“ Merchant & rdquo; How did the word come from? How did the Shang clan get up?

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How did the word “businessman” come from? How did the Shang clan get up? China story network Xiaobian brings detailed articles for your reference.

The Shang Dynasty was the first dynasty with written records in Chinese history. In the spring and Autumn period, the state of song had its capital in the south of Shangqiu, Henan Province. At the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Duke of Zhou granted the kingdom to Weiziqi, the brother of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty. The monarch was the descendant of Weiziqi. When the monarch of the state of song priests their ancestors, there was a song praising the ancestors of Shang called Xuanniao. The first sentence describes the legend of the birth of Qi, the ancestor of the Shang family; The original text is: the mysterious bird of heaven’s destiny came down and gave birth to business, and the house was vast; It means: “the emperor ordered the swallow to lay an egg and gave birth to the commercial deed, living in the vast land of the Shang Dynasty”.


Why is Shang called Yin? It is said that Qi lived in Shang after he was born. He lived in the south of Shangqiu, Henan Province today. When he grew up, he was granted the title of Shang by Shun for his meritorious service in helping Xia Yu control the floods. So the Shang family called him Shang. After the Tang Dynasty of Shang defeated Xia Jie and destroyed the Xia Dynasty, the established Dynasty was also called Shang. When it was passed to King Pan Geng of Shang, he moved the king’s capital to Yindi (Xiaotun village, Anyang City, Henan Province today). Therefore, the people of Zhou called the Shang Dynasty Yin, and later generations also called it Yin Shang.

Qi was a person in the Yao Shun era. Because of his meritorious service in helping Dayu to control the floods, he was granted a surname by Shun in Shangdi, and the shangzu began to develop from Qi; In the Yao and Shun dynasties, it was already the end of the patriarchal clan society. Qi could not only know his mother but not his father, so it was said that his father was Dihao, the great grandson of the Yellow Emperor, and his mother was the daughter of the Rong clan, the second concubine of Dihao; In short, the descendants of the Shang family have no idea about their ancestors. Who else was there before Qi? We can only say that Qi was the son of the swallow.

Qi died about before the founding of the people’s Republic of Xia Yu. According to the characteristics of the nomadic people, his son, lighting, moved by water and grass, looking for a place with abundant water and lush vegetation to live. So he took his own people across the Yellow River and walked northward. He came to a place called Dishi (north of nanxingtai in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province) where the Guji river flows. When he saw the rich water and lush water and grass here, he settled down here.

Lighting has developed a large number of animal husbandry in Dashi, which has aroused the saliva of some surrounding clans and tribes and led them to invade. Therefore, after lighting died, his son Xiangtu led the Shang clan to drive the herds back to the old base of Shang. According to legend, Xiangtu used horses, that is, Xiangtu invented using horses to carry things and pull cars. After Xiangtu returned to Shangdi, he changed his nomadic life in the past and began to settle down for animal husbandry, At the same time, agricultural planting was also started, and horses were used as a means of transportation, and the power of the Shang clan was growing day by day.

The Shang family continued to develop and the Marquis continued to change. When Hou Ming of the Shang Dynasty came, he was named shuizheng by the Xia Dynasty. Shaokang, the king of the Xia Dynasty at that time, ordered him to govern the Yellow River. He carried forward the spirit of Qi Zuoyu, the ancestor, in controlling the water. He dredged the river and opened ditches. He also contributed many horses of his family as carrying tools. Later, due to overwork, he accidentally fell into the water and was drowned when checking the water potential of the Yellow River. After his death, he was regarded as the God of water by later generations, known as xuanming.

According to legend, after the death of Hou Ming of Shang Dynasty, Wang Hai, the eldest son, inherited the Marquis’s throne. Instead of being the shuizheng of the Xia Dynasty, he devoted himself to animal husbandry. He saw that his ancestors domesticated horses into tools for driving and carrying, which was very convenient to use. But at that time, horses were mainly produced in the north, relatively few in the Central Plains, and it was very difficult to raise, so horse training has not developed rapidly. Wang Hai tamed the cattle to drive and carry things. Cattle do not move as fast as horses, but cattle breed and domesticate faster than horses. In a short time, Wang Hai tamed a large number of cattle. As far back as 3000 years ago, most areas of the motherland were still crisscrossed with rivers, marshes and bunches, and trees. There was very little land to be developed. Many areas were still a world of birds, animals, insects and snakes.

It is not easy for various regions to communicate with each other because there are no roads and transportation is inconvenient. Even among the larger nations and tribes, there are only a few roads on land, and there is not much trade exchange between them. After Wang Hai tamed cattle as a means of transportation, he often drove cattle and sheep and local products (native products) carried by cattle and horses to exchange trade among various countries and tribes in the East. Because Wang Hai had many trade exchanges with various countries and tribes, everyone knew that he was a Shang and called him a businessman. Therefore, some scholars think that the people who do business in China are called “businessmen”, which is derived from the story of Wang Hai, a Shang nationality, who dressed as a cattle dealer.

