Duyuesheng (left), zhangxiaolin (middle), huangjinrong (right)
Huangjinrong lived in seclusion and lived in peace. In the morning, he went to the teahouse and in the evening to the bathhouse, which is what people in Northern Jiangsu call “water in the morning and water in the evening”. Sometimes he went to the gate of his former industry “big world” to sweep the road and accept labor reform. In this way, he spent three years in obscurity and died.
Huangjinrong dies in Shanghai
Huangjinrong huangjinrong, with the word Jinyong, is a monk with a nickname. Originally from Yuyao, Zhejiang Province, he was born in 1868. When I was young, I worked as an apprentice in cuihuatang mounting shop of Chenghuang Temple in Shanghai. In 1892, he entered the French Concession as a house detective, and later became the chief inspector of the Chinese people. He was the first of the three tycoons in Shanghai. In April, 1927, the Chinese people’s Congress was organized to participate in the April 12 coup. Later, he was appointed major general of the Military Commission by Chiang Kai Shek. During the war of resistance against Japan, he made contact with the Japanese puppets in Shanghai, but did not fall into the water as a traitor. After the liberation of the whole country, he stayed in Shanghai because of old age and illness.
When Shanghai was liberated in 1949, Huang Jinrong, the famous leader of the youth gang and the head of the three hooligan tycoons, did not escape from Taiwan or go to Hong Kong, but unexpectedly stayed in Shanghai. He lives in the old house of junpeili, Longmen road. He lives in seclusion and thrives and spends his remaining years in peace. In the morning, he went to the teahouse and in the evening to the bathhouse, which is what people in Northern Jiangsu call “water in the morning and water in the evening”. Sometimes he went to the gate of his former industry “big world” to sweep the road and accept labor reform. In this way, he spent three years in obscurity and died.
In the year of Shanghai’s liberation, huangjinrong was 82 years old, frail and sickly. He claimed to be a disabled man. He knew that his future was numbered, so he made up his mind not to leave and stayed in Shanghai. He worried that if he really went to Taiwan or Hong Kong, he might die on the way. He would rather die in Shanghai than at sea. This is one of the main reasons why he stayed in Shanghai. What’s more, “it’s difficult to turn the sea into water”. In his whole life, he always responded to changes with constancy, and he actually saved himself from danger repeatedly. When the Japanese came in on August 13, the tycoons all rushed to the rear. It was said that duyuesheng, one of the three tycoons, flew to Hong Kong first and then to Chongqing, which was regarded as the “war of resistance” in the rear; Zhang Xiaolin simply fell into the water and became a traitor. As a result, he was shot dead. Only MAPI jinrongdu stays in Shanghai. What can the Japanese and Wangjingwei do to him? The Kuomintang is making a comeback, not to mention that although he is not as popular as Du Yuesheng, who came from behind, he has not been “killed” by Chiang Ching Kuo like Du. When he celebrated his 80th birthday in 1947, Chiang Kai Shek came to the Huang family garden to celebrate his birthday and kowtowed to him respectfully. This time, when the Communist Party won the world, he also had the courage to act according to the rules and said to people: “let fate take its course. Anyway, there is only one old life. Let the Communist Party do what it does to me. At my age, the Communist Party must speak about humanity.” Duyuesheng sent a letter from Hong Kong asking him to meet there and discuss big plans. It seemed that he had eaten a heavy weight and would not move.
As a matter of fact, Huang Jinrong already knew that the Communist Party would not embarrass him. Yang Hu, Huang’s old friend and former Songhu police commander, established contact with the underground Party of the Communist Party of China on the eve of liberation. According to the instructions of the underground party to stabilize the guild leader, he actively did Huang Jinrong’s work to strive for Huang to stay in Shanghai and atone for his crimes. This will play a great role in stabilizing the social order in Shanghai at the early stage of liberation and deterring the residual forces of the guild. Yang Hu said to him, “the leaders of the Communist party know you. As long as you don’t do bad things anymore, you can let bygones be bygones and won’t arrest you.” He also handed a note written by a certain leader to Huang, asking him to hand it over to the person in charge of Shanghai after liberation. Gongtianjian, Huang’s confidant, and huangqiming, Huang’s grandson, saw this note with their own eyes.
Mrs. zhangshizhao also brought a message from the Communist Party: as long as we support the Communist Party after liberation and are no longer enemies of the people, we will certainly be able to act in accordance with the policy of “let bygones be bygones”. I hope you will stay in Shanghai and do not act rashly. Huangjinrong looked forward and backward, weighed the pros and cons, and felt that staying in Shanghai was the best policy.
After settling down, huangjinrong asked someone to write a report on the property of the KMT and a roster of more than 400 leaders of the Qinghong Gang, which he gave to the Communist Party for reference. As a sign of atonement, he also warned his disciples to restrain themselves and leave a way for themselves. Then he ordered someone to take off and smash the plaque “Wen Xing Zhong Xing” inscribed by Chiang Kai Shek in the “four religious halls” of the Huang Family Garden (now Guilin Park) to show his intention of abandoning the secret, turning to the bright and turning back to the evil. During the eight year war of resistance against Japan, Huang buried this plaque deep in the ground, waiting for Chiang Kai Shek’s “victory” return. Now he dare not dream about it.
In the early days of the liberation of Shanghai, there were many things to be done. Considering the actual situation of the gang forces and Huang Jinrong, the military control commission decided to adopt the policy of “being strict with those who continue to do evil and lenient with those who redeem their sins” and treat them differently, so as to better and faster disintegrate and eliminate the remaining forces of the gang. For Huang himself, there is a specific assessment:
(1) affirming Huang’s past sins and being a bully fed by imperialism;
(2) however, Huang has stopped doing evil in recent years. After liberation, he bowed his head to the government and pleaded guilty, becoming disabled and old;
(3) we should adopt the strategy of struggle and disintegration against the reactionary guild forces, and adopt a lenient policy against Huang himself.
