Mao Zedong’s deepest footprints!

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Author: Xusheng source: Xusheng (official account id:lxlong20) has been reproduced with authorization

As a historical giant, Mao Zedong has traveled almost everywhere in China all his life. His footprints are almost everywhere. Where are his deepest footprints? This is a topic of different opinions.

As a senior history lover, I think Mao Zedong left his deepest footprints in Jinggangshan. I have been to Jinggangshan several times, and I feel different every time.

From the perspective of tourists, Jinggangshan is a very good place to visit. It is a natural oxygen bar, cool and pleasant in summer. The most unforgettable thing is that the ingredients are fresh, which is better than any large and medium-sized city I have been to.

From the perspective of study tour, it is one of the best places to study red culture.

From the perspective of seeking spiritual coordinates, it is another picture

01 a past

In the summer of 1965, 72 year old Mao Zedong returned to Jinggangshan before deciding to do the most important thing in the second half of his life. At that time, he said emotionally to the people around him, “I’m old and often dream of Jinggangshan. I really want to see it…”

Mao Zedong lived in Jinggangshan for seven days, from May 22 to 29. Outsiders may think that he just went to Jinggangshan for leisure, wrote two poems by the way, or looked back on some extraordinary years when he was old.

In fact, Mao Zedong’s mood is not relaxed. He said such a heavy and far-reaching sentence in Jinggangshan, “In order to create this revolutionary base, many revolutionary martyrs sacrificed their lives when they were only in their twenties! Without the difficult struggle in Jinggangshan in the past, there would be no today. Today, Jinggangshan is very different from more than 30 years ago. It’s much more impressive to go up the mountain, take a car, live in a building, eat four dishes and one soup, and wear clean and tidy clothes. I believe that Jinggangshan will become better and more magnificent in the future ? I advise you that life is better, and the spirit of Jinggangshan can’t be lost… “

——If this passage appears elsewhere, it may also seem ordinary. But from the mouth of Mao Zedong, who was in Jinggangshan in 1965, there is endless desolation, heaviness and brilliance, as well as the supreme spirit of deforestation.

The key point of this passage is that “the Jinggangshan spirit cannot be lost”, and losing the Jinggangshan spirit will pay a price.

The so-called Jinggangshan spirit has two connotations:

On the one hand, it refers to the great sacrifice of the revolution, which requires the fighting spirit of “daring to call the sun and moon for a new sky”;

On the other hand, it is to warn comrades not to lose their original intention of working for the welfare of the majority of the people.

But to be honest, how many people listen to Mao Zedong’s words is a question mark. At least for so many years, those corrupt groups have not listened. They have neither sacrifice spirit nor service spirit, only greedy desire. One year later, Mao Zedong did the most important thing in the second half of his life. One of his initial goals was to rectify corruption.

In those days in Jinggangshan, Mao Zedong wrote the essence of this passage into two poems: water melody song head: return to Jinggangshan and niannujiao Jinggangshan.

He wrote in the last part of “niannujiao Jinggangshan”:

I still remember that in the flames of war at that time, a narrow escape was like yesterday—— Great sacrifices were made in carrying out the revolution.

Unique pride, the moon hanging in the sky, the wind and thunder are majestic—— Dare to call the sun and the moon for a new day.

With the sound of a chicken singing, the strange smoke disappears and the clouds fall—— The charm of the original heart.

After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong never returned to Ruijin, Zunyi, Yan’an, Xibaipo; Only I went back to Jinggangshan. This phenomenon is worth pondering.

You should know that Jinggangshan, Ruijin, Zunyi, Yan’an and Xibaipo are all typical red cultural coordinates and spiritual shrines for many people; People from all walks of life travel, study tours or pilgrimages every day.

Why did Mao Zedong only return to Jinggangshan after the founding of the people’s Republic? The explanation given by the existing literature is nothing more than that Mao Zedong was too busy to go back to those places after the founding of the people’s Republic of China.

