the Spring and Autumn period
King Ping of Zhou
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One should be blamed (BC? ~ 720 BC). Prince Zhou you. You king was killed, and he was crowned king. Ji Yijiu, king of Zhou Ping, was originally made Prince when king you of Zhou reigned. You king doted on Baosi, deposed Yi Jiu and changed Bo Fu to Prince. One day, Yi Jiu was playing in the garden. You wang released the tiger in the cage and planned to let the tiger bite Yi Jiu to death. Yi Jiu was very courageous. When the tiger rushed at him, he not only didn’t panic and escape, but went forward. He suddenly roared, startling the tiger, retreated a few steps, and fell on the ground to observe the movement. Yijiu left calmly. Knowing that his father intended to harm him, he secretly escaped from the capital with his mother, Queen Shen, and went to his grandfather, marquis Shen. Hourong attacked Haojing, killed Youwang and retreated. The vassal states of Shen, Lu, Xu and so on established Yijiu as king and ascended the throne in Shen (now the north of Nanyang City, Henan Province) in 770 BC. Soon, because the capital of Ho was destroyed by the war, Yi Jiu, escorted by the state of Qin, moved eastward to Luoyi, and with the assistance of princes such as Jin and Zheng, barely supported the end game. The Zhou Dynasty after its eastward migration was called the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in history. When he moved, because of the meritorious service of Qin Xianggong’s escort, he was promoted to be a vassal. The year that the Eastern Zhou Dynasty began was the beginning of the spring and Autumn period. At the same time that Yijiu ascended the throne, Duke Guo Han embraced Yu Chen, another son of you king, as the son of heaven, and called him the king. There was a situation of two weeks of juxtaposition. More than 10 years later, the Duke Wen of Jin who supported Yijiu attacked and killed the king, and the Zhou Dynasty was reunited. Yi Jiudong promised, “the Rong people captured the Haojing and Qishan areas (today’s Fengxiang County, Shaanxi Province). Go and attack them. Wherever you hit, it belongs to Qin.” Soon, the area west of Qishan was occupied by Qin, and the state of Qin began to develop from then on. Due to the loss of a large area of native land, the Eastern Zhou Dynasty only had a corner in the northwest of Henan Province. It was no more than Xingyang in the East, no more than Tongguan in the west, no more than Rushui in the south, only to the South Bank of Qinshui in the north, with a radius of only more than 600 Li, narrow land and few people. Compared with the great vassal state with a radius of thousands of Li, it was only equivalent to a medium-sized vassal state. The Zhou Dynasty declined greatly. Zheng, Jin, Qi, Lu, Yan, song, Chu and other big countries in order to compete for land, population and domination of other vassal states, constantly carry out merger wars with each other, forming a chaotic situation of vassal hegemony, and China’s history has entered a turbulent period of great change. During the reign of Yijiu, due to the meritorious support of his grandfather, Shen Hou was granted a fief, and the people in his own capital were sent to guard. This made the people leave their hometown and resent very much. Ji Yijiu once appointed Zheng Zhuang Gongyu as a court official. Later, due to the strong strength of the state of Zheng, Ji Yijiu was wary of the Duke of Zheng Zhuang and did not want the court to be manipulated by the Duke of Zheng Zhuang. Taking advantage of the fact that the state of Zheng was troubled, the Duke of Zheng Zhuang did not have the opportunity to take office and wanted to remove his position as a minister. Hearing this, Zheng Zhuang immediately rushed to Luoyang to exert pressure on Ji Yijiu. Ji Yijiu repeatedly made amends, but Zheng zhuanggong refused. Ji Yijiu had no choice but to ask crown prince Ji Hu to take hostage in the state of Zheng. However, this is too damaging to the dignity of the emperor. The ministers also proposed the method of exchanging hostages with each other, so that the son of Zheng Zhuang Gong suddenly came to Luoyi as a hostage, while Prince Zhou went to Zheng in the name of learning. We can know from this historical fact; After Ji Yijiu moved eastward, the royal family of Zhou had declined in power. The king of Zhou was named the son of heaven, which actually depended on the face of the great princes.
King Huan of Zhou
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Huan Wang, Ping Wang sun. King Ping succeeded to the throne after his death. Ji Lin, king of Zhou Huan, is the son of Ji Xie’s father and the grandson of Zhou Ping. When King Ping died of illness, Prince Ji Hu was living in the state of Zheng as a hostage. Zheng Bo and Duke Zhou welcomed Ji Hu back to the throne with black shoulders. Ji Hu died after returning to the DPRK because of excessive sadness along the way. Ji Lin was helped by Uncle Zheng and uncle Zhou as the son of heaven. During Ji Lin’s reign, due to Zheng Bo’s meritorious support, Wen (now the southwest of Wen County, Henan Province), located on the North Bank of the Yellow River and south of the bleeding, was given to Zheng, and the territory of the Zhou Dynasty was reduced again. In the past, when the princes died, their sons had to rush to the capital to accept the canonization of the son of Zhou after the succession and funeral, in order to obtain legal status. In 712 BC, Duke Huan of Lu murdered his brother, Yin Gong, and established himself as king of the country without requesting the canonization of King Huan. From then on, the system of princes being canonized by the son of heaven was destroyed. In 706 BC, the state of Chu forced the king of suiguo by force, asking him to raise the level of the state of Chu to King Huan. King Huan refused, and Xiong Tong, the king of the state of Chu, raised his level after scolding Ji Lin Yitong, and was called King Wu of Chu. Ji Lin was angry and ashamed after receiving the report, but he couldn’t help it. After Ji Lin succeeded to the throne, Zheng zhuanggong continued to exercise dictatorship as a Qing scholar in the imperial court. Ji Lin was not willing to be controlled by him, so he drove away Zheng Zhuang Gong. After Zheng zhuanggong returned home, he made trouble and disturbed the peace of the surrounding area, and the relationship between the two sides became increasingly tense. Soon, under the pretext of the emperor’s order, Zheng Zhuang sent troops to attack the song state. Ji Lin was so angry that he simply removed his title of minister. Zheng Zhuang Gong did not show weakness, and did not go to Luoyang for five years, saying that he did not pay attention to Ji Lin. Ji Lin really couldn’t bear it. Regardless of his subordinates’ dissuasion, he personally led the army to fight against Zheng Zhuang Gong. Zheng zhuanggong also ordered his troops to fight. The two armies met in Changge (now the northeast of Changge County, Henan Province). Ji Lin was eager to win and sent people to scold and challenge. Zheng zhuanggong was in formation and stood still. Zhou Jun shouted and scolded until the afternoon. Before Zheng Jun went to war, they all looked tired and relaxed. Zheng zhuanggong took the opportunity to wave the flag and beat the drum to charge. Zhou Jun was caught off guard and was defeated. Ji Lin had no choice but to retreat and cut himself off. Zhu Zhen, general of the state of Zheng, saw it from a distance and shot Ji Lin’s left shoulder with an arrow. Fortunately, the armor was strong and the injury was not serious. Zheng Zhuang’s public opinion has taught Ji Lin a lesson. He is afraid that his subordinates can afford to kill him. He wants Ji Lin’s life and makes himself suffer losses in public opinion. He quickly calls in the Golden Army and allows Ji Lin to escape. Afterwards, Zheng zhuanggong pretended to send his ministers to apologize to Ji Lin, saying that he was only prepared to defend himself, but he didn’t expect his subordinates to violate discipline and offend the emperor. Ji Lin couldn’t laugh or cry, so she had to take this opportunity to go down the steps and announce in despair that Zheng Zhuang was exempted from the crime. The battle of Changge destroyed Ji Lin’s prestige and knocked out the sign of Zhou Tianzi that “he was ordered by heaven and assisted by Sifang”. Since then, the princes have paid less and less attention to the son of Zhou. In March 697 BC, Ji Lin was seriously ill. He called Duke Zhou black shoulder into the bedroom and said, “according to the ancestral system, I made my eldest son Ji Tuo the crown prince. However, my favorite is my second son Ji Ke. Today, I entrust Ji Ke to you. If Ji Tuo dies, his brother will die and his brother will succeed him. You should try your best to do this great thing.” Soon, Ji Lin died in Luoyi.
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Ji Tuo, king of Zhou Zhuang, was the eldest son of King Huan of Zhou, who succeeded to the throne after dying of illness. In the third year after Ji Tuo succeeded to the throne (694 BC), Duke Hei Jian of Zhou planned to kill Ji Tuo and make Ji Ke king according to the instructions of King Huan on his deathbed. Xinbo dissuaded him and said, “there is a difference between legitimate and concubines. Abolishing legitimate and establishing concubines is the root of civil strife!” Duke Zhou’s black shoulder didn’t listen. So Xin Bo reported the plot to Ji Tuo, who immediately killed Duke Hei Jian. Jike saw that the matter was exposed and fled to Yan country. This incident was called “the rebellion of Zi Ke” in history. In the summer of 693 BC, Ji Tuo wanted to marry his daughter to the king of Qi in order to win over Qi. He asked Duke Huan of Lu to act as a matchmaker and sent Qing Shan Bo to send his daughter to the state of Lu first. In winter, Ji Tuo sent his minister uncle Rong to Lu to “give orders” (i.e. confer titles) to kill Duke Huan of Lu, who was independent of his brother. Duke Huan of Lu sent someone to marry the king’s daughter to the state of Qi. In 685 BC, when Ji Tuo was in power, after years of civil strife in the state of Qi, the son Xiaobai was made king, namely Duke Huan of Qi. Regardless of personal enmity, he took back Guan Zhong, a famous minister who had almost shot himself, from the state of Lu and appointed him prime minister. With the help of Guan Zhong, the state of Qi carried out reform and gradually became strong. In the second year, because the state of Lu once blocked Duke Huan of Qi from ascending the throne, Duke Huan of Qi sent troops to attack Lu, and the Lu army fought against CHANG SHAO (the place is unknown today). Seeing that the enemy was strong and I was weak, Duke Lu Zhuang was eager to wave his troops and was discouraged by his Minister Cao GUI. The Qi army, relying on its strength, hit the drums and charged for three times in a row, but it failed. Immediately, it was demoralized and demoralized. Cao GUI adopted the tactics of “the enemy is tired and I fight”, launched a counterattack and defeated the Qi army in an all-out manner. This is the famous battle example of defeating the strong with the weak in history – the battle of Qilu ladle. In his later years, Ji Tuo loved shaoziqian very much and wanted to make him crown prince, but he failed, which led to the “Ziqian chaos” after his death.