According to legend, one year, Wang Hai, with his younger brother Wang Heng, led a team of Shang people, drove many cattle and sheep, carried the square goods exchanged from the East, crossed the Yellow River northward, and traveled a long way to a tribe called Youyi (in today’s Yixian and Xushui areas of Hebei Province). Some ancient books wrote Youyi as Youhu, because the ancient characters Yi and Hu were similar in shape, He intends to exchange some grain and square goods with the chief mianchen of Youyi tribe with cattle, sheep and square goods. The Minister of cotton was very happy to see that brothers Wang Hai and Wang Heng had brought a lot of things and cattle and sheep to sacrifice the river, Wang Xuan, and came from afar. He treated the guests to the Oracle ceremony and held a very grand banquet in honor of brother Wang Hai. In the course of the banquet, there was a joint performance of dry feather dance and modern music and songs to cheer up. The Shang people have been fond of drinking and drinking since their ancestors. The Wang Hai brothers drank a few more cups in the sound of singing and dancing. They were indiscreet about the women serving the banquet, which angered the Minister of cotton. He sent people to kill Wang Hai by night. The next day, they detained all the things, cattle and sheep brought by the Wang Hai brothers, and ordered Wang Heng and the Shang people to be driven out of the Youyi tribe. Wang Heng begged mianchen to return the cattle and sheep to him, but he failed, so he fled back to the business with his followers.

After Wang Heng returned to Shang Dynasty, he had to truthfully tell Shangjia, Wang Hai’s son and nephew, the story of Wang Hai’s murder. While blaming his uncle for his debauchery and harming his father, shangjiawei made up his mind to avenge his father. Shangjiawei is also called Wei in ancient books. Shangjia is the name given by the descendants of the Shang family in the ancestral temple, which is called the temple number. Wei is the name of Shangjia. Since Shang people went to Jiawei, they all used ten Heavenly stems as temple names: A, B, C, D, e, J, G, Xin, Ren and GUI. Shangjiawei wrote “Shangjia” in the oracle bone inscriptions. The king of Shang offered many sacrifices to Shangjia, and the ceremony was also very grand.

As a vassal state of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang family had a strong force when it was in phase with the earth, so it was able to expand its influence to the sea. However, since Chang Ruoshi, he has devoted himself to the production of agriculture and animal husbandry. After Ming became shuizheng of the Xia Dynasty, he was diligent in his duty to control river disasters all his life, but he did not pay attention to the organization and training of the Shang armed forces. Therefore, when shangjiawei decided to avenge Wang Hai, he felt that his force was not enough to deal with the Youyi tribe, so he turned to Fang Boyi Hebo, who lived in a country on the Bank of the Yellow River.


Because Hebo was also a square country of the Xia Dynasty, after Shaokang was appointed to govern the river by Ming, Hebo’s territory was near the Yellow River, which was also an area with more floods. It was controlled by Ming and the floods were eliminated. Hebo is very grateful and respectful to Ming, and has always maintained friendly relations with the Shang people. Hebo and Youyi’s mianchen have also been very friendly and have exchanges with each other. When Wang Hai was killed by the Minister of cotton in Youyi, Wang Xie of Xia knew it and ordered shangjiawei to inherit Wang Hai as the Marquis of Shang Dynasty. In order to avenge his father, Shang Hou shangjiawei sent someone to ask Hebo for help. At first, he Bo didn’t want to send troops. Later, shangjiawei went to him personally to complain about the killing of his father Wang Hai. Hebo also felt that Youyi’s cotton minister was an unjust man, so he agreed to help fight Youyi. After a period of preparation, shangjiawei also organized an armed team and sent some cattle and sheep to Hebo to reward the army. About one year in the middle of Xia Wang Xie’s reign, shangjiawei led a group of Shang people to fight Youyi with Hebo’s army. When Youyi’s chief mianchen learned that shangjiawei and Hebo’s troops were attacking him, he summoned leaders and organized resistance. The two armies fought on the Bank of Yishui.

The Shang Army wanted to avenge Wang Hai, and Hebo also wanted to do justice for Shang Hou Shen. All the soldiers were brave. The army of Youyi tribe could not resist it. It was defeated one after another, and finally completely defeated. Mianchen was also killed by the Shang army in the scuffle. Shangjiawei and Hebo divided the property of Youyi and the people of Youyi tribe. These prisoners became slaves of Shang and Hebo. In this way, Yi was destroyed by shangjiawei. Disclaimer: the above content originates from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If your original copyright is infringed, please inform us, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

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