In fact, this explanation is untenable. After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong often went out for inspection. He had enough time and resources to go anywhere he wanted. Then why does he only love Jinggangshan?

02 yuan Wencai

After the failure of the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Mao Zedong took the initiative to give up the opportunity to continue to attack big cities, and led the team into the Luoxiao mountains to practice his inner blueprint.

After the August 7th meeting, Qu Qiubai invited Mao Zedong to work in the Shanghai headquarters. Mao Zedong simply refused to say, “I want to go up the mountain and down the lake, and go to the mountains to make friends with the green heroes.”

Before the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Mao Zedong was essentially an intellectual, who was passionate about doing things and writing articles. His circle of friends are basically big intellectuals, scholars, professors and revolutionaries. So when he went to look for the green forest heroes, he still surprised the comrades.

Look at the topographic map of Jiangxi. Jinggangshan is located in the middle of Luoxiao mountains.

Among a series of famous mountains and rivers in Jiangxi, Luoxiao mountain range is inconspicuous. Without Mao Zedong’s amazing choice in 1927, it would be difficult for yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo to achieve anything in Jinggangshan; Then today’s Jinggangshan is estimated to be an ordinary scenic place in Jiangxi. It will definitely not be the red spiritual coordinate, and no one will go on a pilgrimage.


For thousands of years before 1927, Jinggangshan and its surrounding areas were inaccessible, often haunted by green forest bandits.

Throughout the history of Jinggangshan green forest, the last bandit group should be the “Sabre team” led by Hu Yachun. However, the fate of the “Sabre team” and the entire Jinggangshan green forest changed in 1922. Because Yuan Wencai, who was born in poverty that year, could not bear the oppression of the landlord, so he had to join the “Sabre team”.

Yuan Wencai himself is a man with ideals. Although he joined the green forest, he did not want to continue to rob his family in the green forest; He was recruited by the government in 1925 and went from underworld to white society.

In 1926, with the help of the Communist Party of China, Yuan Wencai launched the Ninggang uprising and entered the county government; And joined the Communist Party of China and became a member of the organization. His team is under the banner of Jiangxi provincial Party committee.

Then came the Kuomintang’s party purge in 1927, when local tyrants and evil gentry colluded with the Kuomintang to search for the Communist Party and the peasant army. Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo struggled to retain 60 guns and some comrades, and insisted on fighting relying on the high mountains and dense forests in the Jinggangshan region.

Of course, the teams of Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo are more like a mixture of green forest and peasant army, not the real red army.

After the Autumn Harvest Uprising, the Jiangxi provincial Party committee sent a secret letter to Mao Zedong. The messenger was song renqiong (the founding general in the future and made great contributions to the cause of the two bombs and one satellite).

On September 25th, 1927, song renqiong went to Lianhua county to catch up with the uprising and handed the letter to Mao Zedong. The content of the letter was that the Jiangxi provincial Party committee suggested Mao Zedong to lead the troops to the Jinggangshan area, where yuan Wencai and Wang Zuobu could take over.

After a little thought, Mao Zedong decided to go to Jinggangshan. He didn’t go there to seek yuan Wencai’s support, but to take Jinggangshan as the starting point to transform the world and transform yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo together.

Mao Zedong and Yuan Wencai first met on the morning of October 5, 1927. Mao Zedong basically went to the meeting alone.

You know, in the years of chaos, Mao Zedong and Yuan Wencai were strangers. On the premise that there is no basis of trust between the two sides, the leaders after the failure of the uprising are actually at great risk. But Mao Zedong went without hesitation.

As a result, the two men talked about the afternoon from the morning, and they were very speculative, and they hated to meet each other late. Knowing that Yuan Wencai had only 60 broken guns, Mao Zedong immediately decided to give him 100 guns, while yuan Wencai generously returned 1000 yuan.

On October 7, Yuan Wencai personally took 30 people, carried a couch and sedan chair, and picked up Mao Zedong to Maoping (Jinggangshan).

