On Bai Qi’s Tragic Life

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A lifetime

Bai Qi, also known as Gongsun Qi, was born in the Warring States Period when the feudal lords were vying for annexation. The historical records on Bai Qi’s life began in the 13th year of Emperor Zhao of Qin (294 BC). Bai Qi, a senior general of Zuo Shu, attacked the new town of Korea (now the southwest of Yichuan County, Henan Province). Before that, there was no history to test.



Although there is no history to study Bai Qi’s deeds 13 years before King Zhao of Qin, according to the system of conferring nobility in the State of Qin at that time, Bai Qi was already in the army 13 years ago and had military achievements. At that time, there were two kinds of conferring system in the State of Qin, namely, military rank and duke. The military rank bestowed military merit on the duke, while the duke bestowed military merit on the duke. After the Shang Yang Reform, the granting of military merit became the first condition for the Qin State to grant a peerage. In history, there have been instances of civil servants taking the lead in war, but for the biographies of such figures, historical records will use a lot of space to record their civil affairs, such as Shang Yang’s Reform, Fan Ju’s theory of making friends at a distance and attacking at a close distance. There is no record of Bai Qi serving as a civil official in the history books, nor is there any record similar to that of joining the army. If Bai Qi was promoted to the rank of Zuo Shuchang, there was no possibility to grant a rank for meritorious service, only for military service. Bai Qi must have made military contributions, and he must have made contributions to defeating the enemy on the battlefield. It can be concluded that 13 years ago, King Zhao of Qin, Bai Qi had already been in the army and had made some military contributions.

In the 14th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, the prime minister of Qin “Wei Ranju rose white and made the generation attack Han and Wei from Shoujiang”. In that year, Bai Qi was promoted to Zuo Geng, instead of Xiang Shou, who commanded the Qin army to fight against the Han and Wei allied forces in Yique (a Longmen, now Nanlongmen Mountain, Luoyang, Henan). Bai Qi uses the mentality of “Han Gu Wei, not wanting to use his people first. Wei relies on Han Zhirui, and wants to push forward” to defeat each other. Kill two hundred and forty thousand Han and Wei allied troops, kill Wei General Xiwu, capture Han’s chief general Gongsun Xi, and pull out five cities. Bai Qi was promoted to a national captain because of his military achievements, and continued to lead the army to attack South Korea, “taking the east of Anyi, South Korea, to the Qinhe River”.

In the 15th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Bai Qi was promoted to Daliang, and led the army to attack the State of Wei and seize the wall city of Wei. (Also known as Wangyuan, now Wangmao Town, southeast of Yuanqu County, Shanxi Province)

In the 18th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Bai Qi attacked Wei again, taking 61 cities, big and small. After several heavy blows, Han and Wei were forced to seek peace everywhere: Han cut Wusui (now southwest of Linfen City, Shanxi Province, in the southeast of Yuanqu County, Shanxi Province) 200 li, Wei cut the river 400 li east and Qin.

In the 27th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Bai Qi attacked Zhao and pulled out the Wolf City. (Qincheng Village, 25 miles southwest of Gaoping City, Shanxi Province)

In the 28th year of King Zhao of Qin, King Zhao and King Huiwen of Zhao joined forces in Mianchi (now Zhucheng, 13 miles southwest of Mianchi County, Henan Province). King Zhao of Qin turned to target the Chu State, which threatened the Qin State from the south. Bai Qi encouraged the whole army with his determination to “burn the boat in the beam” and captured Yan (the site of the imperial city of Chu, fifteen miles southeast of Yichang, Hubei today), Deng (Dengcheng, northwest of Xiangyang, Hubei today), and Xiling (northwest of Yichang, Hubei today).

In the 29th year of Emperor Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Bai Qi attacked Chu again, captured the capital of Chu at that time, Ying (now Jinan City, ten miles northwest of Jingzhou District, Jingsha City, Hubei Province), and “burned Yiling (now the north bank of the Yangtze River in the southeast of Yichang City, Hubei Province), then reached Jingling in the east (now the northwest of Qianjiang City, Hubei Province),” forcing King Qingxiang of Chu to die and leave Chen (now Huaiyang County, Henan Province). Bai Qi was named Wu An Jun.