King li of Zhou
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Hu Qi, the concubine of Zhou Li, was made Prince during the reign of King Zhuang. In the year Ji Huqi ascended the throne (681 BC), Duke Huan of Qi, assisted by Guan Zhong, ruled the state of Qi to be rich and powerful. In order to fight for hegemony in the name of the king of Zhou, Duke Huan of Qi accepted Guan Zhong’s suggestion and put forward the slogan of “respecting the king and fighting against the barbarians”, saying that he would honor the son of Zhou, resist the invasion of the Central Plains by ethnic minorities, and immediately sent envoys to congratulate Ji Huqi. Ji Huqi was very happy to see that the state of Qi was so respectful. He immediately entrusted Duke Huan of Qi with the matter of summoning the princes to recognize Duke Huan of song as the monarch. Duke Huan of Qi met the princes in Beixing (now the north of Dong’e County, Shandong Province) of the state of Qi, and was promoted as the leader of the alliance. In the winter of the same year, Duke Huan of Qi led a large army to attack Lu again. Duke Zhuang of Lu was frightened and asked for peace on the condition of land cutting. The monarchs of Qi and Lu talked about peace in Ke (a town in the northeast of jiushouzhang County, Shandong Province) within the territory of Qi. When the two were about to make a bloody alliance, Cao Mo, the general who protected Duke Lu Zhuang from attending the meeting, suddenly grabbed the general, flashed a dagger and kidnapped Duke Qi Huan, asking him to promise to return the land of Lu to Lu. Duke Huan of Qi promised to get away. Afterwards, Duke Huan of Qi was so angry that he was ready to kill Cao Mo and abandon his promise. Guan Zhong persuaded him, “if you break your promise, you will have to kill someone. Although this can vent your temporary anger, it has lost the trust of the princes in the world. You can’t do it!” Duke Huan of Qi finally returned the land to the state of Lu. This made all the princes admire Duke Huan of Qi for his honesty and attachment to the state of Qi. In 679 BC, Duke Huan of Qi invited Lu, Zheng, song, Wei, Chen and other countries to meet in Juan (now North of juancheng, Shandong Province, which belonged to the Wei state at that time). Princess Huan of Qi League was the head of princes, and officially became the first overlord in the spring and Autumn period. Ji Huqi died in the spring of 677 BC. After his death, the temple was named king Li, also known as king Xi in history.
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In the autumn of the second year (675 BC) after King Ji Lang of Zhou Hui ascended the throne, five doctors, including Bian Bo, Zhan Fu, Ziqin and Zhu kneeling, were appointed to be the king of the country. Because King Zhuang had asked to make the son of a concubine zixie as the king of the country, they were very dissatisfied with Ji Lang’s accession to the throne after King Li died of illness, so they united with the noble Su family to embrace and worship Zi Xie, launched a rebellion, attacked Ji Lang, but fled after being defeated. Zi decadent fled to Wen (now the southwest of Wen County, Henan Province), and then fled to the state of Wei accompanied by Su. Wei Huigong, who resented the king of Zhou for taking in his political enemy’s son Qian Mou, united with Nanyan to support Zi decadent. In the winter of this year, Wei and Nanyan sent troops to invade the capital of the Zhou Dynasty, expelled Ji Lang and made their son decadent as the son of heaven. Zheng Ligong came out to mediate the chaos of the Zhou royal family, but failed. So he captured Zhong Fu, the king of Nanyan in the spring of the next year, and placed Ji Lang in exile in biedu oak (now Yu County, Henan Province) of the state of Zheng. He also moved the Royal utensils from Cheng Zhou to oak for Ji Lang’s enjoyment. In the spring of 673 B.C., Duke li of Zheng and Duke Guo vowed to attack their sons in Mi County (now Mi County, Henan Province), and the joint forces of Zheng and Guo soon invaded the capital. Ziqian and Bian Bo and other five doctors were drinking to celebrate. They were caught off guard and were killed by the coalition. Duke Zheng Li and Duke Guo welcomed Ji Lang back to the capital and re ascended the throne of the son of heaven. This civil strife was called “the chaos of decadence”. In order to appreciate the assistance of Zheng and Guo, Ji Lang gave Jiuquan (now the eastern part of Shaanxi Province) to Guo and the land east of Hulao (now the northwest of Xingyang City, Henan Province) to Zheng. In this way, the civil strife subsided, and the territory of the Zhou Dynasty narrowed again. During Ji Lang’s reign, the state of Qi continued to attack East and West, annexing small countries and expanding its power. In 670 BC, Qi army attacked and destroyed Guo State (now northeast of Liaocheng County, Shandong Province). Duke Huan of Qi asked the local elders, “why did Guo perish?” The father replied, “because the monarch loves the wise and hates the bad.” Duke Huan of Qi didn’t understand, and asked, “according to what you said, your monarch is a wise monarch, so how can you subjugate the country?” The father replied, “the monarch loved the wise but did not appoint them; he hated the bad but did not cut them off, so it led to the subjugation of the country.” At that time, the Qing father (son of Lu Huan) of the state of Lu successively killed Junzi ban and min Gong, leading to chaos in the state of Lu. At that time, people said, “if your father doesn’t die, Lu will be in trouble.” This has become a famous idiom. After Lu Xi ascended the throne, he asked to avoid Qing Fu, who lived in the state of Ju (now Ju county, Shandong Province). Qing Fu knew that he could not escape the blame and committed suicide in Ju. Only then did the internal chaos in Lu subside temporarily. At that time, Wei Yigong, the monarch of the state of Wei, was very fond of raising cranes. At ordinary times, he even let his favorite crane ride in a gorgeous Xuan car and enjoy the treatment of a doctor. Chinese people complained. In December 660 BC, when the army attacked the Wei, Wei Yigong led the army to fight, and the two armies met in Yingze (now the northeast of Xingyang County, Henan Province). Before the battle, the guards complained, “the king usually treats the crane so well, now let the crane fight against the enemy!” For a while, the army had no fighting spirit and was defeated. Wei Yigong was also killed by random soldiers, which became a warning for those who played with things and lost their will. Hui Hou, the woman who doted on the state of Chen in Ji Lang’s later years, was ready to abolish the crown prince Zheng and establish a concubine belt born after Hui. In the summer of 655 BC, Duke Huan of Qi invited Duke Huan of song, Duke Lu, Duke Chen Xuan, Duke Wei, Duke Zheng, Duke Xu, and Duke Cao Zhao to meet Prince Zheng at the head of the state of Wei (now the southeast of suixian County, Henan Province) and announced his support for Prince Zheng as his heir. Ji Lang was very angry, so he ordered Zheng Wengong to break the agreement and contact the state of Chu. He sent someone to contact the state of Jin, trying to form an alliance of Zhou, Zheng, Jin and Chu to fight against the state of Qi. The state of Qi struck first and attacked Zheng continuously, forcing Zheng to rebel against Zhou Qinqi, making Ji Lang’s plan bankrupt.