Mao Zedong didn’t change clothes and sit in a sedan chair, but put on new shoes made by Xie Meixiang (yuan Wencai’s wife) himself and went up the mountain with crutches.

After arriving at Maoping, Yuan Wencai arranged Mao Zedong in the octagonal building. He Xuemin’s family originally lived there, and it was there that Mao Zedong met he Zizhen.

In this way, Mao Zedong and the soldiers of the Red Army stood firm in Jinggangshan.

Public information said that it was Mao Zedong’s personal charm that convinced yuan Wencai. This statement is not wrong, because Mao Zedong’s personal charm is indeed great. After all, Yuan Wencai has been mixing black and white for so many years, and it is enough to show Mao Zedong’s personal charm to convince him through a word.

But I personally believe that in convincing yuan Wencai, just emphasizing Mao Zedong’s personal charm cannot present the whole context of history. If Mao Zedong meets yuan Wencai before September 29, he may not be convinced at one stroke.

The reason is very simple. Mao Zedong launched the “three Bay adaptation” on September 29.

03 great charm

The Red Army is the most special army in Chinese History:

Special 1. The army has the widest number of soldiers. The red army comes from ordinary farmers and ordinary people. Because the ultimate strategic goal of the Red Army is to come from and go to the masses, which is unique.

Special 2. The combat effectiveness is extremely strong. This is not explained.

Special 3. The combat cost is extremely low. This is not easy to understand, because it is an economic account. Because the Red Army soldiers in the Jinggangshan era almost didn’t pay their salaries, which was equivalent to starting a company without paying their salaries.

The general situation at that time was that the soldiers of the Red Army raised food by themselves, and then each person gave 5 cents a day to buy firewood, rice, oil and salt. In winter, the cotton padded clothes were not enough, and the soldiers only wore two single clothes, shivering in the cold wind.

The Jinggangshan base area also faced a severe economic blockade, and various living and production materials, such as salt, cloth and medicine, were seriously lacking, but the Red Army officers and men overcame them one by one. A large number of Kuomintang captured soldiers willingly joined the Red Army. A whole group of Kuomintang troops even volunteered to surrender. This is the charm of the Red Army.

Under difficult conditions, the Red Army did not disband, but maintained a very high combat effectiveness. This is also the charm of the Red Army.

Throughout the ages and in all countries, the Red Army is basically the only one that can ensure combat effectiveness without paying military salaries and does not disturb the people in war. Therefore, the Red Army will surpass all its rivals in terms of combat costs alone. This is also the charm of the Red Army.

So many people think that Mao Zedong will not engage in economy, which is actually inaccurate. The most brilliant economists can’t lower the battle cost. From the perspective of Military Economics, Mao Zedong is a master.

All this comes from Sanwan adaptation.

Back on September 25, after receiving song renqiong’s letter, Mao Zedong decided to go to Jinggangshan, but instead of rushing to meet yuan Wencai, he first transformed his team in Sanwan village.


The content of Sanwan’s adaptation has been said before, and three principles have been established:

1? The principle of seeking truth from facts is to reduce the first division of the first army of the former workers’ and peasants’ revolutionary army into a regiment; Respect the choice of soldiers. Those who are willing to stay for the revolution will continue to stay, and those who are not willing to stay will be given travel fees to go home. Songrenqiong, the messenger, was incorporated into the 7th company of the 3rd Battalion, starting his military career in a real sense.

——This principle solves the problem of “drinking soldiers’ blood” since ancient times. This alone is enough to prove that the Red Army is different.

2? According to the principle of the party commanding the gun, teams are set up in the squad arrangement, branches are established on the company, and Party committees are established in the battalion and regiment; Party representatives at and above the company level shall be appointed by the Secretary of the party organization at the same level.

When Deng xiaoping visited Sanwan village in 1972, he said, “Chairman Mao created the initiative of ‘building party branches on companies’, thereby determining the party’s control over the army. Our principle is that’ the party commands the gun ‘, and we will never allow’ the gun commands the Party ‘.”