In the thirtieth year of Emperor Zhao of the Qin Dynasty, Yun Ziwan, the marquis of Shu, fought against Chu. Bai Qi and Zhang Ruo, the governor of Shu, attacked Chu and took Zuo, Wu and Jiangnan as Qianzhong Prefecture. Bai Qi ordered Zhang Ruo, the governor, to reject Chu.

In the 34th year of King Zhao of Qin, Wei and Zhao attacked Han, and Han begged Qin for help. Bai Qi and Wei Ran saved Han, defeated Wei and Zhao’s allied forces in Huayang (Huayangzhai, now 40 miles north of Xinzheng City, Henan Province), killed 130 thousand Wei troops first, and then fought with Zhao General Jia Yan, “Shen Qi killed 20 thousand soldiers in the river”.

In the forty fourth year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Bai Qi led the army to fight with the Han army in Xingcheng (also known as Xingting, Fenxing, now northeast of Quwo County, Shanxi Province), killing 50000 Han troops and capturing Xingcheng.

In the 45th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, “the wild king of Han Dynasty (now Qinyang City, Henan Province) was defeated, and the wild king descended to Qin”. Shangdang (southwest of Changzi County, Shanxi Province) was cut off, and the party above Feng Ting returned to Zhao. Qin and Zhao became enemies.

In the 47th year of the reign of Emperor Zhao of Qin, Qin sent Wang Peng to attack Zhao, and Zhao General Lianpo stood firm against Qin. Qin troops challenged him several times, but Lianpo did not go to war. Qin’s army was far away, which was not conducive to the lasting war. Fan Ju was rebelling against King Zhao and replaced Lianpo with Zhao Kuo, who only knew how to talk on paper. King Zhao of Qin secretly sent Bai Qi as the supreme general to fight with Zhao Jun in Changping (Wangbao Village, 20 miles northwest of Gaoping, Shanxi). Bai Qi took advantage of Zhao Kuo’s weakness of despising the enemy, led Zhao Kuo to send troops rashly, and broke his way with light cavalry, defeating Zhao’s army. Zhao Kuo was shot to death by indiscriminate arrows. Zhao’s 400000 soldiers fell to Qin. Bai Qi sent 240 of his small men back to Zhao. They were all severely killed. After the war in Changping, Bai Qi wanted to take advantage of his victory to destroy the State of Zhao. He ordered Wang Gui to attack Pilao (now Laozhai Village, twenty-five miles northeast of Yicheng County, Shanxi Province), Sima Gan to attack Taiyuan (now Taiyuan, Shanxi Province), and led his army to attack Handan (now Handan, Hebei Province), the capital of the State of Zhao. Zhao asked Fan Ju to enter the Qin Dynasty in the Su Dynasty and agreed with Zhao to secede and seek peace. Bai Qi has been at odds with Fan Ju ever since. Later, the state of Zhao did not keep its promise to cede territory. King Qin Zhao sent the mausoleum to attack Zhao again. After a long attack on Handan, Bai Qi was appointed as the general, and Bai Qi delayed his departure with illness. King Zhao of Qin asked Fan Ju to invite him again. Bai Qi analyzed the factors that led to Zhao’s ineffectiveness, and still couldn’t ask for help. King Zhao of Qin once again invited Bai Qi to “lie down and lead”. Bai Qi said that he would rather die than humiliate the general of the army. Bai Qi was therefore offended by King Zhao of Qin, so he was demoted to the rank of a scholar and expelled from Xianyang. In the fifty first year of King Zhao of Qin, on the way to Beijing, he was given a sword by King Zhao of Qin to commit suicide at Du You (now five miles northeast of Xianyang, Shaanxi).

World War II achievements

From the historical dialogue, Bai Qi’s life is almost always accompanied by war, and he has never failed. For the State of Qin, the main achievements of Bai Qi are as follows.

Greatly broadened the land of Qin

As for Bai Qi’s achievements in attacking cities, 75 cities are specifically recorded in historical records. In the 13th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, he captured the South Korean New Town; The 14 year Battle of the Yique was held in five cities; In fifteen years, the city of Wei National Wall was captured; In the 18th year, he attacked Wei and captured 61 cities of all sizes; In the 27th year, Zhao Baguang attacked the Wolf City; 28? The Yan Ying Battle in the 29th year captured five cities of Yan, Deng, Xiling, Ying and Yiling; In the 44th year of the Battle of Xingcheng, Xingcheng was captured.