King Xiang of Zhou
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After King Hui died of illness, Ji Zheng was worried about his son’s contention for a seat and did not lose his heart. He hurried to send someone to Duke Huan of Qi for help. Duke Huan of Qi immediately called the princes to a meeting in Tao (now the west of juancheng County, Shandong Province) and announced his support for Ji Zheng as the son of heaven. Ji Zheng was relieved after he ascended the throne and announced the death of Huiwang. Zi Dai was unwilling to fail. From 648 BC, he guided Xirong troops to attack Zhou Dynasty several times, and they were successively defeated. In 636 BC, Ji Zheng found that the queen Kui’s family was secretly colluding with zidai, and immediately deposed Kui Hou. Zidai got the news and led Xirong troops to attack Zhou again and occupy the capital. Ji Zheng fled in a hurry, avoiding Si (now Xiangcheng County, Henan Province) in the state of Zheng, and appealed to the princes of various countries for help. In 635 BC, under the banner of King Qin, Duke Wen of Jin, who had just ascended the throne, sent troops to conquer Wen, where zidai was at that time, captured zidai alive, and then welcomed Ji Zheng back to the capital, escorted zidai to the capital to be executed, calming the civil unrest. This civil strife was called “the rebellion of the child belt” in history. Zheng held a celebration banquet for Duke Wen of Jin. Duke Wen of Jin even asked Ji Zheng to “invite the tunnel” (to enjoy the funeral of the son of heaven after his death), but Ji Zheng politely refused, and gave the four cities of Yangfan, Wen, yuan and zanmao (in today’s Jiyuan County, Wen County and Xiuwu County in Henan Province) to Jin in return. Three years ago, Qin and Jin had moved a Rong nationality with the surname of Yun to Yichuan (today’s Nanyi River in Luoyang) within the territory of the Zhou Dynasty without authorization, occupying this place. In this way, the territory of the Zhou Dynasty was only a small area with a radius of more than 100 miles. In 651 BC, when Ji Zheng was in power, Duke Huan of Qi summoned the guilds of Duke Lu, Duke Xiang of song, Duke Wen of Wei, Duke Wen of Zheng, Duke Xu and Duke Cao in Guiqiu of song (now the northeast of Lankao County, Henan Province), with Duke Huan of Qi as the main alliance. In order to thank Duke Huan of Qi for his support, Ji Zheng specially sent Duke Zhou’s governor Kong to participate in the conference, and gave Duke Huan of Qi the meat of the sacrifice of the son of Zhou to his ancestors. He also stated that Duke Huan of Qi did not need to pay homage to show his recognition of Duke Huan’s hegemony. This league was called “Guiqiu League” in the history of the league, which made the reputation of Duke Huan of Qi reach the peak. Six years later, Guan Zhong, the famous Prime Minister of the state of Qi, died, and two years later, Duke Huan of Qi died. Five sons of Duke Huan of Qi competed for the position of monarch, civil strife continued, and the national strength weakened, thus making the state of Qi lose its hegemony. Then it was song Xianggong who dominated. He was a vassal who talked about benevolence, righteousness and morality. In November 638 BC, the state of Chu attacked the Song Dynasty, and song Xianggong led a large army to fight against Yu Hong (river name, that is, the Fuhe River in the northwest of Zhecheng, Henan Province). He believed that the gentleman could not take advantage of the enemy’s attack when crossing the river, the enemy’s charge before the formation, and the capture of the enemy soldiers with white hair on their heads. Therefore, he ignored his subordinates’ repeated pleas for war and missed the aircraft. Finally, he was defeated by the Chu army after the calm formation, and he himself was injured and killed. Historically, he was called the representative of a very stupid person. In April 632 BC, Duke Wen of Jin led his army to defeat the Chu army in the battle of Chengpu (now in Pu County, Henan Province), which was greatly respected. Duke Wen of Jin presented 1000 Chu Army prisoners and 100 captured chariots to Ji Zheng. Ji Zheng returned 100 red bows and 1000 black bows, and promised Duke Wen of Jin that he could subdue other princes. In the winter of the same year, Duke Wen of Jin held a meeting of princes in the soil of the state of Zheng (now the southwest of Yuanyang County, Henan Province); In order to increase his prestige, he sent people to suggest that Ji Zheng should go to the meeting. Ji Zheng felt that the emperor of Zhou had fallen to the point where only the princes’ orders were followed. He was very embarrassed, and was terrified by the power of Jin, so he had to go. Later, when Confucius wrote the spring and Autumn Annals, he wrote this matter as “the son of heaven hunts in Heyang” to protect the face of the son of Zhou. At this time, Duke Wen of Jin became the overlord of the Central Plains. After Duke Wen of Jin, Duke mu of Qin dominated. He appointed talents such as Bai Lixi to strengthen the national strength. In 624 BC, he conquered Jin and won great victory. Even more than 20 small countries and tribes in Xirong were subordinated to him. Duke mu of Qin was respected as the overlord of Xirong. Qin also vigorously developed eastward, expanding its land by more than 1000 Li. Ji Zheng sent envoys to send 12 bronze drums to congratulate him, which officially recognized Qin Mugong’s hegemony.
King of Zhou Qing
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King of Zhou Qing, named Ji Renchen (BC? ~ 613 BC). Prince Zhou Xiang. King Xiang succeeded to the throne after his death. He was in power for 6 years, died of illness and was buried in an unknown place. When Ji Renchen, king of Zhou Qing, succeeded to the throne, the royal family was in financial difficulties, so that he was unable to handle the funeral of King Xiang. He had to send Qing Shi Mao Bo to ask the state of Lu for money. The king of the state of Lu sent messengers to the capital to bury the king of Xiang. At this time, it was February of the second year after the death of the king of Xiang. When Ji Renchen was in power, the vassal of the state of Ying (now the southeast of Zou County, Shandong Province) was Duke Wen. In 614 B.C., Duke Ying Wengong prepared to move his capital to Yishan (also known as Yishan, which is in the south of Zou County, Shandong Province today). Zhan CI said, “moving the capital is beneficial to the people, but it is harmful to the king and will make you short-lived.” At that time, people believed in divination and dissuaded the relocation of the capital one after another. However, Ying Wengong said, “God made the people establish a monarch in order to seek profits for the people. If the relocation of the capital is beneficial to the people, move it.” He still moved the capital to Yishan. Soon, he died of illness. Although it was a coincidence, people at that time praised him for his virtue
King Kuang of Zhou
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When Zhou Kuang and Wang Jiban were in power, he had nothing important to say about himself. At this time, the king of Jin was Jin linggong, but in his palace, the famous Zhao Dun incident in history occurred. It turned out that Duke Ling of Jin was a monarch who only cared about pleasure and ignored political affairs. He also likes pranks. He often shoots others’ heads and blood with slingshots from the palace stage. People hide and dodge, and he looks happy. On one occasion, the cook did not cook the bear’s paw, but Jin linggong killed him, wrapped him in straw mats, and asked the palace maid to drag him across the court. The ruling minister Zhao Dun advised many times, and Jin linggong unexpectedly sent the samurai Yumo (name except Ni) to assassinate Zhao dun. Yumo went to Zhao Dun’s house early in the morning and saw Zhao Dun sitting in front of him with the bedroom door open, dressed in Imperial clothes, waiting for the morning. Yu Mo was deeply moved and said, “if you don’t forget to be respectful to the monarch, you are a good person who works for the people. Kill him, I’m sorry for the people; if you don’t kill him, the monarch won’t let me go. It’s better to die if you’re in such a dilemma.” He crashed into the locust tree in the courtyard and fell to the ground and died. Jin linggong couldn’t do this. He pretended to invite Zhao Dun to a banquet, ambushed the samurai, and prepared to kill Zhao dun. Unexpectedly, Zhao Dun was rescued and escaped. Later, Zhao Dun’s brother Zhao Chuan killed Jin linggong, and Zhao Dun returned to the capital.
King Ding of Zhou
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When King Ji Yu of Zhou Ding was in power, he himself had nothing important to say. At this time, the state of Chu became stronger under the governance of King Zhuang of Chu. During the first three years of his succession, King Zhuang of Chu ignored political affairs and indulged in a decadent life. After being persuaded by the ministers, he gradually perked up and said, “if you don’t fly for three years, you will soar to the sky; if you don’t sing for three years, you will be astonished.”. And began to rectify the government, implement reform, expand the army, thereby enhancing the national strength and destroying some small countries. In the spring of the year when Ji Yu succeeded to the throne, King Zhuang of Chu led his troops to attack the Rong nationality in Luhun (now Northern Song County, Henan Province). Afterwards, he paraded and demonstrated on the border of the Zhou Dynasty, which scared Ji Yu to send his minister Wang Sunman to comfort the Chu army. King Zhuang of Chu immediately asked about the “importance and importance” of the nine tripods in the ancestral temple of the capital of the Zhou Dynasty. Jiuding is a symbol of the power of the son of heaven. Asking the weight of Jiuding means having ambition to covet the power of the son of heaven. After Wang Sunman’s refutation, King Zhuang of Chu withdrew his troops. This matter is known as “questioning the Central Plains”. Then, after calming the civil strife, King Zhuang of Chu frequently attacked and destroyed small countries such as Shu and Liao, and subdued the states of Chen and song. In 597 BC, in the battle of Bi (now the east of Zhengzhou, Henan Province), King Zhuang of Chu wiped out the Jin army with 600 chariots at one stroke, and became the overlord after Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Xiang of song, Duke Wen of Jin and Duke mu of Qin. They were called the “five bullies of spring and Autumn” (another is Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, King Zhuang of Chu, King Helu of Wu and Gou Jian of Yue). At that time, Zhao Dun of the state of Jin had died of illness, and Zi Zhao Shuo attacked his post to assist Duke Jing of Jin. Si Kou tu’an Jia, the favorite Minister of Jin linggong, wanted to avenge Jin linggong, so he encouraged the generals to say, “Zhao Dun committed the crime of killing a king. Now his son is still an important minister in the court, how can this be allowed!” And with the army besieged the lower palace where Zhao Shuo lived, killing Zhao Shuo and his family. Zhao Shuo’s wife was spared because she was Zhuangji, the elder sister of Jin Chenggong. Zhuang Ji is pregnant and avoids living in the Jin Jinggong palace. Soon, she gave birth to a baby boy, and tu’an Gu guarded the palace gate and asked for the baby boy. Zhuang Ji hid the baby boy under her crotch and prayed, “If heaven wants to destroy Zhao, you can cry; if heaven doesn’t want to destroy Zhao, don’t cry.” The baby boy didn’t cry and got away. Zhao Shuo had a disciple named Gongsun Chujiu. He said to Zhao Shuo’s friend Cheng Ying, “which is difficult to raise this orphan, adult or dead?” Cheng Ying replied, “it’s easy to die, but difficult to raise orphans.” Gongsun Chujiu said, “please bear the difficult thing. I’ll bear the easy one. Let me die first.” He took his baby and hid in the mountains, and then asked Cheng Ying to pretend to report to tu’an Gu, falsely claiming that Zhao’s orphan was hiding in the mountains. Tu’an Jia Daxi immediately sent soldiers to follow Cheng Ying into the mountain and killed Gongsun Chujiu and his son. In this way, Zhao’s orphans were preserved. Cheng Ying hid the orphan in the mountains and named him Zhao Wu. This is the story of the famous “orphan search”.
