Original: housha source wechat official account: housha has been authorized to reprint
On May 28, after Chongxin house was released from prison after serving a 20-year sentence, the “Red Army of Japan” not only attracted attention again in Japan, but also had a great impact internationally.
This black-and-white photo has been widely circulated on the Internet. In fact, this is a still photo. The student pretending to be a girl carrying a bazooka is not believing in the house.
The “Palestinian youth movement” cheered on Twitter: “she is a comrade of the Palestinian people and struggle.”, Many Arabs are also celebrating her freedom. After all, the Japanese Red Army was once called the “Arab Red Army”.
Irish anti imperialist socialists specially made a new flag to pay a “red salute” to her. In those years, both the “Irish Republican Army” and the “Japanese Red Army” were identified as “terrorist organizations” by the West.
I have written about the “Red Army of Japan” and Chongxin house before. However, many people feel that it is not deep enough, especially the relationship between the “Red Army of Japan” and the Communist Party of Japan.
As a left-wing radical organization, why is the “Japanese Red Army” not under the leadership of the Communist Party of Japan? Why are people who believe in houses called “new left wing”? This has to start with postwar Japan.
The Communist Party of Japan suffered cruel persecution during the period of Japanese militarism. After Japan’s defeat and surrender in 1945, the Communist Party of Japan resumed its legal action, and some leaders in exile also returned to China.
Although Japan is under the US occupation military control, the left wing as a whole has received extensive support. The Communist Party of Japan spent about five years on organizational reconstruction.
The founding of new China in 1949 injected new impetus into the revolutionary cause in Asia and Japan.
However, the Japanese Communist Party has many factions and lacks real leaders. There are various political tendencies within it, so it is impossible to formulate a real line.
One faction of the Japanese Communist Party advocates armed struggle to destroy the Japanese regime through urban riots, while others believe that we should learn from the Chinese Communist Party and take the road of “encircling the cities from the countryside”. These factions have prepared weapons and underground networks, and set up a “mountain village task force” to allow young Party members and cadres to enter the countryside to mobilize the masses and open up revolutionary base areas.
However, some leaders of the Communist Party of Japan advocated the line of “parliamentary struggle”, and the two sides argued endlessly.
In 1955, the Communist Party of Japan held its Sixth National Congress in Tokyo. The faction advocating armed struggle was denounced as “left adventurism”. At the Congress, a resolution was adopted to establish the parliamentary struggle line.
Later, although some well-known members of the Japanese Communist Party were elected as members of Parliament, for young people, it was a shocking betrayal.
In this way, this group of people who are gradually moving away from the Japanese Communist Party has become the “new left wing”. At that time, neither the Communist Party of China nor the Communist Party of the Soviet Union put any pressure on the Japanese Communist Party because of the special situation in Japan.
Five years later, on January 19, 1960, Japan and the United States signed the new Japan US security treaty, Japan became a political and military vassal of the United States, and Japan lost the hope of self liberation.
The vigorous “anti security campaign” was launched throughout Japan, including the extreme right wing, with the goal of “anti US imperialism and anti garrison”.
The new left wing established the “all students’ Federation” (the National Student Union), and these people gave birth to the “all Communist fighting” factions in 1968.
In 1969, the occupation of the Yasuda lecture hall by the University of Tokyo broke out. On both sides of the school gate were written “the rebellion is justified” and “the disintegration of the imperial power”. If you don’t write “Dongda” or “imperial power”, it means that Japanese imperialism has not yet perished.
The movement of the generation of “all Communist struggle” reached its peak in 1972. Some people went abroad to join hands with the Arabs to attack western countries (the Red Army of Japan) by extreme means, while others stayed at home to fight (the Red Army of Japan). After the shallow villa incident, the United Red Army was defeated by the police and went into decline.
What is the Japanese Communist Party doing? Busy with affairs in parliament, they are strangers to the “New Left” movement because of their different lines.
The issue of the Japanese Communist Party
Originally, the Communist Party of Japan should have stood up to lead the “anti security” movement, but the Communist Party of Japan actually retreated.
In addition to engaging in opportunism at home, the Communist Party of Japan is also doing so internationally.
However, the Japanese Communist Party also likes to brush the sense of existence. Everything has to be mixed, but it can never work. It always thinks that others think it is very important.
At the beginning of the Sino Soviet debate, the Japanese Communist Party began to swing, trying to maintain balance between the two parties. As the Sino Soviet rift widened, the Japanese Communist Party’s balance strategy no longer worked.
In 1963, the pro Soviet faction led by Yoshio Shiga, a member of the Japanese Communist Party, was favored by Khrushchev. Shiga even contacted the Soviet embassy in Japan alone, showing signs of usurping power.
The leader of the Japanese Communist Party, Kenji Miyamoto, attacked this faction, which angered Khrushchev and brought the relations between the Soviet Union and Japan to a freezing point. As a result, the Japanese Communist Party moved closer to the Chinese Communist Party, but the Chinese Communist Party was not enthusiastic about the Japanese Communist Party.
In 1964, when Khrushchev fell and Leonid brezhlev came to power, it was possible to improve the relations between the Soviet Union and Japan.
In july1965, the “Helsinki World Peace Conference” was held in Finland, and the Communist Party of Japan was invited to participate. The Communist Party of Japan performed well at the conference. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union also invited the Communist Party of Japan to participate in the “Asian African Latin American unity conference” in Havana, Cuba.
At this meeting, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union made groundless accusations against the Communist Party of China, and the Communist Party of Japan chose silence.