But Baiqi’s achievements in land annexation go beyond that. After the war of the Yique, although there is no historical record of how much land Bai Qi plundered in Han and Wei, it can be seen from the “taking the land east of Anyi, Han, to the Qianhe River” that much land was gained in this war. When Wuqi was guarding the West River, the boundary of Wei reached the west of the river. At this time, the land seized by Baiqi reached the Qianhe River in the east, which is recorded in the Collection of Historical Records. It can be seen that Bai Qi not only captured the territory of Hexi, but also extended the boundary of Qin to Hedong. In the successive wars against Han and Wei, Han was forced to cut Wusui 200 li, Wei four hundred li east of the river and Qin. In the war in central Guizhou, he, together with Zhang Ruo and Sima Cuo, brought Ba, Shu and the upper reaches of the Yangtze River to the east into the territory of Qin. The battle of Changping almost killed Zhao.

Successfully implemented the strategy of Qin’s eastward and southward advancement

Qin is a small vassal state in the western border, surrounded by western armies. In order to build a country and develop, Qin must develop eastward, westward and southward. During the reign of Duke Mu of Qin, the State of Qin completed the task of moving westward, “thus dominating Xirong”. Duke Mu of Qin, who had completed the task of moving west, was old and unable to accomplish the hegemony of moving east and south. After Duke Mu, there was no outstanding monarch in the State of Qin. It was not until the Shang Yang Reform was carried out in the period of Duke Xiao of Qin that the State of Qin slowly regained its position as a powerful country. The two tasks of moving eastward and southward were not completed until the reign of Emperor Zhao of Qin, and Bai Qi was the most effective executor of these two tasks.

In the east of Qin, Han, Zhao and Wei divided into Jin. Although the land area became smaller, all countries became powerful countries due to the reform. Chu in the south has always been the largest power. In the Battle of the Yique, Baiqi hit Han and Wei hard, and forced them to surrender to the Qin State in subsequent wars. As for the State of Chu, there was a popular saying in the Warring States Period: Lian Heng was the King of Qin, and he Zong was the King of Chu. In the battle between Qin and Chu Yanying, Bai Qi defeated the Chu army and captured the capital of the Chu State, which made the Chu State depressed. The battle of Changping also caused the loss of 400000 elite soldiers of Zhao, which greatly weakened the comprehensive national strength of Zhao. Cai Zezeng said: “The Chu area is thousands of miles long and has a million halberds. Bai Qi marshals tens of thousands of troops to fight against Chu. In the first battle, Yan Ying was selected to burn Yiling, and then he fought in the south and the Shu Han Dynasty. The Yue Han and Wei attacked Zhao in Xinjiang, and the northern pit horse clothing killed more than 400000 people. All of them were bloodied and roared like thunder under Changping. So he entered Handan, making Qin an emperor. Chu and Zhao were the frontier states under the heaven, and Qin’s enemies were also enemies. Since then, Chu and Zhao were afraid to attack Qin, so they had a white rise.”

Yan and Qi compete for hegemony and lose each other.

It can be seen that the six opponents of Qin in theory, Bai Qi, have conquered four, and these four are exactly the most competitive opponents of Qin, laying a solid foundation for Qin to finally unify the six countries.

III. Operational Characteristics

As a military general, his meritorious service depends on the war, and his mission is to successfully implement the principles and policies formulated by the monarch and advisers on the battlefield. Bai Qi did it. He lived with the war without failure. Throughout his life, Bai Qi’s operational characteristics are as follows.

Before the war, we should strive to know ourselves and the enemy, and fight only when there is a chance of victory. After the war in Changping, when Fan Ju asked Bai Qi to attack Zhao, Bai Qi’s analysis of attacking Zhao Wugong fully illustrated this point.

Fan Ju said: The Chu area is 5000 li long, holding a million halberds. Tens of thousands of people in front of the emperor enter the Chu, pull out Yan and Ying, and burn their temples. Bai Qi said to him: When the Chu State relied on its great power, it did not sympathize with its government, while its officials greeted each other and attacked each other, flattering and using things. It can be seen that Bai Qi had a thorough understanding of the enemy before the war.