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When King Ji Yi of Zhou Jian was in power, he himself had nothing important to say. At this time, in the state of Jin, the Duke of Jin pacified Zhao Shuo, sent for Cheng Ying and the underage monk Zhao Wu, and allowed Cheng Ying to lead troops to attack and kill tu’an Jia, exterminate the Tu family, and avenge the Zhao family. When Zhao Wu became an adult, he took his father’s post and became an important Minister of Jin. At this time, Cheng Ying said goodbye to everyone and said to Zhao Wu, “I didn’t devote myself to the difficulties of going to the palace in those days, so I didn’t devote myself to the death Festival, in order to raise you and protect the descendants of the Zhao family. Now that you have avenged the Zhao family, your grievances have been vindicated, and you have also attacked your position and career, I should repay your father’s kindness and your old friend Gongsun’s sincere heart.” Then he committed suicide. Zhao Wu was very sad and mourned for him for three years. He went to sacrifice his grave in spring and autumn every year. At that time, in addition to the mutual attacks of Jin, Chu, Qin, song, Zheng and other countries, the state of Wu, which was originally a dependency of Chu in the southeast region, rose and repeatedly invaded the state of Chu and was involved in the scuffle in the spring and Autumn period.
King Zhou Ling
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In July 546 B.C., when Princess Zhou Ling Xie Xin was in power, the doctors of the state of song held a meeting in Shangqiu, the capital of the state of song (now Shangqiu City, Henan Province), to garrison Jin and Chu, to mediate the war between the two countries. Powerful doctors from ten countries, including Jin, Chu, song, Lu, Wei, Chen, Zheng, Cao, Xu, Cai, attended the meeting. The meeting agreed that all countries should stop the war, regard Jin and Chu as the common overlords, and divide the hegemony equally. All countries should discuss who breaks the agreement. The history of this conference is called “the alliance of eliminating soldiers”. In the more than 10 years after the “meibing alliance”, because the state of Chu focused on dealing with the state of Wu, while the state of Jin was busy dealing with internal affairs and was unable to start a war, there was no war in the 10 countries of the alliance. However, the struggle for power within countries is extremely acute. “Military alliance” has become a watershed between the two stages of the spring and Autumn period. In the past, the alliance was dominated by the annexation between feudal states, but after that, it was dominated by the annexation between doctors in various countries. Great changes are brewing in various countries’ societies, and class contradictions tend to be acute. For example, in 555 BC, zikong, the ruling Minister of the state of Zheng, was autocratic, and the Chinese people were dissatisfied. In Zizhan, Zixi led the attack and killed zikong. In the same year, bigong, the ruler of the state of Ju, tyrannized the people, and the Chinese killed him in anger. In 550 BC, Qing, an aristocrat in the state of Chen, forcibly recruited the common people to build a city. When the city was built, the splint fell off, and the Qing family who supervised the construction punished him by killing the common people. The “servicemen” were angry and rioted, killing the supervisors led by Qing Hu and Qing Yin respectively. This uprising frightened the nobles of the state of Chen, and exclaimed that it was difficult to rule any longer. Ji Jin, Ji Xie’s eldest son, is intelligent by nature and likes to play Sheng. He can play music like the roaring of a Phoenix, which is intoxicating. Ji Xiexin loved him very much and made him crown prince. Unexpectedly, the prince suddenly fell ill and died at the age of 17, and Ji was devastated. It is said that at that time, someone saw that the spirit king was so sad and worried that it would damage his health, so he used superstition to fabricate a plot to comfort him, saying: the prince is now on the gully ridge, riding a white crane and blowing a Sheng. He asked the farmer to tell the spirit king that he didn’t have to worry about it for the time being. Now he lives in Songshan with the immortal Fu Qiu Gong, and is very happy. Ji was disheartened, but she missed the crown prince even more. She was restless day and night and was in a trance. One night in November 545 BC, Ji Xie fell asleep in a daze and dreamed that the crown prince came to meet him on a white crane. He woke up with a start and said, “my son came to meet me. I should go.” So the order was passed to Ji GUI, the second son. Guisi day, Ji Xie died of heart disease.
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When King Ji GUI of Zhou Jing was in power, he was in financial difficulties and had to beg from all countries for utensils. Once, he entertained Xun Yun, the Minister of the state of Jin, and pointed to the wine pot sent by the state of Lu and said, “all countries have artifacts for the royal family. Why didn’t the state of Jin alone?” Xun Yun’s entourage Ji Tan replied that when the Jin state was canonized, the royal family did not give ritual vessels. At present, the Jin state is busy dealing with Rong Di and cannot give gifts. Ji Guilie counted the land artifacts given by the royal family to Jin, satirizing that the book that has been in charge of the classics for generations is “counting the classics and forgetting their ancestors”, which is the source of the idiom “counting the classics and forgetting their ancestors”. This event shows that in the early spring and Autumn period, the royal family can also give some land utensils to the princes, but at this time, they can only rely on the princes to beg for a living, and the prestige of the son of heaven has plummeted. During Ji GUI’s reign, Zichan, the ruling Minister of the state of Zheng (i.e. Gongsun overseas Chinese, Zi Mei), implemented reforms, reorganized the establishment of aristocratic fields and farmers, recognized private ownership of land, levied taxes according to the acre of land, and so on. Then, he cast a tripod with more than 200 kilograms of iron, cast the newly formulated punishment book to ensure the reform results on the tripod, and placed it at the gate of the palace, so that the people can know the new criminal law. This is the famous Xing Ding in history. Because the new criminal law restricted the misdeeds of the old aristocracy and touched the interests of the aristocracy, the aristocracy cursed the child property with ballads! Hearing this, Zichan unswervingly said, “as long as it’s good for the country, I have to stick to it. I can’t change my mind halfway through the reform.” A few years later, the reform of Zichan had achieved success, and the people of Zheng used ballads to thank him Zichan was in power for 20 years, which made the internal stability and production development of Zheng State; It has safeguarded the national dignity externally, so that the big country dare not despise Zheng, a small country. In 522 BC, the state of Zheng was ruled by Uncle Zi, who brutally oppressed the people. A large number of civilians gathered in fuzhize (now Zhongmou County, Henan Province), and based on the danger, they launched an armed struggle with the slave owners and nobles. Later, under the suppression of uncle, all the insurgents died in battle because they were outnumbered. In 524 BC, King Jing of Zhou minted big money, which is the earliest record of coinage in Chinese literature.
Mourn King Zhou
When King Jing was in power, because his eldest son died early, the original Li Ji Meng became the prince, but king Jing also spoiled his concubine Ji Chao. When he was seriously ill, he asked the doctor Meng bin to help Li Ji Chao, and died before he had time. After King Jing’s death, the noble Liu Juan and Shan Qi killed Yu Bin in the same month and still made Ji Meng emperor. After Ji Meng succeeded to the throne, Ji Chao was very unwilling, so he led the old officials and workers who lost their positions and some soldiers to rebel and compete for the throne. Liu Juan was defeated and escaped. Shan Qi protected Ji Meng in the palace. Ji Chao’s followers sneaked into the palace late at night and robbed Ji Meng. Shan Qi breaks through and flees, and Ji Chao’s disciples hold Ji Meng and chase Shan Qi. On the way, Ji Tan, a doctor sent by the Duke of Jin Qing, and Xun Yun led the troops to rescue Ji Meng and protect him from the King City (now northeast of Luoyang City, Henan Province). Soon, soldiers were sent to escort him back to the capital. In October of the same year, Ji Meng died.
