On marriage system culture in Xia Dynasty

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The marriage system and marriage customs of polymorphic women in Yiyu period

The Xia Dynasty is not far away from the primitive society, inheriting the legacy of the clan period, and marriage is still polymorphic and colorful in the transitional stage, but it also shows the distinctive mark of the class society.

As early as the eve of the emergence of the state in the Xia Dynasty, the inherent mechanism of clan organization has been increasingly lax and disintegrated due to the hierarchical differences within the clan and the unfair distribution of social wealth. In terms of marriage system, it is also subject to frequent impact brought by social changes.

The site of Taosi in Xiangfen, Shanxi Province, is located within the area called “summer ruins” in the literature. More than 700 tombs of the late Longshan culture have been found here, all of which are earth pits and vertical tombs of the same color. There are no tombs where many people are buried together, and there is no phenomenon that the bones are randomly dumped in ash pits or ash layers. Most of the tombs, with their heads to the southeast, obviously have the nature of a clan public cemetery. According to the distribution and arrangement of tombs, several tombs of different large families can be subdivided. Only through the appearance of tombs, we can find that the consumption economic principle of common labor and equal distribution within the clan no longer exists. Although the clan members are buried in one place, about 87% of the narrow tombs have almost no funerary objects. Different from this, there are about 13% of the large and medium-sized earth pit vertical tomb in the cemetery, and some funerary objects are as many as hundreds. It can be seen that the social distribution is unfair, and a large amount of wealth has been collected into the hands of these few large family nobles. These people not only had a high social status, but also enjoyed the privilege of polygamy. Medium sized tombs of the same period are often distributed on both sides of some large tombs. For example, there are two medium-sized tombs on the left and right sides of m3002, m3016 and M2001. The dead are women, wearing exquisite inlaid headdresses, arm decorations, burial painted pottery bottles and other objects.

M2001 two medium-sized tombs, the dead were women aged 25 and 35-40, respectively. Judging from the tomb location, they should be the wives and concubines of the tomb owner. Polygamy varies from tomb to tomb and is buried ?. In the m527 Tomb of Dongxiafeng site in Xia County, Shanxi Province, a husband and two women were also found buried together in the same cave ?.

According to relevant data, the age of first marriage of ancient women was generally about 15 years old. For example, in the Third Tomb area of Yangshao site in Jiangzhai, Lintong, Shaanxi Province, a one-time joint burial tomb of ml58 was found. The mother’s age is about 20 years old, and the child’s age is 6-7 years old. It can be inferred that the mother’s childbearing age is only about 14 years old. Ml81 mother and son are buried together in the same tomb area. It is a 30-year-old woman and a 13-15-year-old child. The mother’s childbearing age is also about 15 ?. “The book of rites · internal rules” says: “women have hairpins for five years in ten”. “Mozi Jie Yong I” said: “the former holy king said for the law: the husband is 20 years old, do not dare not leave home; the woman is 15 years old, do not dare not leave others.” “Han Feizi, the Foreign Reserve said the lower right” said: “the husband married at 20, and the woman married at 15.” From this point of view, the relationship between the tomb owner of Taosi M2001 and the two wives and concubines buried in different caves seems to have been married for about 10 and 20 years respectively. When the noble man of the clan married a young woman in her later years, the former wife was only 25-30 years old, just in her prime. The two women were married together. They had equal family status and had rich funeral objects after their death. It was not obvious that there had been any marital divorce that liked the new and hated the old. Although they are subordinate to their husbands, their social status is significantly higher than that of other ordinary members of the clan. Polygamy, which was popular in the aristocratic class at that time, was not purely out of the need of men to vent their sexual desire, but rather expressed the Convention of the clan’s powerful status, or out of uniting other clans in the tribal community, marrying powerful women in their clan to maintain it.

