao”, Hejia “moved from Xiao to Xiang”, Zuyi “lived in shelter”, Nangeng “moved from shelter to Yan”, Pangeng “moved from Yan to northern Mongolia, saying Yin”. However, archaeologists have so far only found four capital sites, namely Erlitou, Zhengzhou mall, Yanshi mall and Yin Ruins in Anyang. The four sites all have a large area of more than threeorfour million square meters. Archaeologists have found important relics such as large-scale palace base sites, tombs and workshops in these four sites, such as the No. 1 Palace found in the middle of Erlitou site, covering an area of 10000 square meters. Large scale city walls were found in Yanshi, Luoyang and Zhengzhou. In the Yin Ruins of Anyang, a large-scale sacrificial field in the imperial mausoleum area was also found. From these findings and literature records, we can know that the Shang Dynasty has established relatively complete state institutions, with various officials, standing armed forces (three divisions on the left, middle and right), laws and regulations, criminal laws and regulations, etc. However, the academic circles still have different views on the relationship between the above-mentioned capitals and the names recorded in the documents. Only the Yin Ruins in Anyang were the capitals of all kings after pan Geng.

Historians have different views on the reasons why the capital was moved many times in the history of the Shang Dynasty. However, according to the book of history, pan Geng chapter, the relocation of the capital had a certain relationship with the internal political struggle. For example, although pan Geng claimed that he “took advantage of the people to move the capital” (decided to move the capital for the benefit of the people), he issued a threat to those who did not obey the order that “I will destroy it, leave no children, and make it easy to plant it in the new town” (I will kill them all, and not let the evil seed stay in the new town), reflecting the fierce internal struggle. After pan Geng moved to Yin, the contradictions within the royal family were alleviated and the social and economic development was promoted. Pan Geng was known as the leader of “ZTE” and laid the foundation for the coming of the prosperous age of Wuding.

Wuding was the son of Xiao Yi, the younger brother of Pan Geng, and also the nephew of Pan Geng. When he was young, Xiao Yi asked him to live in the folk for a period of time and knew the hardships of people’s life. After he ascended the throne, he worked hard and was determined to revitalize the cause. He went out to invade the ghost, the Turkmen, the Qiang, the human and the tiger. The scale of the war was not small. He often used thousands of troops, and the largest one was 13000 troops. During these expeditions, the king of Shang conquered many small countries, expanded his territory and captured a large number of prisoners. There are abundant cultural relics in Wuding period, including palaces, tombs and workshops. The bronze industry, which represented the development level of social productive forces at that time, made breakthrough progress, such as the emergence of copper, lead and tin ternary alloys; Separate casting technology has been widely used; The production of bronze ware has increased greatly, and there have also been such heavy wares as simuWe Dafang Ding, Dufang Yi and Sanlian. The achievements in bronze industry during the reign of Wuding indicate that the Bronze Age in China has entered a prosperous period. In addition, great achievements have been made in textile, medicine, transportation and astronomy. The prosperous situation created by Wuding laid a good foundation for the development of social production in the late Shang Dynasty and the prosperity of Western Zhou civilization. Fuhao was one of the more than 60 wives of King Wuding of Shang Dynasty, namely the “mother Xin” of Zugeng and Zujia. She lived in the first half of the 12th century BC when Wuding reorganized the Shang Dynasty. She was the earliest female politician and military strategist in China. The first documented heroine in Chinese history.

Offering sacrifices to heaven and ancestors has a long history in China. Such relics have been found repeatedly in the archaeology of the prehistoric period. With the emergence of agriculture, people worship heaven to pray for good weather. It is a kind of nature worship. Ancestor worship is also called soul worship. It comes from the memory of our ancestors, and the scene in the dream is interpreted as the soul of our ancestors. People offer sacrifices to their ancestors in order to obtain the blessing of their ancestors. The beginning of the Xia Dynasty brought about great changes in the content of primitive religion. As the emperor is the highest ruler in the world, in order to maintain his rule, he combined ancestor worship with nature worship to create the Supreme God such as heaven or God. It can be seen from the literature that there was a god of “heaven” in the Shang Dynasty. The oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty discovered by chance in 1899 re presented the ancient characters buried for more than 3000 years to the world and let people read them. The discovery of oracle bone inscriptions made the existence of the Shang Dynasty indisputable and made the history of the Shang Dynasty a faithful history. 150000 oracle bones and inscriptions unearthed from Yin Ruins in Anyang recorded many events that took place in the Shang Dynasty. After several generations of collation and research, it reveals the rich content it contains, and opens up an important way to study the history of the Shang Dynasty. Oracle bone inscriptions have “emperor” or “God”. Therefore, when the Shang Dynasty attacked Xia Jie, it said that “Xia has many sins, and the fate of heaven is terrible”, “Xia is guilty, and his son is afraid of God, so he dare not be wrong”. Under the banner of “destiny”, it encouraged the soldiers and allies to carry out the will of God and fight bravely. But the God in heaven is opposite to the lower Emperor (Shang king) on earth. In order to carry out God’s will, the emperor communicated with God through witches. When the king of Shang offered sacrifices to his ancestors, he used five kinds of sacrificial rites to offer sacrifices to the ancestors after Shangjia. Thousands of sacrificial pits were found in the sacrificial field in the imperial mausoleum area of Yin Ruins in Anyang. Hundreds of people and animals were used at one time during the Wuding period. This situation reflected that the king of Shang attached importance to ancestor worship, because God was both the Supreme God and the ancestor god.

After Wuding’s death, the peace and prosperity he created could not last long. After Zugeng and Zujia, especially in the period of emperor Yi and Emperor Xin, domestic contradictions were very acute, and the princes in the southeast rebelled. In the face of this situation, Emperor Xin (Zhou) of the Shang Dynasty was brave. He sent his troops to the east to fight against Lai and Yi. He attacked the nine Miao in the south, extending Shang’s influence to the East China Sea and the Yangtze River Basin. However, his years of campaigns have greatly consumed the national strength, further intensified domestic conflicts, and made his control over the northwest decline. This gives Zhou an opportunity to take advantage of it. During the reign of King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty, the Zhou Dynasty launched an attack on the Shang Dynasty. Emperor Xin (Zhou) of the Shang Dynasty hurriedly had to use slaves as an army to resist the Zhou people. As a result, the army of the Shang Dynasty had no fighting spirit, “the former traitor turned against the enemy”, the Makino battle, “the blood floating pestle”, the domestic Shang army ran out of ink, and Emperor Xin fled to Lutai and burned himself to death. The Shang Dynasty perished.

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