After the mausoleum attacked Zhao Handan fruitlessly, King Zhao of Qin wanted to make Prince Wu’an take the place of the mausoleum general. Prince Wu’an said, “Handan is not easy to attack, and the princes have saved the day. The other princes have complained about Qin for a long time. Although Qin broke Changping’s army today, more than half of Qin’s soldiers died. It is empty at home, and far away from rivers and mountains, it is the capital of the country. Zhao should be in it, and the princes must break Qin’s army.”.

In the end, I would rather die than be a humiliating general than go to war.

The goal is to capture important cities. It has been analyzed that the main objective of white rise warfare is not to capture cities and territories, which is not agreed. Since ancient times, wars have been aimed at plundering wealth and land. Bai Qi lived in the Warring States Period, an era in which various feudal lords competed for annexation. In addition, I have spent my whole life attacking seventy-five cities and plundering more than a thousand miles of land. Why not aim at attacking cities and plundering land? The battle of Yique is to capture Hangu Pass, a strategic place, as the goal. In the war in central Guizhou, Baiqi attacked Zuo, Wu and Jiangnan as the prefectures of central Guizhou, and Baiqi ordered Zhang Ruoshou to reject Chu. This shows that Bai Qi does not aim at conquering cities and territories. He just ignores cities and lands that have no strategic significance, and attaches great importance to cities and lands that have important strategic significance.

Emphasize the war of annihilation, and do not compromise the means to achieve the goal of annihilation. From the beheading table of Bai Qi, we can see that Bai Qi was aiming at annihilation. More than 400000 Zhao soldiers were surrendered to Qin in the Changping War. Bai Qi was afraid of Zhao’s repeated actions. He “cheated and treated them with great respect”, leaving only 240 young people. In order to capture Yan City, the water from the West Changgu was diverted to irrigate the city, causing numerous deaths and injuries to soldiers and civilians in the city. The Battle of Huayang and the Battle of Yique also won by pursuing the enemy when he had already lost.

We should attach importance to the fortifications in the field, first lure the enemy away from the fortified positions, and then stop the enemy in the expected areas of annihilation to prevent them from breaking through, so as to achieve the goal of annihilating the enemy. In the battle of Changping, Bai Qi first tricked Zhao Kuo out of the battlefield, then cut off the road behind him and completely annihilated Zhao’s army.

Pay attention to psychological warfare. Bai Qi attached great importance to the soldiers’ psychology in the army. When attacking Chu, Bai Qi encouraged the soldiers’ morale with his firm determination to win. In order to make the soldiers have a good psychological state, Bai Qi paid attention to the unity of generals and soldiers in the army, and made the soldiers take the army as their home and the general as their parents. So when Bai Qi died, Sima Jin, Sima Cuo’s grandson, was also willing to die with him. The White Rise of Changping Battle strictly prohibits the officers and men in the army from disclosing the secret of changing him to be a general, so as to prevent Zhao Kuo from paying attention to the enemy and promote his mentality of belittling the enemy. Because at that time, his reputation was too great. Before the war, King Zhao once said, “The soldiers of Qin will come, and the Lord Wu’an will, and who can be”. Bai Qi’s secrecy finally fooled Zhao Kuo, who easily sent troops to destroy the whole army.

Evaluation of Four Generations

Since ancient times, famous generals and beauties have shared the same fate, and the world is not allowed to see white heads. Changping was so famous that Baiqi’s dazzling glory on the battlefield came to an end. However, history does not stop with the passing of people, and the merits and demerits will be evaluated by later generations. Ren Erdi’s ministers, heroes and talents, or villagers in the mountains, or people living in seclusion are all hard to escape from later generations. Most people praise Bai Qi’s military ability and achievements, but hate his killing.