However, before and after the founding of the Xia Dynasty, the remnants of matriarchy were still frequently entangled with patriarchy. The Dongxiafeng site has both a mother son joint burial tomb (m510) and a father son joint burial tomb (m528), which is a clear reflection. The fighting relationship between the two is sometimes very sharp. It is said that Xia Yu’s father “Fu Fu Sheng Yu Bao” ? “Du Jiao” > “Hai Nei Jing”), and “Tian Wen” asked suspiciously, “Bo Fu Yu, why has my husband changed?” ? He is a man, how can he have children? Therefore, some people suspect that he is Yu’s mother, not a man. However, the spring and Autumn period of Wu and Yue, the biography of King Wuyu of Yue, says: “he married the daughter of Youxin, named nvxi”; “Shiben” said: “he married a Xin’s daughter, which is called nvzhi”; “Emperor’s century” said: “my wife, I saw the meteors, my dream connected with my feelings, and swallowed the God beads and gave birth to Yu.” He is a husband with a wife. The legend says clearly that if a woman has children, Tianwen won’t ask questions. In fact, what Tianwen asks is a historical phenomenon that civilized people cannot understand. The abdomen of “Bo Fu Yu” should be like the poem “Gu Feng Liao e”: “the father begets me, the mother bows me, breeds me, nurtures me, cares for me, and goes in and out of the abdomen”, Zheng Jian: “the abdomen, the hug is also”, Kong Shu: “put it in the abdomen, so it is a hug.” The change of “why change” also refers to the matter of lactation. “Birds and animals breed tail” in the Yao code, which notes: “emulsification breeds tail, and handover breeds tail.” Abdomen and metaplasia refer to things after the baby is born. Yan Yu is a man. How can he pretend to be a midwife with a breast?

This kind of cultural relic is not uncommon among some ethnic minorities. “Taiping Guangji” Volume 48 contains three: “there are Liao women in the south, who get up after giving birth, and their husbands lie in bed and eat like milk women”; It also contains: “the more vulgar, his wife or son, after three days of bathing in the river, return, with MI to pay his son-in-law, the son-in-law hugs the bed, holds the baby, and sits on the bed, which is called the midwife.” “Yunnan Chronicles” records that Dai “women give birth, wash and wrap them in swaddling clothes, the pregnant woman stands up to work, and the husband of the pregnant woman holds her son and stays in bed for 40 days.” Some scholars pointed out that the custom of producing Weng was the product of the emergence of patriarchy. After his wife gave birth, the husband adopted the posture of imitating women to give birth and breastfeed babies, so as to achieve the purpose of confirming and maintaining the father son blood relationship and strengthening patriarchy ?. “Yu born in the belly” doesn’t mean that he pretends to be a producer? This practice of enslaving women and weakening and replacing women’s traditional family status is essentially a reflection of the struggle between patriarchy and the old matriarchal system. Of course, it was opposed by Yao and Shun, who maintained the clan system. Yao denounced “killing the clan for human life”, that is, destroying the code of conduct of the matriarchal clan. Shun also used the excuse to “control the water without shape, but die in Yushan”.

If you are a loser trying to weaken the legacy of the traditional matriarchal marriage system, yu should be said to be successful in this regard. Yu was the founder of a new era in the Xia Dynasty. His marriage was full of matrilineal aftertaste that remained during the transition from patriarchy to patriarchy. Yu once followed the old customs and married an identified clan woman, who lived a visiting marriage life. “Warring States policy – Zhao CEER” said that “in the past Shun danced with seedlings, while Yu bared himself to the naked country”, “raising desires and being happy”; “Lu spring and autumn · Gui Yin” also says: “Yu’s naked country, naked into clothes, because also.” Yu entered the naked country and undressed naked. It goes without saying that his men and women were like each other. This kind of “naked in clothes out” visiting marriage is a naked combination of the two sexes. There is no common basis for economic life, and both men and women do not have to stick to the principle of “spring from spring outing night”. Yu’s spouse is more than one, and the legendary Tu Shan woman is one of them.

Yu’s love and marriage with Tu Shan’s daughter had a selfish “wild marriage”. According to the “Heaven asked” cloud: “Yu’s power to contribute, reduce the earth, how can you get that Tu Shan woman, and pass it to TAISANG.” TAISANG, a place name, is probably located near Tushan, The nature is similar to that in “poetry · wind · sangzhong”: “I’m in sangzhong”, and men and women of different clans “can’t help running” ?, which is a wild place for men and women to have a tryst and commit adultery. Yu and Tu Shan’s daughter met each other in TAISANG and shared the love of “wild marriage”. The two people were deeply in love, and when they didn’t meet again, Tu Shan’s daughter actually had a soft heart and sang with singing. Lu’s spring and autumn · Yinchu described: “When Yu performed martial arts, he saw the daughter of Mount T. when Yu did not meet him, he toured the southern part of the province. The daughter of Mount t ordered his concubine to wait for Yu in the sun of Mount T. The daughter sang a song, saying: wait for people to come to Yi.” According to this passage, the relationship between Yu and Tu Shan’s daughter has developed from an accidental “wild marriage” to a visiting marriage between clans. In Tu Shan’s clan, Yu met Tu Shan’s daughter and had other concubines, namely other spouses. “Tu Shan’s daughter made her concubine wait for Yu”. It can be seen that a husband has several spouses, and the relationship between spouses is harmonious. There is no jealousy yet, and it has not affected Tu Shan’s attachment to Yu, “waiting for others, Xiyi”, Sang the tender and sentimental side of Tu Shan woman.