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After mourning the death of the king, King Ji Bing of Zhou Jing was supported and succeeded by Liu Juan and Shan Qi. He lived in zhaiquan and was called the “East King” at that time. During Ji Ji’s reign, the state of Wu also became strong and actively participated in the struggle for hegemony. In 515 BC, Prince Guang, the son of Zhu fan, king of Wu, with the assistance of Wu Zixu, an aristocrat who fled from the state of Chu, ordered the warriors to hide the dagger in the belly of the fish, and took the opportunity to eat at the banquet to assassinate Prince Guang’s cousin, monarch and staff, and seize the throne. Gongziguang ascended the throne, known as king Helu of Wu in history. After he Lu became king of Wu, he adopted Wu Zixu’s plan and used several armies to harass and invade the state of Chu in turns, making the Chu army in a hurry and unable to cope. In 506 BC, Helu took Wu Zixu as the master of the plan, and Sun Wu, a military strategist and Qi national, as the general. He commanded tens of thousands of troops to attack Chu, and won five wars and five victories. He entered the capital city of Chu (now North of Jiangling City, Hubei Province), and King Zhao of Chu fled. Shen Baoxu, the Minister of the state of Chu, saw that the state broke down and fled, and rushed to the state of Qin to beg for help. Duke AI of Qin hesitated, and Shen Baoxu cried outside the palace gate for seven days and seven nights without water and rice, which moved Duke AI of Qin and ordered to send troops. After several months of fierce fighting and internal strife in the state of Wu, the Wu army was defeated. King Zhao of Chu returned to Ying and moved his capital to RuO (now Southeast of Yicheng, Hubei Province) for fear of the return of Wu Jun. This war, which lasted for more than 10 months, was called “the battle of Yingdu, Wu and Chu”. In 496 BC, Helu took advantage of the death of the king of the state of Yue (the capital is now Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province), and when his son Gou Jian was first established, he did not listen to Wu Zixu’s dissuasion, and sent troops to attack Yue. Gou Jian led his troops north to fight, and the two armies fought with Li (now the southwest of Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province). Wu Jun’s lineup was neat. Gou Jian organized the death squads to lose both attacks, and forced the three death row prisoners to put their knives around their necks and shouted at Wu Jun: “the two armies are facing each other. We violated the military order and are not worthy of being soldiers. Damn the crime, and now we are willing to make atonement with death.” After shouting, they killed themselves one by one and fell to the ground. This thrilling scene shocked Wu Jun and relaxed their fighting spirit. The Yue army took the opportunity to beat the war drum and pounced on it, which defeated the Wu army. Helu was also hacked off a big toe by the Yue Jiang Linggu and died on the way back to the division. His son’s husband took the throne and vowed to avenge the murder of his father. This war was called “the war between Wu and Yue with Li” in history. Two years later (494 BC), fuchai, with Wu Zixu as the senior general and Bo Chu as the deputy general, poured the troops of the whole country into Vietnam. Gou Jian, the king of Yue, did not listen to the dissuasion of Fan Li and Wenzhong, a counselor, and rushed out to fight. He was defeated by Wu Jun in the battle of Fuchao (now Jiaoshan, Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province). Gou Jian led the main force of 5000 people to retreat to Kuaiji, the capital, and was surrounded by Wu troops. Gou Jian, the king of Yue, followed the advice of Wenzhong and begged for surrender with humble words. Wu Zixu strongly advised Fu Chai to kill Gou Jian and destroy the state of Yue to avoid future trouble; Bo Chu tried to persuade fuchai to accept surrender because he accepted bribes from the state of Yue. Fuchai followed Bo Chu’s advice. After the surrender of the state of Yue, Gou Jian, his wife and 300 officials were escorted to the state of Wu. Gou Jian drove and raised horses for the king of Wu, and his wife cleaned the palace. They lived in the cell, dirty clothes and food, and suffered all humiliation. After three years of hardships and perils, he stopped Wu Zixu from getting rid of them with Bo Chu, and was finally pardoned and returned home. From then on, Gou Jian’s monarchs and ministers formulated the national restoration plan of “ten years of reunion and ten years of lessons”. On the one hand, they constantly offered beauties and property such as Xi Shi and Zheng Dan to fuchai to make him happy, and thus encouraged fuchai’s extravagance and lust; On the one hand, we should actively develop production, multiply people and households, straighten out internal affairs, recruit talents, strengthen armaments, and secretly recuperate. In order to motivate himself, Gou Jian specially arranged a difficult living environment for himself. He slept in the haystack, ate meager food, and hung a gall at the door. He had to lick it when going in and out, so as to make himself remember the humiliation of the past and the ambition of restoring the country. This is the eternal “sleeping on firewood and tasting gall”. Vietnam gradually recovered and became strong. Wu Zixu saw that fuchai let the tiger go back to the mountain and raised the tiger for trouble. He once again advised fuchai to attack and destroy the state of Yue and kill Gou Jian. Fuchai didn’t listen, plus Bo Chu’s slander, fuchai gave Wu Zixu a sword and ordered him to commit suicide. Two years later, in 482 BC, Gou Jian took the opportunity of fuchai to go north to Huangchi (now the southwest of Fengqiu County, Henan Province) to meet with Jin and Lu. He commanded 50000 troops to directly attack the state of Wu. After three days of fierce battle, he conquered Gusu and captured the prince of Wu alive. After hearing the news, fuchai returned to his division and made peace with Gou Jian. Four years later, Gou Jian attacked Wu again, won three wars and three victories, and invaded Gusu for the second time. In the winter of 473 BC, the Vietnamese army invaded Gusu for the third time, and fuchai was surrounded on Gusu mountain (now southwest of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province), so he had to send someone to Gou Jian to beg for surrender. Under the dissuasion of Fan Li, Gou Jian did not agree. Fuchai committed suicide in shame. In 478 BC, when Ji Ji was in power, Craftsmen of the state of Wei (slaves of handicraft industry) because they couldn’t stand the abuse of Duke Zhuang Wei, they rioted and surrounded the palace. Duke Zhuang Wei couldn’t beg for mercy, so they had to jump off the north wall with Prince Ji and Prince Qing from the palace wall and broke their legs. At this time, the “Rongzhou people” who had been harmed by Duke Zhuang Wei near the capital city also rushed to kill Prince Ji and Prince Qing first. Duke Zhuang Wei fled to Rongzhou’s own home and begged: “Save my life. I’ll give you the jade.” Ji’s wife was once innocently cut off by Lord Wei Zhuang. She took it to make a wig for his wife. At this time, she angrily said, “I killed you, and that jade is still mine!” He killed Wei zhuanggong. The artisan uprising dealt a heavy blow to the slave owners’ ruling group in defending the country and frightened the slave owners. During Ji’s reign, Confucius, a great thinker and educator in ancient China, spent his busy middle and late years. Confucius was named Qiu and was born in Zou (name Zou) Yi (now Southeast of Qufu County, Shandong Province). He put forward a set of political propositions and theoretical basis to maintain the collapsing slavery. His conservative thought was later transformed and used by feudal rulers, and became a spiritual tool to maintain the feudal system and rule the people. Confucius set up private schools and expanded the objects of education. He also accumulated a lot of useful experience in educational ideas and teaching methods. According to legend, in his later years, he compiled ancient cultural classics such as the bookofsongs, Shangshu and Chunqiu, which made important contributions to the preservation and development of China’s ancient cultural heritage. After King Jing succeeded to the throne, he and the Western King Ji Dynasty fought against each other for the throne for a long time. Six years later, with the help of Jin soldiers, he defeated Ji Chao and consolidated his throne.
the Warring States period
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The year when King Jiren of Zhou Yuan succeeded to the throne (475 BC), China’s history entered the Warring States period. However, some scholars regard the division of the three Jin Dynasties as the beginning of the Warring States period. During Ji Ren’s reign, Gou Jian, the king of Yue, led the army to cross the Huaihe River in the north after attacking and destroying the state of Wu, and joined the League of Qi, Jin, Lu, song and other countries in Xu (now the south of Tengzhou, Shandong Province). After the alliance, he sent someone to send tribute to Ji Ren, who also gave Gou Jian meat for ancestor worship. He ordered him to be his uncle and admitted that he was the leader of the princes, and Gou Jian became the overlord for a time. Ji Ren died in the winter of 469 BC. After Ji Ren’s death, the temple was named king of the Yuan Dynasty.
King Zhending of Zhou
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King Zhending of Zhou was the son of King yuan of Zhou. King yuan succeeded to the throne after his death. After 28 years in power, he died of illness and was buried in an unknown place. In 453 B.C. during Ji Jie’s reign, Zhao Xiangzi, Han Kangzi, and Wei Huanzi, three doctors of the Jin State, successively annexed other nobles, and jointly destroyed the last noble Zhibo, forming the actual three countries (Zhao state, South Korea, and Wei state). On the contrary, Duke Youzi of Jin wanted to pay tribute to them respectively. In the spring of 441 BC, Ji Jie died of illness. After his death, the temple was named king Zhending.
King AI of Zhou
King AI of Zhou (? – 441 BC), named Ji Quji, was the eldest son of King Zhending of Zhou. In 441 BC, King Zhending of Zhou ascended the throne after his death. Three months after he ascended the throne, his brother Ji Shu attacked and killed him, and the burial place was unknown. Ji Quji’s posthumous title after his death was king AI. “Soushenji Volume VI” records that in the eighth year of King AI of Zhou, a woman in zhengguoyi had a total of 40 children, of which only 20 grew up. In the ninth year of King AI, a pig in Jin gave birth to a man.
Uncle Ji (? – 441 BC) was the son of King Zhending of Zhou and the younger brother of King AI of Zhou. In 441 BC, uncle Ji killed King AI of Zhou and ascended the throne as king Si of Zhou; After only five months in power, he was killed by Di Jiwei in August.
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King Kao of Zhou Dynasty, named Ji Wei (BC? ~ 426 BC). Prince Zhending. Attack and kill my brother, think of the king and succeed to the throne. He died after 15 years in office. The burial place is unknown. During the reign of King Jiwei of Zhou Kao, his younger brother Ji Jieyu was granted in the royal city to continue the official position of Duke Zhou, known as Duke Huan of Zhou in history. At that time, this country was called “Western Zhou Dynasty”. Duke Huan of Zhou died, and it was said to be Duke Wei of Zi. Wei Gong died, and it was said to be located in Hui Gong. The eldest son of Duke Hui is known as the Duke of Western Zhou. Huigong also granted less than ban Yu Gong (now the southwest of Gong county, Henan Province), which was historically known as the “Eastern Zhou Dynasty”. In this way, two small states, the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, were established in the territory of the Zhou royal family. After Ji Wei’s death, the temple was named kaowang.
King Wei lie of Zhou Dynasty
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King Wei lie of Zhou, named Ji Wu (BC? ~ 402 BC). Prince Zhou Kao. King Kao succeeded to the throne after his death. He had been in power for 24 years and died. Buried in Luoyang, Henan Province today. In 403 BC, during the reign of Zhou Weilie and Wang Jiwu, Wei, Zhao, and Han were canonized as vassal states respectively. At that time, the monarch of the state of Wei was Wei Wenhou. He appointed the famous politician Li Xuan to carry out reform, which made the state of Wei prosperous and strong and became the number one power in the early Warring States period. Liehou, the king of the state of Zhao, also appointed Gongsun Lian and a group of wise men to rectify the administration of officials, improve the efficiency of governing institutions, save financial expenses, and gradually make the state of Zhao strong and prosperous.