The praise of Bai Qi’s military talent can be seen from the way people call him “God of War”. His achievements were recognized by the world while he was alive. When Fan Ju was fighting against him in the Su Dynasty, he said, “The achievements of Zhou, Zhao and Lv Wang in capturing the army of Zhao Kuo in the south, Ying, Yan and Hanzhong in the south and the army of Zhao Kuo in the north, won’t benefit Qin’s victory over more than 70 cities.”. Although this is the statement of the Su Dynasty that Fan Ju fought against him in order to save Zhao, it is true and there is no exaggeration. Fan Ju is an expert of the villains. How could he not know that this is a villain’s plan. It is true that Bai Qi has done such a good job and is superior to himself. Fan Ju is also a “person who must repay”. Of course, he will not let Bai Qi threaten his position because of his high achievements. Qin Zhaoxiang, Wang Xiangguo, Cai Ze once said “Chu has thousands of miles and millions of halberds. Bai Qi marshals tens of thousands of troops to fight against Chu. Yan Ying was chosen to burn Yiling in the first battle, and then he fought in the south and Shu Han. Yue Han and Wei attacked Zhao in Xinjiang, and the horse suit in the north pit killed more than 400000 people. All of them were under Changping. They bled and roared like thunder. So they entered Handan, making Qin an emperor. Chu and Zhao were the border states of the world, and Qin’s enemies were also enemies. Since then, Chu and Zhao were afraid to attack Qin, and Bai Qi’s momentum was also strong.” ? After Bai Qi’s death, “the people of Qin pitied him, and all the villages and towns were worshipped as gods”. Because of Bai Qi’s contribution, Bai Qi had no contribution to Qin people. Why did Qin people feel so pity and respect him. Qin Shihuang also “thought of the merits of Bai Qi and granted his son Zhong in Taiyuan”. Professor Wang Qichang also said when commenting on Bai Qi: “If you can make a successful decision, the unification of Qin will not wait for the beginning of the emperor.”. It is a pity that King Zhao of Qin refused to adopt the policy of Bai Qi and insisted on attacking Zhao. After his failure, he turned his anger to Bai Qi and killed him.

“Later generations often praise his skillful use of troops, while ridicule his excessive killing”. The evil of white rise killing does not lie in the praise of its military achievements and military talents. There are many bad names about Bai Qi, such as killing gods, killing people, fighting demons, killing kings, bloodthirsty war gods, and bloodthirsty fanatics. Some even call him the father of Bai Wuchang. Among them, “Rentu” is quite famous. Although the source cannot be found, Professor Lin Jianming also mentioned that Bai Qi had this title in the Qin History Draft, and called him a general who killed people without blinking. It is also known from the First Skill List in the History of Qin Dynasty that Bai Qi’s decapitation was as much as 90000, but this is just an incomplete record of Bai Qi’s killing. It records that: the battle of Yique was 240000, the battle of Guanglang City was 20000, the battle of Huayang was 150000, the battle of Xingcheng was 50000, and the battle of Changping was 45000. However, the battle of New City, the battle of Yanying, the battle of Qianzhong and the battle of Handan were not recorded, More than a million people have lost their lives from Bai Qi. The term “human slaughter” is not a fabrication.

In addition, the origin of Shanxi Gaoping braised tofu can also reflect people’s hatred of Bai. In today’s Gaoping County, Shanxi Province, there is a famous snack&# 8211; Braised Tofu with Soy Sauce. Gaoping braised bean curd is also called Baiqi meat. It is said that in order to commemorate the Changping War, the local people compared the baked bean curd to the white heart and liver, and compared the bean curd residue and crushed garlic to the white brain. They ate the white liver and brain to solve the people’s hatred.

5. Reasons for being spurned

No one can compare with Bai Qi’s achievements in war and military ability, but he was spurned by the world and wanted to eat his liver and brain. The reasons are no more than two.

One is that people’s hatred for geography has grown white. During the Warring States Period, China had not yet formed a unified situation, and naturally there was no unified national consciousness. For the people of all countries at that time, Bai Qi was a foreigner. Even if Bai Qi’s military achievements were brilliant, he was also an aggressor. Why should people respect an aggressor? Gaoping was the place of Changping in the past. More than 400000 relatives were killed in the pit. Even if they were not related by blood, they would still have local feelings. The contrast between the Qin people and Baiqi’s “all villages and towns are sacrificial” is enough to show that the geographical sentiment is one of the reasons why people hate Baiqi.