It seems that the marriage relationship between Yu and Tu Shan woman was later transformed from a non frequent visiting marriage to a relatively stable dual marriage. According to the “Wu Yue spring and Autumn Period: The Legend of King Wuyu of Yue”, Yu said, “Yu didn’t marry at thirty. When he came to Tu Shan, he was afraid of the twilight of the time and lost his degree system. He said, ‘I will marry, and there will be a response…’. Yu married Tu Shan, so he was called a beautiful girl, and took xinrenguijia.” The note quoted from the spring and Autumn Annals of the Lu family: “Yu married Tu Shan’s daughter, did not harm the public with his own interests, and returned to flood control from Xin to Jia for four days.” Xinrenguijia is the 10th anniversary. Yu and Tu Shan female privately agreed that Yu would go to the female clan every six days to live with Tu Shan female for four consecutive days. This was probably due to the sexual abstinence habit of dual marriage at that time, on the other hand, it was also related to the male’s social affairs; However, the fixation of the man’s commitment to the woman’s clan shows that the emotional factor is an internal motivation that cannot be ignored when visiting marriage turns into dual marriage. In Yu’s era, due to the increase of social wealth and the intensification of private ownership, the social role of men is increasingly strengthened, and the marriage and family systems of many clans have been transformed into patriarchy, which can be found in the aforementioned pottery Temple site. Probably due to the imbalance in development, the Tu Shan clan is still in the stage of matrilineal system, but the marriage between Tu Shan’s daughter and Yu is still subject to the impact of the whole social change. Yan shigu’s annotation in the annals of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Wu, quoted Huainan Zi as saying: “Yu governed the flood, passed through the mountains, and turned into a bear. It was said that Tu Shan said, ‘if you want to pay, you will hear the sound of the drum.’ Yu jumped the stone and mistakenly hit the drum. Tu Shan went to see Yu as a bear, and was ashamed to go, and turned into a stone at the foot of Song Mountain. Yu said, ‘return to my son,’ and the stone broke through the north and began to rise.” Bear is the totem of Yu clan. Yu and Tu Shan’s daughter originally lived a matrilineal dual marriage life of husband’s residence, but this story records that Tu Shan’s daughter went to the Yu clan of bear totem to live in husband’s residence instead, which is really unusual. It seems that the affectionate Tu Shan woman, who was afraid to enter the family of husband, did not have the courage to cross the secular barrier of matriarchal marriage, and finally became a martyr. However, the return of Qi to Yu, after all, made Yu obtain the confirmation of the father son blood relationship, and was competing with the matriarchal marriage system for the priority of son birth? There is no doubt that he is a success ? Excuse me?

Yu’s marriage, once haunted by Tu Shan’s daughter, showed a polymorphic color in the transition stage from matriarchy to patriarchy. However, Yu himself seemed to enjoy the privilege of polygamy under the patriarchy because of the hierarchical differentiation within the clan and the expansion of personal power. According to the literature, “Yu Bei palace, hanging in the canal, used by hundreds of valleys, the divine dragon, Linggui clothes, the jade lady, and concubines from heaven.” ? By virtue of his prominent social and political position in the tribal alliance, Yu not only held a large amount of economic production surplus accumulation, but also recruited the tetragonal tribe of “Shenlong Zhi, Linggui Fu” through marriage. “The jade girl cherishes a concubine from heaven” may be used to illustrate the success of this polygamous political marriage. This is in contrast to the fact that the male dignitaries in the clan found at the Taosi site also had a number of gorgeous ladies as wives, which reveals the significance of the polygamy of tribal dignitaries in that period and the general rules of their marriage and family composition.