King an of Zhou
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King of Zhou’an, named Ji jiao (BC? ~ 376 BC). Prince Zhou Weilie. King Willy succeeded to the throne after his death. He died after 26 years in office. The burial place is unknown. During Ji Jiao’s reign, Qi XiangTianHe exiled Kang Gong, the monarch of the state of Qi, to the sea in 391 BC, leaving only a city as his food city. Tian He became the actual monarch of the state of Qi. In 386 BC, Ji Jiao granted Tianhe the title of Duke of Qi and officially listed him as a duke. This marked that the new feudal forces of Qi replaced the old ones At that time, the monarch of the state of Chu was the mourning king. In 382 BC, he appointed an outstanding military strategist and politician, and Wu Qi, a member of the state of Wei, carried out the reform. Wu Qi rectified the administration of officials, strengthened centralization of power, improved finance, and increased military strength. This dealt a powerful blow to the old aristocracy, and made the state of Chu rapidly strong. The state of Chu was defeated by Bai Yue in Nanping, Chen and CAI in the north, and the state of Wei. However, after the death of King mourn of Chu in the second year, the old aristocrats who were hostile to the reform launched a rebellion, shot Wu Qi with random arrows, and abolished the new deal, which seriously hindered the social development of the state of Chu, so that the vast territory and abundant resources of the state of Chu could not develop into a force to unify the six countries, and was eventually attacked and destroyed by the state of Qin. In 376 B.C., Han, Zhao and Wei together abandoned the illusory king of Jin as a civilian, carved up his only territory, and killed both the name and the reality of Jin.
King lie of Zhou
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King lie of Zhou, named Ji Xi (376-369 BC). Prince Zhou an. King an succeeded to the throne after his death. He was in power for 7 years and died. The burial place is unknown. During the reign of King Jixi of Zhou lie, it was the late reign of Qin Xiangong. When Qin Xiangong was in power, he abolished the barbaric burial system and moved the capital of the country from Yong (now Fengxiang in Shaanxi) to Liyang (now Lintong city in Shaanxi Province) in the East, so as to develop eastward and accept the influence of advanced culture, get rid of the influence of the old aristocratic forces, rectify internal affairs and strengthen royal power. He also cleaned up the registered residence, reorganized the army, paid attention to the development of the economy, and made the national situation better, which prepared the conditions for the Shang Yang reform in the later Qin Xiaogong period. In 371 BC, Qin Xiangong sent troops to occupy six cities in South Korea, which became the beginning of Qin’s Eastward Development.
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During the reign of King Ji Bian of Zhou Xian, the reform of the vassal states reached a climax. In 356 BC, marquis Tian of Qi (the later King of Qi Wei) appointed talented people zouji, Tian Ji and others to carry out reform. In order to open up his mind, the Marquis of Qi ordered that whoever could point out his fault face to face, regardless of his subjects, would be awarded the first prize; Those who put forward criticism and suggestions in writing will be awarded a medium prize; Even those who discuss his faults behind his back will be rewarded. It was ordered that within a few months, those who came to the court to make criticism and suggestions vied with each other, making the Marquis of Qi aware of the shortcomings of many national policies, his own mistakes and collected a lot of ways to govern the country well. In order to rectify the administration of officials, marquis Qi repeatedly asked his left and right subjects, who was the best local official? Who is the worst? Many people say that a (now the northeast of Yanggu County, Shandong Province) has the best doctors, and Jimo (now the southeast of Pingdu County, Shandong Province) has the worst doctors. The Marquis of Qi sent people to investigate on the spot, but the situation was just the opposite. ADI was deserted, and the people were short of food and clothing. They dared to be angry but dared not speak; Jimo local public security is stable, the six livestock are prosperous, and the people live and work in peace and contentment. It turned out that doctor a cheated and flattered his superiors, bribed them to confuse black and white and said good things for themselves; Doctor Jimo was not honest. He couldn’t bribe his boss and was slandered. Qi houdang immediately denounced doctor a, cooked and killed him and the people who spoke well for him after taking bribes, rewarded doctor Jimo, and gave him a salary of 10000 households. The Duke of Qi was so foolproof that he distinguished right from wrong, dispelled evil and upheld justice, which greatly changed the atmosphere of the state of Qi. Everyone was loyal to his duties and dared not lie. The Marquis of Qi also selected talented people and entrusted them with important tasks. It didn’t take long for Qi to become a great power at that time. During Ji Bian’s reign, the state of Qi and the state of Wei had two famous battles. One time, known as the “battle of Guilin”, took place in 353 BC. Led by general pangjuan, the Wei army besieged Handan, the capital of Zhao (now Handan City, Hebei Province). Zhao asked for help from Yu Qi. With Tian Ji as the general and Sun Bin, an outstanding military strategist, as the military division, the Marquis of Qi unified the troops to save Zhao. Under Sun Bin’s plan, the Qi army threatened to raid Xiangyang (now suixian County, Henan Province), an important gateway of Daliang (now Kaifeng City, Henan Province), the capital of the state of Wei. The Wei army hurriedly returned to the army, and the Qi army set an ambush in Guiling (now the northeast of Heze County, Shandong Province), defeating the Wei army and saving the state of Zhao. This tactic was later called “encircling Wei and rescuing Zhao”. Another time, known as the “battle of Maling” in history, took place in 341 BC. Pangjuan led the Wei army to attack Han, and Han asked for help from Qi. Qi, with Tian Ji and Tian Ying as generals and Sun Bin as military division, led troops to save Han and took the capital of Wei directly. With Prince Shen as the supreme general and pangjuan as the general, Wei led a large army to resist the Qi army. In order to confuse the enemy, Sun Bin ordered the Qi army to build 100000 stoves on the first day, 50000 stoves on the second day, and 20000 stoves on the third day. By reducing the stoves day by day, he created the illusion that the Qi army had fled in large numbers, luring the Wei army to pursue. Then he set an ambush in Maling (now Southeast of Daming City, Hebei Province), defeated the Wei army, killed pangjuan, and captured crown prince Shen. This tactic of confusing the enemy was later called “increasing troops and reducing firepower”. In the third year after the “battle of Guilin”, the Marquis of Qi was called king and was called king of Qi Wei in history. Before that, the Marquis of Wei had first become king, and then the Marquis of Qin, Han, Zhao, Yan and other countries also became king successively, to show that they were higher than other Marquis, and did not pay attention to the son of Zhou at all. The reason why the state of Qi was able to prosper quickly was mainly because of the importance of talents. Once, the king of Wei Hui showed off the wealth of the state of Wei to the king of Qi Wei, saying that he had a pearl with a diameter of inches, which could light 12 vehicles in front of and behind, and asked the king of Qi Wei what national treasures he had. King Wei of Qi cited a group of literary ministers and military generals under his command, and replied that this was the national treasure of our country. This made king Wei Hui feel inferior. During the reign of Ji Bian, the state of Qin was ruled by Duke Qin Xiaogong. In 359 BC, he appointed Shang Yang, a Weiguo man, to carry out the reform. Before the reform, in order to make the people believe in the government and abide by the new law, Shang Yang ordered people to erect a piece of wood at the South Gate of the capital Yong (now Fengxiang County, Shaanxi Province) and offered a reward of 10 liang of gold for anyone who could move the wood to the north gate. People don’t believe that there is such a cheap thing. No one moves it. Shang Yang added the reward to 50 Liang, and one person moved the wood to the north gate. Shang Yang immediately gave rewards according to the number. From then on, the people believed that the government would do what it said and that what it did would bear fruit. Then, Shang Yang issued new laws twice successively, announcing the abolition of the old system of emperor and emperor, and the reclassification of rank according to military achievements; Abolish the land ownership of slave owner countries dominated by the well field system, recognize the private ownership of land, and allow the sale; Emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce, and rewarding farming and weaving; Establish the rule of the landlord class and a centralized political system. Within a few years after the implementation of these measures, great results were achieved. The people were self-sufficient, the society was stable, and there were no lost things. The people dared not fight privately, but bravely rushed to fight for meritorious service when fighting for the country. During the reform, the old aristocracy obstructed and opposed in many ways. The crown prince took the lead in breaking the law. In order to maintain the new law, Shang Yang punished the crown prince’s master, the prince, with pious punishment (cutting his nose), and the prince’s grandson Jia with tsingy (tattooing on his face), ensuring the smooth implementation of the new law. Later, when Duke Qin Xiaogong died, the crown prince succeeded to the throne for King Qin Hui. At this time, the old aristocratic forces rose again and killed Shang Yang. However, the new law implemented by Shang Yang has been unshakable, and the feudal economy of Qin has been developed, making a country that was originally poor and backward become the most powerful country among the seven heroes of the Warring States period, laying the foundation for attacking and destroying the six countries and unifying China in the future. During the reign of Ji Bian, South Korea’s national strength was weak. Han Zhaohou saw that all countries became strong through reform and continued to expand outward. In 351 BC, he also appointed Zheng people to apply for no harm and implement the reform. Shen Buhai used “art” as a means to implement “law” (that is, the rule of law), which made South Korea once strong and prosperous. After the seven heroes of the Warring States period successively carried out reforms, they launched a more intense merger war.
Zhou Shen, Liang Wang
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King Shen liang of Zhou was named Ji Ding (BC? ~ 315 BC). Prince Zhou Xian. King Xian succeeded to the throne after his death. He was in power for 6 years and died. The burial place is unknown. During the reign of Zhou Shenliang and Wang Jiding, in order to preserve and expand themselves, the seven heroes of the Warring States period sought their allies. Sometimes several weaker countries united to attack a powerful country, which was called “joint vertical”: sometimes one or two powerful countries (mainly the Qin and Qi States) United to attack a weaker country, which was called “even horizontal”. Some lobbyists studied the situation in the world, rushed between countries, and persuaded the monarch to engage in vertical or horizontal alliances. Historically, they were called political strategists. In order to remove the threat of the most powerful state of Qin to all countries at that time, Sun Yan, the Prime Minister of the state of Wei, launched a campaign of five countries jointly attacking Qin in 318 BC. The five countries were Wei, Zhao, Han, Chu and Yan, and Chu was elected as the commander in chief. In the same year, the Allied forces of the five countries arrived at Hangu pass (now in Lingbao County, Henan Province), Qin sent troops to fight, and the Allied forces withdrew. The next year, the Qin army fought with the Han, Zhao and Wei armies of the five countries in Xiuyu (now the west of Yuanyang County, Henan Province). The Qin army killed 80000 enemy troops, achieved great victory, and thwarted the five countries’ collusion this time. In 316 BC, the Qin army attacked and destroyed the two small states of Ba and Shu (now in Sichuan Province), and then a large number of immigrants occupied Ba and Shu. They gained a favorable strategic position to attack the Chu state in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River eastward, creating important conditions for the destruction of Chu in the future.