After returning to China, the Communist Party of Japan felt that it was becoming more important and could become a representative of Asia. It shouted to the world: “we should take joint action to help Vietnam fight the US empire!”, In response to the Soviet Communist Party.
On November 20 of the same year, the Communist Party of China published a heavy article on refuting the so-called “joint action” led by the Soviet Union in the people’s daily.
The Japanese Communist Party felt that something was wrong, so it published some self explanatory articles in the organ newspaper, red flag, in an attempt to eliminate the “misunderstanding” of the Chinese Communist Party.
On february1,1966, red flag changed its registration to Chinese characters (it was Chinese characters when it was first published in 1928, and then cancelled the Chinese character registration). This detail was interpreted by Moscow as that the Communist Party of Japan was making advances to the Communist Party of China.
Then the Communist Party of Japan expressed to the Communist Party of China that it would strengthen communication. In march1966, Miyamoto led the members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan, such as Oka Zhengfang, bu Po Zhesan, isama Yiliang, and Ueda Kenichiro, to visit China.
This would have been a very good opportunity for the Communist Party of Japan. It could have become a messenger for the two parties of China and the Soviet Union. However, the Japanese Communist Party failed to do a good job, which caused its own division.
The Japanese Communist delegation first visited various parts of China. After arriving in Beijing, Miyamoto held talks with Liu Shaoqi and other Chinese Communist leaders.
After mutual understanding, the two sides reached a draft joint communique (not publicly criticizing the Soviet Communist Party)
Premier Zhou hosted a banquet in honor of the Japanese guests. Premier Zhou did not participate in the negotiation of the draft joint communique because it was a party to Party affair. The premier only welcomed them in a ceremonial manner.
Key points of the draft joint communique:
1? At the invitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan, the delegation of the Communist Party of Japan visited Beijing and was warmly welcomed.
2? During his visit, he was received by Chairman Mao and held cordial and friendly talks.
3? Both sides agreed that US imperialism is the most ferocious enemy and we must resolutely fight it to the end.
4? China and Japan firmly support the revolutionary struggle of the oppressed people all over the world.
5? Oppose chauvinism, revisionism and separatism among big powers.
6? Support the Chinese people to liberate Taiwan Province and oppose the “two Chinas” conspiracy.
7? Other matters.
There seems to be no problem, but the key is the second point. The Japanese played a trick. In fact, Chairman Mao was in Shanghai and did not receive the delegation of the Communist Party of Japan. The Japanese Communist Party added this article to show its importance.
After the Japanese insisted on adding this article, Chairman Mao agreed that they would come to Shanghai to meet, because nothing had happened in the joint communique.
From 11 a.m. to 12:30 a.m. on March 29, 1966, Chairman Mao received the delegation of the Communist Party of Japan in Shanghai.
In fact, Chairman Mao was not in a happy mood. He did not like the cleverness of the Japanese Communist Party.
After listening to Miyamoto’s explanation on not naming the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman Mao said:
Thank you. I have nothing to say but a few words. Your attitude was welcomed by the leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. But we do not welcome it. This is the second sentence.
Finally, the chairman said that the joint communique would not be published, and both sides would have no mental burden and be relaxed and happy. Please say hello to Comrade Kenzo nosaka (Chairman of the Communist Party of Japan).
The delegation of the Communist Party of Japan did not expect that this would be the result when they arrived in Shanghai. However, the Communist Party of Japan had to return home with regret. However, the Communist Party of Japan has never realized its long-term opportunistic mistakes.
After returning home, Masayoshi Fukuda, Secretary of Yamaguchi Prefecture of the Communist Party of Japan, wrote an article criticizing Hideki Miyamoto, and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan dismissed him in September.
Fukuda just announced the establishment of the “Communist Party of Japan – Yamaguchi revolutionary leftist” with another cadre of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Mr. Harada, and played the banner of Mao Zedong thought. Many people responded.
Then, from Yamaguchi Prefecture to Tokyo, Mao Zedong thought became the most powerful weapon to criticize Miyamoto opportunism and revisionist groups.
At the Sixth Plenary Session of the ninth Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan held in August, Central Committee member Takashi Nishizawa called on the whole party to unite under the banner of Mao Zedong thought. Progressive students of the University of Tokyo set up the “Japanese Red Guards” organization. It was during this period that former Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan joined the Japanese Red Guards.
After exposing the speculative features of the leadership of the Communist Party of Japan at home and abroad, it completely stood on the opposite side of the “new left wing”. This is the fundamental reason why the Communist Party of Japan cannot lead the “anti security” movement mentioned above.
At that time, all the students and young people in Japan basically stood on the opposite side of the Communist Party of Japan. The Communist Party of Japan was afraid of being abandoned and worried that the Japanese government would blame them. Therefore, red flag kept sending articles to clarify for itself and maliciously attacked the students.
On june18,1967, the people’s Daily published an article titled “slander can not tarnish the honor of soldiers”, which fully affirmed the anti US Japan Security Treaty struggle in Japanese society since 1960, and excited the Japanese.
The relationship between the two parties in China and Japan was completely broken. The Communist Party of Japan took refuge in the Japanese authorities and became an echo of the U.S. and Japanese capital groups. This has intensified the youth’s hatred for the US Japan alliance. The emergence of the Red Army has pushed the struggle to a climax.
In 1971, the thaw of Sino US relations led to major changes in the international pattern. In 1972, the main battlefield of Japan’s “New Left” radical faction moved overseas.
Although those who believe in the house have become memories, this period of history should be remembered in the hearts of the Japanese.