In short, in the process of the establishment of the Xia Dynasty, the marriage of Xian and Yu represented the changes of marriage customs in different periods before and after the transition period of patriarchy replacing matriarchy. It has a universal significance in a wide range of society and closely echoes the evolution of social form. Through various historical rumors, it is possible to find out the internal development track.

The atmosphere of royal marriage in the second Xia Dynasty

In the Xia Dynasty, the patriarchal patriarchal clan organization was strengthened to a certain extent. Yu Ziqi, who “first passed on his father’s nobility, is the foundation for the rule of his predecessor”, ? was a key figure in the creation of the Xia Dynasty. He was far more determined than Yu in rejecting matriarchy and establishing a patriarchal social system.

“Mozi feileshang” said, “excessive pleasure”. From the perspective of historical biography, there are at least two things that can be seen that what the Xia king did has a profound historical connotation of social development. One is “Qi Ji bin Shang (emperor) ?, nine debates and nine songs” mentioned in “Tian Wen” It is urgent to read thorns, which means many times ?. This is what the book of mountains and seas · great wilderness West Sutra said: “open (open) the three concubines in heaven, and get nine arguments and nine songs below”. Guo Pu noted: “concubines, women also, speak and offer beautiful women to the emperor of heaven.” While improving the authority of patriarchal rule, women have repeatedly become the object of enlightenment and power, and have even been arbitrarily used as sacrifices. This was intolerable in the era of matriarchy, marking the establishment of patriarchy, which was based on the enslavement of women from its beginning. The other is also the “Qi” mentioned in “Tian Wen” that “Qin Zi slaughtered his mother and died unexpectedly.” The specific historical facts are unknown, but generally speaking, “Qin Zi” indicates that Qi has established the paternal system of passing on children, and “Tu Mu” symbolizes the disastrous defeat of matriarchy in the confrontation between the sexes.

However, in the Xia Dynasty, the matrilineal society was fully transformed into a patriarchal society. After all, the original internal structure of the clan was still quite strong. The patriarchal group was represented by the patriarchal family externally, but the bond connecting its internal relations was often still matrilineal ?. The loss of King Taikang of the Xia Dynasty was due to the loss of the support of the Royal wife family, which was an obvious example. According to Chu Ci Li Sao, “Xia Kangyu indulges himself, regardless of the difficulty of getting behind, and the five sons lose their homes.” Yang Xiong’s “zongzhengqing proverb” said: “in the summer, Taikang was disrespectful, and there were still two daughters and five sons.” “Lu Shi · Hou Ji 13 Shang” said that Taikang “Ye Biyu Yinsheng”, “general travel death degree”, “Jue brother five people resist his mother with from apricot and Kui Tingli” ancient mother and wife are synonymous. According to the clan structure, “five people control their mother” refers to the kinship group formed by the wife clan of Taikang royal family and five sub clans or brother clans. Taikang didn’t want to worry about the royal family, but also had fun with the two girls. Finally, he was abandoned by the kinship group. Externally, it seemed to be a loss of the country, and internally, it broke the kinship bond that maintained the royal family.

Mr. Gu Xiangang once pointed out that from the patriarchal clan society to the slavery society, women are a sum of property in the clan and clan. In a society with underdeveloped production, it is not easy for the clan and clan to hold on to a sum of property, so a woman married from other clans cannot let her run away. After her husband dies, her brothers can marry her, sons and nephews can marry her, and even grandchildren can marry her, This is a way to unite the same race ?. Guixian, a clan at the Taosi site, practices polygamy, which also has the intention of maintaining and uniting kinship groups through marriage. This is especially true for the powerful marriage family in the Xia Dynasty. King Taikang of the Xia Dynasty did not plan for the future, causing his wife and family to leave, which meant that he lost the support of blood relatives, led to the destruction of the royal family’s internal structural system, and the loss of the country was inevitable. In addition, in the history of the Xia Dynasty, Hou Yi took the place of Xia Zheng, the Han family took power, and the state repeatedly subverted various situations. To examine the reasons, the marriage of kinship groups can not be said to be one of the important factors.