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King Nan of Zhou was named Ji Yan (BC? ~ 256 BC). Zhou Shenliang, Prince. Shen Liang succeeded to the throne after his death. He died after 59 years in office. Buried on the North Bank of Qianshui (now Longxian County, Shaanxi Province), one said buried in Yueyang (now Yueyang County, Hunan Province). During the reign of King Jiyan of Zhou Nan, the state of Qin began to attack from left to right, attacking Chu in the South and Jin in the East (Han, Zhao, Wei), expanding to the Central Plains. After the state of Chu destroyed the state of Yue in 306 BC, it almost occupied the whole southern China, becoming the largest country with the largest land, the largest population and the largest number of troops among the seven Warring States powers, and having the advantages of attacking and destroying the six countries and unifying China. However, due to the failure of Wu Qi’s reform and the strength of the old aristocracy, the development of Chu was hindered and Qin became the target of attack. In order to resist Qin, Chu and Qi formed an alliance. The state of Qin tried to break up the Qi Chu alliance in order to break it down one by one. In 313 BC, Zhang Yi, a strategist, was sent to Chu and told King Huai of Chu that if the state of Chu broke off diplomatic ties with Qi, the king of Qin was willing to offer Chu with business at a place of 600 miles (now in the inner township of Zhechuan, Hunan Province). Regardless of the dissuasion of Qu Yuan, Chen Yun, Zhao Sui and other wise men, King Huai of Chu listened to the words of a group of flattering courtiers, such as Zilan, Jin Shang, Zheng Xiu, and so on. He agreed to Zhang Yi and sent messengers to return to the land of Qin with him. As soon as Zhang Yi arrived in Qin, she pretended to fall into the car and hurt her foot, and closed the door to thank the guests. Three months later, when Zhang Yi learned that Qi and Chu had indeed broken off diplomatic ties, she received an emissary of the state of Chu and said, “how can the land of the state of Qin be given away at will? What I said was to give you my six mile salary.” Hearing this, King Huai of Chu was furious. Despite the dissuasion of Chen Yun and others, he sent troops to attack Qin and fought with Qin troops in Danyang (now the north of Danjiang in Henan Province) in 312 BC. The Chu army was defeated. More than 70 general Qu Yun and his deputy were captured alive, 80000 soldiers were killed, and Hanzhong county was occupied by Qin. King Huai of Chu became angry from embarrassment and poured all his troops into Qin again. In the same year, he fought with the Qin army in Lantian (now Lantian County, Shaanxi Province), and was defeated again. Han and Wei took the opportunity to attack Chu. Chu was attacked on both sides and had to retreat in a hurry to make peace with the state of Qin. For a period of time after that, the state of Qin was committed to attacking the three Jin Dynasties, and the state of Chu temporarily lifted the threat from Qin. However, domestic social contradictions intensified, and a peasant uprising led by Zhuang Jin occurred in 301 BC, which dealt a heavy blow to the ruling class. In 299 BC, in the name of marriage, King Qin asked King Huai of Chu to meet at Wuguan (now Shangnan County, Shaanxi Province). King Huai of Chu didn’t listen to Qu Yuan’s dissuasion again. He listened to Zilan’s words and went to the meeting. As expected, he was hijacked by Qin soldiers and escorted to Xianyang, the capital of Qin. Two years later, he couldn’t escape and died of Qin in sorrow and anger. Before his death, the Qin army attacked Chu, killed 50000 Chu troops, and took 15 cities. After 280 BC, the Qin army began to concentrate its troops to occupy a large area of Chu, and in 278 BC, the famous general Bai Qi led his troops to occupy the capital of Chu. The state of Chu was on the verge of collapse. After the fall of Yingdu, Qu Yuan, a great patriotic poet and politician, could not bear to see the fall of Chu and threw himself into the Miluo River (in the north of Xiangyin County, Hunan Province today). While attacking Chu, Qin attacked the three Jin Dynasties. In 314 BC, Qin took advantage of Qi’s attack on Yan, sent troops to attack the three Jin Dynasties, and captured many places. In 308 BC, the Qin army attacked Yiyang (now Yiyang County, Henan Province), a strategic area of South Korea, out of Hangu pass. After several months of fierce fighting, the Qin army conquered Yiyang in the second year, opening the door to the Central Plains. In 293 BC, South Korea and Wei joined forces to fight against Qin and fought in yique (south of Luoyang, Henan Province). Under the command of Bai Qi, the Qin army won a great victory, annihilating more than 240000 enemies, and the forces of South Korea and Wei were seriously weakened. Since then, Qin continued to attack and encroach on the three Jin Dynasties. By 286 BC, it had occupied half of the land of the three Jin Dynasties, and Han and Wei, who bore the brunt, were greatly weakened. With the growing strength of the state of Qin, King Zhao of Qin was not satisfied with the title of king. He wanted to be called emperor to show his dignity and was ready to replace Zhou. In October 288 BC, King Zhao of Qin made an appointment with King Ji of Qi to proclaim himself Emperor. Qin was the West emperor and Qi was the East emperor. In December, persuaded by the strategist Su Qin, the king of Qi went to the emperor’s name, forcing the king of Qin Zhao to also cancel the emperor’s name. The two powers claimed to be emperors, exposing their attempts to annex the five countries and divide the world, which terrified the five countries and led to the two major events of the five countries attacking Qin and the six countries attacking Qi. The five kingdoms of Han, Zhao, Wei, Qi and Yan attacked Qin. Because each country had its own purpose, it was difficult to unify its pace, and finally they scattered in vain. In 284 BC, Yan, Qin, Chu, Zhao, Wei and Han jointly attacked Qi under the organization of the king of Qin. Yan army defeated Qi army under the command of the famous general Leyi, and marched forward to occupy Linzi, the capital of Qi, and captured more than 70 cities of Qi. There were only Ju and Jimo cities left in Qi, and the king of Qi fled to Ju. Five years later, under the command of Tian Dan, a famous general of the state of Qi, the Qi army defeated Yan Jun and recovered the lost territory. After this attack, Qi’s national strength declined greatly, and he was no longer Qin’s opponent. When Chu and Qi gradually declined, Zhao became strong. In 307 BC, King Wuling, the king of the state of Zhao, knew that his country was between Yan, Donghu, Linhu, Loufan, Qin and Han. If there was no strong army, the country would be subjugated. He was determined to work hard to revitalize the state of Zhao. In view of the situation that Zhao’s main opponents at that time were nomads such as Donghu, he decided to establish a strong cavalry. However, at that time, the people of the state of Zhao wore long robes and coats, with long sleeves, fat waist, wide collar and large hem, which were not suitable for horseback fighting. Therefore, he started from the reform of clothing, first of all, he changed to wear a narrow sleeved short coat of Hu Fu. Many nobles believed that this was a violation of etiquette and immorality. King Wuling of Zhao finally persuaded the influential noble son Cheng, and then gave a strict order to his subjects to change their clothes, so that Hu Fu was promoted throughout the country and a strong cavalry that was good at riding and shooting was established. This matter is known as “King Zhao Wuling riding and shooting in Hufu”. It shows that at that time, all ethnic groups in China learned from each other and gradually approached each other in customs. The state of Zhao relied on cavalry and attacked for years. By 296 BC, after the attack on Zhongshan state (now the northern part of Hebei Province), its territory was greatly expanded and its national strength was enhanced. For a time, it became the main force against the Qin Dynasty. In 262 BC, the Qin army attacked South Korea, and Feng Ting, the governor of the Shangdang Prefecture of South Korea, surrendered to Zhao with 17 cities. Two years later, the Qin army captured the Shangdang and then attacked Changping (now Gaoping County, Shanxi Province). The famous general of the state of Zhao, Lian Po, led the army to defend it and blocked the Qin army. The state of Qin resorted to anti war tactics and spread rumors that honesty was easy to deal with, and he was about to surrender. The fatuous King Zhao Xiaocheng actually believed the rumors, replaced Lianpo, and took Zhao Kuo, who boasted and had no practical experience, as the commander. Zhao Kuo went against the tactics of Lianpo and sent troops to attack Qin on a large scale. At this time, the Qin army has secretly replaced Bai Qi, who can recruit and be good at fighting, as the main general. Bai Qi commanded the Qin army to feign flight, lured Zhao Kuo to pursue the front of the Qin army position, and then surrounded Zhao Jun. Zhao Jun was surrounded for more than 40 days, and the food and grass were cut off. Zhao Kuo led his elite soldiers to break through the siege, and was shot dead by random arrows. 400000 people of Zhao Jun fell to Qin. Bai Qi was worried about the riot, and all of them were killed except for 240 children. This battle is called “the battle of Changping”. It caused the loss of the troops of the state of Zhao. From then on, its vitality was greatly damaged and it never recovered. Zhao Kuo was good at empty talk, which led to the death of the dead army, leading to the idiom “talking on paper”. During Ji Yan’s reign, the Zhou royal family was very weak, and the territory he ruled was only 30 or 40 cities with a population of more than 30000. It is also divided into “Eastern Zhou” and “Western Zhou”. The two parts are divided by the Duke of Eastern Zhou and the Duke of Western Zhou. Ji Yan lives in “Western Zhou” (that is, the King City). At that time, the state of Qin had occupied many places in the Three Kingdoms of Han, Wei and Zhao, and the next step was to clean up the Zhou Dynasty. Ji Yan is worried for a long time. At this time, the state of Chu wanted to curb the expansion of Qin’s power, and sent envoys to ask Ji Yan to order all countries to attack Qin in the name of the son of heaven. Ji Yan was overjoyed and ordered the Duke of the Western Zhou Dynasty to assemble an army of 5000 or 6000 people, but he was short of weapons and food. Ji Yan raised military funds from wealthy households in the territory, paid them the loan vouchers, and promised Zhou Jun to repay them with spoils on the day of his division. In 256 BC, Ji Yan was ready to appoint the Duke of the Western Zhou Dynasty as the general, led 5000 troops to attack Qin, and about the princes of the six countries met in yique (now the south of Luoyang, Henan Province) to attack together. Unexpectedly, except that Chu and Yan sent some soldiers, the soldiers of the other four countries failed to come. The total number of troops in yique was only tens of thousands, far from