3? Establish the principle of equality between officers and soldiers, that is, establish soldiers’ committees above the company level


The authority includes participating in the administrative and economic management of the army, and the chief should be subject to its supervision.

——This principle is also unprecedented in Chinese history. It is not only talking, but also fully implemented. For example, in Jinggangshan, Mao Zedong and Zhu De chose grain just like soldiers.

After the “three Bay adaptation”, Mao Zedong himself transformed into a real militarist, and the team led by Mao Zedong transformed into a real “Red Army”, which became the hope of China.

Faced with Mao Zedong, who had degenerated into a militarist, and the Red Army team led by him, Yuan Wencai naturally could not resist its charm.

You can imagine that if Mao Zedong went to see yuan Wencai before the Sanwan adaptation. At that time, Mao Zedong was still a hot-blooded scholar, and the army he led was not fundamentally different from other armies. In that case, it must take a lot of trouble to convince yuan Wencai.

After Sanwan’s adaptation, the system has been established and directly displayed in front of Yuan Wencai. Maybe yuan Wencai was not completely convinced at first, but with the passage of time, Yuan Wencai could no longer refuse Mao Zedong or the Red Army.

Because Yuan Wencai was also a person with ideals and feelings, Mao Zedong showed greater ideals and feelings, and institutionalized them through the Red Army.

In fact, not only yuan Wencai, but also anyone with ideals and feelings can’t refuse Mao Zedong and the Red Army. Because the Red Army is not only an army, but also a huge system melting pot, which can absorb all people with ideals and feelings, and bring them together into a powerful force. A more remarkable example is that Zhu De led the team to Jinggangshan.

04 stars converge

Zhu De himself is a man who has seen the world.

Although his family background was not high, with his own strength, he stood firm in the old military system of chaos. If he is willing to continue to work in the old army, his glory, wealth and honor can still be guaranteed.

But Zhu De was also a man with ideals. He finally abandoned everything in the old army and accepted the Communist Party’s ideology. Even in the revolution, from Peiping to Shanghai, Zhu De was able to reach the level of Sun Yat Sen and Chen Duxiu.

As sun and Chen failed to meet his wishes, he traveled thousands of miles to Europe and finally became a member of the Communist Party of China with the help of Zhou Enlai. Sun Yat Sen suggested that Zhu De go to the national army, but Zhu De refused.

During the August 1st Nanchang Uprising, Zhu De was not the core commander at first. However, Zhu De became the backbone of the most critical battle of sanheba on the way south. This shows that Zhu De is responsible.

After completing the task, he took the remnant around southern Hunan. At the most dangerous moment, Zhu De used his relationship (with the help of fan Shisheng, a good friend of the martial arts school and commander of the 16th army of the National Army) to lead the team through the difficulties.

On April 28, 1928, Zhu De and Mao Zedong met in Jinggangshan, and the hands of historical giants were held together. From that moment on, they became comrades, comrades in arms and friends of each other all their lives, which opened a new page in Chinese history.

Zhu De spent half his life in discord with Sun Yat Sen, Chen Duxiu and others, but he was very consistent with Mao Zedong; He did not adapt to the model of the old army, but he was like a duck to water in the weak Red Army.

Zhu De has a simple personality and Mao Zedong has a bold and unrestrained personality. The two people who originally had a huge personality gap have carried out historical cooperation under the new military and political system of Jinggangshan. They passed the Red Army trail together and happily picked grain up to Jinggangshan. Although fighting life is hard, it is full of strong idealistic happiness.

This fully proves that the Red Army and the Jinggangshan model can integrate different giants and amplify their advantages.


Chen Yi, who went to Jinggangshan with Zhu De, is also a bold and unrestrained intellectual. He usually likes to write poems and articles, which is a little similar to Mao Zedong.