Second, Baiqi did kill too much, and the means were too cruel. For example, in the Battle of Yan Ying, in order to break through Yan City, they did not hesitate to irrigate the city with water, resulting in “countless soldiers and civilians drowned in the city, and the east of the city is smelly”. The battle of Changping is an act of killing and surrendering injustice, which is rare in the world.

Reasons for Six Elements Killing

Bai Qi is not a ruthless and cold-blooded killer. He also made King Zhao of Qin sympathize with the people and treat the people leniently. He has always blamed himself for the killing of Changping Pit. As the saying goes, “When a man is going to die, his words are also good”. Before his death, Bai Qi thought of killing in Changping Pit and said with emotion, “I should die. In the battle of Changping, hundreds of thousands of Zhao soldiers fell. I cheated and killed them.” So he committed suicide. It can be seen that Bai Qi thinks he is guilty of killing Changping Pit. He knows he can’t do it. Why should he do it?

First, it was related to the laws of Qin State at that time. After Shang Yang’s reform, military achievements became the primary condition for conferring nobility, and the method of calculating military achievements was to cut down the enemy’s heads. “Five people came to the company, and one feather was lighter than four people. If you can get one, you will recover.” That is, if one person died in the company and four people could not be saved, you will be punished. If you want to avoid punishment, you will have to cut down one enemy’s head to compensate. According to the records in the Cambridge Chinese History, Zhao lost only 50000 people before the Changping Pit was killed. According to the Records of the Historian, more than half of Qin’s soldiers were killed and wounded in the battle of Changping, and King Zhao of Qin said that Hanoi had “learned from Changping in the 15th year”. It can be seen that Qin’s troops in Changping battlefield were quite large, which should be equivalent to Zhao’s troops. In the case of 400000, about 25 Qin’s troops were killed and injured in the battle of Changping. That white rise was not only futile but guilty in this war. In order to avoid being punished, only those who surrender will be punished. In addition, the officers and soldiers also asked Bai Qi to kill Zhao Zhu. According to the Records of the Historian, Bai Qi planned to kill Zhao Zhu. There is a sense of scheming, as well as of summing up and discussing. At this time, Zhao Zhu had already surrendered, so he didn’t need to plan murder. So I speculated that it was a matter of calculation and discussion. It is natural for Baiqi to count and discuss with others.

Second, it was determined by the conditions of civilization in the Warring States Period. The Warring States Period was still in the coexistence period of slavery and feudalism. The Qin State still had a slavery system. Slaves were just a symbol of wealth and a tool of labor. Professor Wu Rongzeng also pointed out in the Research on the History of the Pre Qin and Han Dynasties that “in the eyes of the ruling class, criminals and slaves cannot be regarded as human beings”. At that time, prisoners of war were almost always turned into slaves and rewarded to meritorious officials. Their humble status made their lives can be arbitrarily deprived in the eyes of their masters.

Third, the customs of the Qin nationality. The Qin people retained the custom of revenge by blood relatives. Revenge by blood is mainly for our own people. After the reform of Shang Yang, five families in his neighborhood were taken as the primary security, and he was organized into a team during the war. Therefore, almost all the people in the team were of the same clan. When one person in the team was killed, the other four people had the obligation to avenge him. In addition, the Qin people also advocated masculine and martial virtues, “people were afraid of private fights and brave in public wars”. In addition, there is the temptation of military achievements, However, the military achievements “are extremely avaricious and ruthless. They are domineering and murderous, making the people also fierce. They have torn away the hypocritical veil of a benevolent and just government, leaving only naked butcher’s knife waving and cruel laws, which have plunged the broad peasant class into the abyss of deep suffering. The whole system of conferring titles is nothing more than feeding a group of cannibal wolves”.

Fourth, the pressure of war. The purpose of war is to weaken the strength of the other party so that they can seize the interests they want from the other party. In this regard, if Bai Qi released the 400,000 Zhao soldiers back to Zhao, it would be another 400,000 Zhao troops for Zhao. In the next war between Qin and Zhao, Qin would face 400,000 brave men. How could Qin realize its own interests? The book said, “It is better to cultivate virtue than to kill harm”, not to mention war. Maybe we would think that bringing these 400000 people back to the State of Qin would be 400000 strong laborers, which would be good for the development of the State of Qin. However, how will such a huge team end up in the domestic turmoil. Before Bai Qi killed Zhao in the pit, he said: “Zhao Zhu is repeatedly killed, and he is afraid of chaos.” This shows that Bai Qi did not think about these problems. But war is war after all, and we are desperate for our own interests. For the benefit of the State of Qin, Baiqi had to kill people with pain, for which he also left a name of shame.