being the opponent of hundreds of thousands of Qin soldiers. As a result, after waiting for 3 months, he still didn’t see the soldiers of the other four countries, and his morale was lax. The Duke of the Western Zhou Dynasty had to return with his men and horses in vain. Seeing Zhou Jun’s return, the rich households of the “Western Zhou Dynasty” held borrowing vouchers to collect debts from Ji Yan. They gathered outside the Palace door from morning till night, making a lot of noise, and their voices went straight into the inner palace. Ji Yan was ashamed and regretful, and had no choice but to hide on a high platform behind the palace to avoid debt. People in the Zhou Dynasty called this high platform “blame evasion platform” (that is, debt evasion platform). After that, the Qin army refused to give up, and attacked Yangcheng (now Southeast of Dengfeng County, Henan Province) and housu (now southwest of Dengfeng County, Henan Province) of South Korea, and then went straight to the King City of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. Ji Yan panicked and planned to flee to South Korea or Wei. The Duke of the Western Zhou Dynasty advised, “it is the general trend for Qin to annex the six countries, and the two countries of Han and Wei will not be spared. The king would rather surrender as soon as possible than be captured and humiliated at that time, and the outcome may be better.” Ji Yan had no choice but to lead his subordinates and ancestral clan to the ancestral temple to cry and worship. Three days later, he personally took his family members and atlas to the Qin army barracks to surrender. King Zhaoxiang of Qin was surrendered, made him Duke of Zhou, ordered him to live in Liangcheng (now the south of Hancheng County, Shaanxi Province), and took away the nine tripods, which symbolized state power. At this point, the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was declared extinct. Ji Yan was old at that time and ran around Zhou, Qin, Liang and other places. He couldn’t afford to work hard. He died less than a month after arriving in Liang City. Ji Yan’s posthumous title was king Nan after his death
Overview of Eastern Zhou Dynasty
(770 BC – 221 BC)
In 771 BC, Canrong killed the Youwang and destroyed the Western Zhou Dynasty. The following year (770 BC), Ji Yijiu, king of Zhou Ping, moved his capital from Haojing to Luoyi (now Luoyang, Henan Province). The Zhou Dynasty after the eastward move was known as the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. In the 59th year of King Nan of Zhou Dynasty (256 BC), the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was destroyed by Qin Dynasty, and a total of 25 kings were handed down, which lasted 515 years. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty was divided into two periods: the spring and Autumn period (770 BC – 403 BC) and the Warring States period (403 BC – 221 BC). This period is a period of transformation of China’s social system. This change is marked by the widespread use of iron.
After the death of king you of Zhou, the crown prince Yi Jiu ascended the throne as king Ping of Zhou. In view of the dilapidation of the ho capital and the threat of military warfare, King Ping of Zhou moved his capital to Luoyi and established the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 770 BC under the protection of princes such as Zheng, Qin and Jin. According to Zuo Zhuan, there were more than 140 Dukes in the spring and Autumn period. Among them, the more important countries are Qi, Jin, Chu, Qin, Lu, song, Zheng, Wei, Chen, Cai, Wu and Yue.
Cattle farming was widely used in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The unearthing of the crown of the Warring States iron plow in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei and other places shows that ploughing has been popularized in the Central Plains. Water conservancy is the lifeblood of agriculture, and the climax of water conservancy construction focusing on farmland irrigation is gradually rising. There are many types of water conservancy projects, such as pond water storage, irrigation flood diversion, canal irrigation and multi head water diversion. The construction technology of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty has reached a high level. The famous Luban, that is, the people of the state of Lu, is an outstanding representative of civil craftsmen, and later generations are honored as their ancestors.
Most of the architectural relics of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty found in archaeological excavations are palace sites. The most common architectural components unearthed are tiles, as well as bronze arches, bronze ornaments and bronze house models. From this, we can imagine the magnificent palace architecture of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, great powers competed for hegemony and wars were frequent. For their political, military and economic needs, the vassal states spared no effort to expand the roads to more remote and dangerous places on the basis of the transportation trunk lines of Shang and Western Zhou dynasties, thus objectively promoting the development of transportation.
The Silk Route of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty even traversed Eurasia. At that time, carriage was widely used. At this time, the “Wangji” directly under the jurisdiction of the emperor was greatly reduced under the continuous harassment of Rong and di and the continuous encroachment of the princes. Finally, there was only one or two hundred miles around, that is, the territory in the western corner of Henan today; At the same time, the power of the emperor to control the princes and the direct military power are also increasingly lost. The son of heaven is not only economically demanding from the princes, but also politically at the mercy of the princes. But the son of heaven still has appeal in the name of “co Lord”. Therefore, some vassal states, which have become increasingly powerful with the development of local economy, use the banner of the royal family to “coerce the son of heaven to order the vassal states” and actively develop their own forces.
the Spring and Autumn period
At that time, some large vassal states continued to carry out merger wars in order to compete for land, population and domination over other vassal states. Whoever wins will hold a meeting of the vassal states and force everyone to recognize his “overlord” status. Successively, Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Xiang of song, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke mu of Qin, and King Zhuang of Chu rose to fight for supremacy. Historically, they were called the “five bullies of the spring and Autumn Period”.
In the process of the princes’ struggle for hegemony, large countries annexed small countries, the number of vassal countries gradually decreased, and the Chinese nationality had frequent contacts with other nationalities, which promoted national integration. At the end of the spring and Autumn period, the states of Wu and Yue in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Qiantang River basin also participated in the war for hegemony. At first, Wu defeated Yue and forced Yue to submit. Gou Jian, the king of Yue, licked the gall every day and was determined to revenge. He paid attention to increasing production, training soldiers and accumulating strength. After long-term efforts, the state of Yue finally became strong again and finally destroyed the state of Wu. During the spring and Autumn period, ironware was already used in agriculture and handicraft production. Iron hoes and axes are used in agricultural production. Iron is hard and sharp, better than wood, stone and bronze tools. The use of iron marks a significant increase in social productivity. At that time, cattle were also used to cultivate land. Farming techniques have been improved and agricultural production has further developed. Some nobles turned public fields into private fields and gradually adopted new ways of exploitation, allowing farmers to hand over most of their products and retain some of them.
The spring and Autumn period was named after Confucius’ revision of the spring and Autumn Annals. This book records the history from Lu Yin (722 BC) to Lu AI Gong (481 BC). For convenience, modern scholars generally call it the “spring and Autumn Period” from the founding of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in the first year of King Ping of Zhou (770 BC) to the 43rd year of King Jing of Zhou (477 BC or 476 BC).
the Warring States period
From 475 B.C. to 221 B.C., it was the Warring States period of China. After a long and fierce war for hegemony in the spring and Autumn period, the Warring States period began. The main princes were Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei, Qin and other seven countries, which were called the “seven heroes of the Warring States period” in history.
With the construction of water conservancy, the use of iron and the promotion of cattle farming, the economy of the Feudal States developed in the middle and late spring and Autumn period, and the political situation also changed accordingly. The influence of the ministers and officials in the interior of the princes gradually developed, such as the famous Sanhuan in the state of Lu, the Tian family in the state of Qi, and the six ministers in the state of Jin. They use their own economic strength to control and divide public offices, and fight with each other to expand their territory. The six ministers of Jin fought to the end, leaving Han, Wei and Zhao. In the 23rd year of King Weilie of Zhou (403 BC), the king of Zhou officially recognized the three families as princes. In the eleventh year of king an of Zhou (391 BC), Tian min abolished the Duke of Qi Kang and established himself as the monarch, which was also recognized by the king of Zhou. The victory of the three Jin Dynasties and the Tian family announced the cruel political law of the survival of the strong and the elimination of the weak. Therefore, starting from the reform of Li Xuan in the state of Wei, all countries competed to carry out the reform movement with the goal of enriching the country and strengthening the army. The core of the reform is to fix workers on the land in order to increase the tax revenue of the country. With the deepening of social civilization, the rulers’ greed for material enjoyment expanded rapidly. The most direct way to increase the amount of exploitation is to plunder more land, and the most convenient way to plunder land is war. Therefore, wars were frequent during this period. According to statistics, in the 255 years from the first year of King yuan of Zhou Dynasty (475 BC) to the 16th year of King Qin’s reign (221 BC), there were 230 wars, large and small. When the war broke out, tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of people were frequently dispatched from both sides. At the end of the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Xiang compiled various materials about this period of history into a book, named “Warring States policy”. From then on, this historical stage was called the Warring States period.