Chen Yi didn’t catch up with the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, but caught up on the way south when the team failed. At that time, the former commissar gave Chen Yi a position of political instructor in the 73rd regiment, telling him not to dislike being a small official. Chen Yi said that he should be even an instructor.

In fact, at that time, the military system was still the same as the national army. The work of political instructors was relatively empty, and they were ridiculed as the big deception of the “five skin doctrine” (leather belts, leather shoes, leather bags, leather whips, leather gloves). But Chen Yi just went on, and did it well.

After the battle of sanheba, Chen Yi has been assisting Zhu De and has become the second person in the army after Zhu De. After the meeting in Jinggangshan, Chen Yi became the third person (director of the Political Department) after Zhu Mao.

On the Jinggangshan mountain, after work, Chen Yi often talked with Mao Zedong about poems and essays. Chen Yi is one of the first readers of Mao Zedong’s works in the Jinggangshan era. Chinese scholars despise each other, and there is no relationship between Chen Yi and Mao Zedong. This means that the Red Army and Jinggangshan model can magnify the advantages of giants while concealing their shortcomings.

Lin Biao, who went to Jinggangshan with Zhu De and Chen Yi, is another special case. He is a silent genius.

Every genius has his own world in his heart. If you can find a way to release your inner world, you will be a genius in any industry. Lin Biao, who was born in troubled times, went to the battlefield. The only way he could find to release his inner world was war.

Those who have this personality, as generals, may be famous generals who are not born.

This level of famous generals can only be controlled by heroes and only when they meet them can they give full play to them to the greatest extent. Once the two are combined, it will be the most wonderful chapter in history.

Before going to Jinggangshan, Lin Biao’s world was turbulent. After meeting Mao Zedong in Jinggangshan, Lin Biao’s talent blossomed.

Lin Biao first met Mao Zedong in a real sense on May 4, six days after Zhu Mao met. That day, after learning that Mao Zedong came to inspect, Lin Biao, who had always been silent, began to talk endlessly, “Comrades, tell you a good news! Just now the regimental headquarters sent someone to say that committee member Mao will come to see us soon. Committee member Mao is one of the founders of our party and an important leader of our Red Army. We are going to see committee member Mao soon. Please wipe your weapons and tidy your clothes, so that committee member Mao has a good impression of our army.”

Lin Biao said, “Chairman Mao once said that although our team is not the most powerful team in the world, whether it is the warlord or the bandit, as long as there is a gun, there is a territory, there is a world, and our Red Army also has a gun, and we can sit in the world.”

When Mao Zedong heard Lin Biao’s words, he asked, “who is that doll?”

Chen Yi said, “he is LinBiao who won the war in Leiyang City.”

Mao Zedong loved people who could fight the most, and he was most in need of people who could fight at that time. Mao Zedong took Lin Biao by the hand and said, “your words are very good!”

Hearing Chairman Mao’s praise, Lin Biao immediately gave a military salute: “report to Chairman Mao, my name is Lin Biao.”

When Lin Biao met Mao Zedong, he was a famous general who met the hero, and soon grew into a “Red Army Eagle”; Somewhere, it seems that there is a divine will. Lin Biao’s military talent matched Mao Zedong’s bold talent and vision, and was unfavourable.

Lin Biao was impressed by Mao Zedong, which fully reflected the charm of Mao Zedong and the charm of the Red Army and the Jinggangshan model.

Unlike Lin Biao, the “Eagle of the Red Army”, Peng Dehuai, who is known as the “lion of the Red Army”, is fiery and jealous of evil.

As I said in my previous article, Peng Dehuai is the courage of the Red Army, the Eighth Route Army and the people’s Liberation Army. Peng Dehuai said that at any stage of war, we must not fight. Peng Dehuai was responsible for adhering to Jinggangshan in the Red Army era, the hundred regiments war in the Eighth Route Army era, and the war to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea after the founding of the people’s Republic of China.

The story of Peng Dehuai will be carefully written in another chapter another day. Here is a simple explanation.