This is actually a way for Huang Jinrong to make a living and let him take a new path.
At that time, Shanghai citizens were puzzled that the government would not kill Huang Jinrong and let him “go unpunished”. They wrote letters to relevant departments and shouted for strict punishment. The CMC and the Shanghai Municipal People’s government have done a lot of work to explain this, and have held a public forum to publicize the relevant policies of the party and the government.
One afternoon, two jeeps drove to the gate of Huangzhai in junpeili. Du Xuan, the military representative appointed by the military control commission, led more than a dozen heavily armed PLA soldiers to lecture Huang Jinrong and announce policies. Seeing that the government did not arrest him, Huang felt relieved and repeatedly confessed: “I, Huang Jinrong, have done all kinds of bad things in Shanghai for decades, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, murder and kidnapping. Your army has not killed me. It is your army’s mercy.”
Huang Jinrong was old, his teeth fell off, and his accent was unclear. He had to be translated sentence by sentence by his apprentice to understand these words. Wearing a white silk coat and trousers, he stood trembling, supported by his two disciples. Then he took out from his arms the gold watch that Chiang Kai Shek had given him and gave it to Du, saying that it was handed over to the government. On the cover of this watch is engraved with the words: “master Jinrong is in favor of you, and Jiang Zhongzheng presents you with respect”.
Du Xuan finally said, “our policy is to be lenient when we confess, to be strict when we resist, and to receive awards for meritorious service. As long as we honestly stop all activities that are detrimental to the people, we can deal with past crimes leniently.”
Huangjinrong was submissive and did not dare to say anything more, as if at a loss. Du Xuan continued to warn him: “in the future, we must be honest. If we find you bullying the people and violating the people’s government again, we must bring you to justice strictly.”
At this time, Huang kept bowing and repeatedly said, “I promise I won’t do bad things any more &\8230;.”
Since then, Huang Jinrong stayed in seclusion at home, but asked about foreign affairs. The people’s government allowed him to operate the “big world”, “common stage” and “big stage” as usual, but he didn’t dare to make a public appearance and left it all to his disciples. In the morning, I was “water wrapped”. In the evening, I occasionally went to the gate of “big world” not far from home to sweep the road and accept labor reform. At that time, several newspapers in Shanghai published photos of huangjinrong sweeping the streets in a prominent position.
At the end of 1950, after the anti revolutionary movement began, the call to kill Huang Jinrong rose again. Huang Jinrong felt very afraid and even more worried. With the deepening of the movement, this fear is getting deeper and deeper, which can not be relieved, but there is nothing to do. Soon after, the Shanghai Municipal People’s government appointed shengpihua, meidajun and Fang Xingsan as representatives to summon huangjinrong and announce to him that his previous policies would remain unchanged. However, it hoped that he would write a “letter of repentance” and publish it in the newspaper to further explain to the people and bow his head to confess his guilt.
According to Mr. Fang’s recollection, Sheng Pihua was the vice mayor of Shanghai Municipal People’s government at that time. Mei Dajun was the Deputy Secretary General of the Municipal People’s Political Consultative Conference. He served as the Deputy Procurator General of the people’s procuratorial office. The place where Huang was summoned to talk was in a conference room of the Municipal People’s Political Consultative Conference. At that time, the CPPCC also worked in the peace hotel. Sheng Pihua knew Huang Jinrong well before liberation, so he basically took part in the handling of Huang Jinrong’s affairs, which was easier to stabilize Huang’s mood, so that he would not be too panicked or even unable to talk.
One day in early May of 1951, huangjinrong was accompanied by his student, chenyiting, President of Zhoushan fellow townspeople’s Association, and his grandson huangqingyu. Shengpihua first said, “some representatives at the NPC session lodged complaints and asked the government to deal with you. You have committed great crimes in your life, but you have not committed any evil in the years before liberation. After liberation, you can still keep your peace and be 86 years old (the original text should be 84 years old &\8211; the author’s note). You can first express your crimes to the people and then deal with them.”
Fang Xing went on to say, “the people’s complaint is correct. The fact that the people’s government has not dealt with you does not mean that you are not guilty. You should take the initiative to explain to the people. You can publish a letter of repentance in various newspapers and periodicals, which is to admit your sins, support government laws and regulations, and exhort the arrested party members to be sincere and frank, and perform meritorious service and reform; the unabated party members should perform meritorious service and reform to the government, so as to seek the people’s forgiveness.”
After hearing this, Huang Jinrong repeated the old tune and admitted that he had committed a great crime. He was willing to sincerely apologize to the people and seek lenient treatment from the government, and stressed: “I will never instigate or shield the party members from doing evil. If I instigate or shield the party members from doing evil, or fail to report information, I am willing to be severely punished by the government.”
After huangjinrong returned, he asked his secretary gongtianjian to write a letter of repentance. When he was a child, he only studied in a private school for a few years. Later, he became an apprentice in a framed painting shop. Later, he was admitted to the patrol room to work. Naturally, he is an old hand in killing people and stealing goods, but he has few pens. According to the main idea of Huang Jinrong’s dictation, Gong compiled a written document and discussed it twice. After reading it once, Huang himself signed his name at the end.
This manuscript of “repentance letter” written on rice paper has been well preserved so far and is now stored in the Shanghai Municipal Archives. However, the original of the repentance letter is titled “self confessed repentance letter”, which was renamed “huangjinrong confession letter” when it was published in Wen Wei Po and Xinwen Bao on May 20.