VII. Tragic Destiny

Since ancient times, generals have hated nothing. They either died in battle or died in a horse’s clothing; Or they will be suspected and will not end well. In history, after all, only Zhao Kuangyin released his military power by drinking. Bai Qi was so impressed by many countries and took more than 70 cities in his life. He successfully carried out the strategic policy of moving south and east for the State of Qin. He made great contributions, but he also went back to Du You. After his death, he was still blamed for hundreds of times.

Not only the life of Bai Qi is tragic, but also Li Mu, Meng Tian, Han Xin, etc. In the final analysis, it is all because of war. Because the essence of war is nothing more than that ambitious people put their ambitions into practical action. War arises from ambition. When careerists expand their ambitions for power, land, wealth, women and energy and put their ambitions into action, war breaks out. If one party wants to satisfy its own ambition and defend its own interests, conflicts will follow. At this time, the soldiers of the aggressor became the tools of the careerists, while the soldiers of the defender became the guardians of the people’s interests. However, in most cases, soldiers will not always play a single role as tools or guardians. Even in the same war, the role of soldiers will also change. When the aggressor wins, the role of soldiers remains unchanged, the aggressor’s soldiers become tools, and the defeated’s soldiers are guardians of the interests of the country and the people; However, when the aggressor is defeated, the rulers of the original guardian are often unable to resist the temptation of victory, and their ambition to occupy the land, wealth, etc. of the aggressor will slowly expand. Finally, the ambition overcomes everything and becomes a new careerist. Soldiers who used to act as guardians often listen to the lies of the rulers at this time. In order to revenge, get some benefits from the aggressors, and compensate for the losses caused by the aggressors, the war that should have ended continued, and the roles of soldiers on both sides also changed. The former soldiers of the aggressor have become guardians of the interests of the country and the people, while the former soldiers of the defender have become tools of new careerists. Soldiers take obeying orders as their bounden duty. Driven by careerists, most soldiers can only choose to obey orders reluctantly, which is doomed to be tragic.

Eight epilogue

Guardians are heroes. They defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country at the cost of their lives and protect the interests of the people from foreign aggression. They are worthy of respect and should be respected. At this time, the war made soldiers, turning them from unknown people to heroes admired by all. Of course, in the absence of war, the guardians are still sacred, but they lost the opportunity to become ordinary and great.

The war also made the aggressors successful. They met the ambition needs of the rulers and were rewarded. He has been engaged in an aggressive war all his life and won the title of Wu An Jun with brilliant results. The family is famous because of it, and his wife and children have no worries about food and clothing. He has won countless benefits for the State of Qin, and is also respected by the people of the country.

However, the war also destroyed the soldiers, and many ancient and modern clandestine people died in foreign lands because of the war. They died on the battlefield, died on horseback, and sometimes even threw themselves into the wilderness. Many of them are unfortunate enough to become the tools for the rulers to meet their ambitions, leaving their children behind and making their relatives afraid. Maybe they have the opportunity to become wives and sons and become heroes in the hearts of people. However, the rulers can easily deprive them of the gifts they have received, and even their families will be involved and face life worries. Bai Qi changed from Wu An Jun to Shi Wu and was forced to commit suicide. There are many emperors who have killed the founding fathers and joined the nine ethnic groups.

War makes and destroys soldiers. Only wish there would be no war in the world.

Reference: Historical Records by Sima Qian ? Rang Hou Lie’s Biography, Historical Records ? Biography of Baiqi Wang Jian, Historical Records ? Fan Ju, Cai Ze’s Biographies, Wang Qichang’s History of Qin, Ma Feibai’s History of Qin, Jiang Lihong’s Taper Finger of Shang Jun’s Book, Wu Rongzeng’s Research on the History of the Pre Qin and Han Dynasties, and Gao Min’s Collection of the History of Qin and Han Dynasties.

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