What Peng Dehuai has in common with Lin Biao, Chen Yi, Zhu De and others is that before going to Jinggangshan, life was rough and uncertain; After arriving at Jinggangshan, he and Mao Zedong achieved the perfect integration of life coordinates and historical coordinates. This process reflects not only Mao Zedong’s personal charm, but also the charm of the Red Army and Jinggangshan model.

It is also worth pondering. Why did Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao, Chen Yi, Luo Ronghuan, Huang Gonglue, Su Yu and others find their life coordinates when they arrived at Jinggangshan? The reason is very simple. They finally recognized the model built by Mao Zedong and were convinced by Mao Zedong’s personal charm and thought.

In fact, Mao Zedong himself completed the most important transformation in his life in Jinggangshan, that is, to become a top politician.

05 great transformation

The historical giant Mao Zedong has many labels, among which the most important title is undoubtedly a politician.

Throughout his life, Mao Zedong completed his transformation to a top politician in the octagonal tower. Mao Zedong has lived on the octagonal tower since he went to Jinggangshan in October 1927.

Today, the octagonal tower has become the soul of Jinggangshan and a must see place for tourists. In fact, it is a simple pavilion with a small area, which is slightly crowded for two people.


There are only a bed, a table and a few chairs in the octagonal building. There are also windows on the side to see the scenery in the mountains. Its feature is that there is an octagonal skylight above, which can look up at the starry sky.

Before Mao Zedong lived in the octagonal tower, it was an ordinary attic, which had no characteristics even in the barren mountains.

Today, it is world-famous because every night when Mao Zedong lived in the attic, he lit the lamp to read and write articles.

At that time, due to economic difficulties, in order to be industrious and thrifty, the organization stipulated that each company and its above organs could use an oil lamp to light three wicks when working; Turn off the oil lamp when not working; The company left an oil lamp for duty and inspection, but only one wick was on time.

When night came, the lights went out, and the soldiers blew out the oil lamps. In Mao Zedong’s attic, there is only one oil lamp with a wick for lighting. It can be said that thrift is originally one of the original intentions of the organization. Compared with the hardships of those years, the extravagance and waste of some leading organs now are too hateful.

The air in Jinggangshan is humid and cold at night. Mao Zedong, a tall man, was covered in a blanket to keep out the cold, reading and writing under an oil lamp with a wick.

It was in that short time of more than a year that Mao Zedong wrote many crucial articles. Among them, “why can China’s red regime exist?” And “the struggle of Jinggangshan” is the most important.

Two heroic articles summarized the experience of Jinggangshan struggle; Put forward the thought of “armed separation of workers and peasants”; Expound the five conditions for the existence and development of the red regime; Answered the question of how long the red flag can be played.

The most important thing is to put forward the theory of rural encircling the city, which points out the direction for the future of the organization. With this theory, there will be a foundation for the Sinicization of Marxism Leninism and theoretical guidelines for the organization to compete with the Kuomintang.

Nowadays, the development and growth of many Chinese enterprises, such as Huawei’s opening up and expansion in the world, or the rise and growth of late Internet enterprises such as pinduoduo, follow the policy of encircling the city from the countryside.

In a sense, Mao Zedong on the octagonal tower became a top politician.

Throughout Chinese history, there are only a few politicians at Mao Zedong’s level. Any politician of that level in history will change the world and attract a group of heroes at the same time. The outstanding generals on Jinggangshan have witnessed the transformation of Mao Zedong’s historical level; While benefiting themselves, they are also advancing history.

Others may not understand the historical connotation; But Mao Zedong himself understood this very well. When he decides to do the most important thing in the second half of his life, he needs to make a comprehensive review of life and history in several places.

Because of its special status, Jinggangshan has become an important place to recover (the other is Dishui cave in his hometown). So his speech on “Jinggangshan Spirit” and the poems he wrote all conveyed the key message. Unfortunately, this information cannot be understood by most people.

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