Hou Yi, also known as Yi Yi, was the chief of a poor clan in the East. According to the “Zuo Zhuan, the fourth year of Xianggong”, the “summer training” was quoted as saying: “in the past, there was a decline in the summer, and Hou Yi came from the shell, because the Xia people replaced the Xia government.” Du’s note: “Yu sun Taikang lost his country, and the Xia people established his younger brother Zhong Kang. Zhong Kang was also weak. Zhong Kang’s death, son Xiang Li, Yi Sui took the place of Xiang, and the number was poor.” Hou Yi took advantage of the decline of the Xia Dynasty and once replaced the Xia regime, but he “did not practice civil affairs, but prostituted himself to the original beast”, and also used Han Zhu, who was born in the Han nationality. Hou Yi originally had a wife and a pure fox. After taking the place of Xia Zheng, he fell in love with Luobin woman. Tianwen described his affairs and said, “the emperor subdued Yi Yi, reformed Xia people, shot Fu Hebo and his wife Biluo bin.” Han Zhuo, who used to be scheming, saw the opportunity for Chunhu to be snubbed by Hou Yi, “flatter inside, and bribe outside”, and established a relationship with Chunhu, “because of Yi room” to obtain the support of his kinship group. “Tian Wen” said, “if you marry a pure fox, your wife will be scheming.” “Lu Shi · Hou Ji 13 Shang” said: “Zhuo is a pure fox who steams Yi, and loves to murder Yi.” The reason why han Zhuo was able to murder Hou Yi and successfully seize state power was that he secretly infiltrated and secretly recombined the original structure system of the royal family through the marriage means of taking Yi’s room pure fox, so as to realize his ambition that even Yi’s son did not let go and brutally killed him ?.

However, Han Zhuo took a special way to deal with Yi Zi’s wife, only locking her to death and returning to her mother’s home ?, probably for the purpose of uniting her family. After Shi chuanhan obtained the ruling position of the Xia royal family, he married Chun Hu “because of Yi room” and had two sons. The eldest son was named Han pouring. When Han Chong grew up, he had an unusual relationship with Yi Zi’s wife.

“Heaven asked” said: “only pouring in the house, why do you ask for sister-in-law”, “women sew clothes differently, and the hall is the same.” The history of the road, the 13th chapter of the post chronicle, said that Han doun “passes through sister-in-law Qiu Qi, forgets himself in daily entertainment, and stops at the same museum.” The so-called sister-in-law Qiu, according to Meng Kang, quoted in the book of Han Dynasty, biography of the king of Chu Yuan, said: “the dead son-in-law is Qiu son-in-law, Qiu, Kong ye, and the dead brother has a sister-in-law.” Zhang Yan was also quoted as saying, “Qiu, Daye, and the elder sister-in-law also called it.” Han Dou is Han Zhu’s eldest son without his brother. How can he have a sister-in-law? Therefore, some scholars pointed out that Qi, sister-in-law of gaiqiu, is the wife of Yi Zi. Han Dou and Yi Zi are actually half brothers. Yi Zi was killed, and Qi was widowed. Han Dou has this half brother, and his brother, wife and daughter Qi, of course, is Han Dou’s sister-in-law. The combination of Han pouring and nvqi is uncle Tong and sister-in-law. However, from the perspective of age, it belongs to young men who are sentimentally attached to older women. It seems that the two people have a good relationship. Nuqi sews his clothes for him, and Han doun lives with her and forgets to entertain himself. This kind of marriage and copulation was a perversion of the legacy of brothers’ sharing wives in the clan period, but it adapted to the political needs of “restoring to the Xia family”, which was conducive to maintaining and expanding the internal relationship ties of the royal blood ruling group based on the family organization at that time. “The history of the road, the 13th chapter of the post Chronicle” says: “Shaokang extinguished Doudou and nvqi.” it can be seen that Shaokang, the nephew of Xia Taikang, later restored the country by breaking this political marriage network.

The use of marriage to unite all ethnic groups is the foundation of the Xia Dynasty. The rise and fall of the country is often closely intertwined with the success of this aspect. Shaokang Zhongxing is inseparable from the support of the Yu family of the kinship group. “Zuo Zhuan · AI A.D.”, it is said that the Yu family married Shaokang with two Yaos, “and the city of zhulun, there is a land of Yicheng, there is a people’s brigade, can spread his virtue, and omen his plan to collect the summer crowd”, and finally “Fu Yu’s achievements.” Similarly, the collapse of summer and the obstruction of Royal wives are quite key factors.

At the end of the summer, the wife of King Jie was called Mei Xi, which was called Mo Xi and Mo Xi. It came from Shi clan Luo group. “National language · Jin language” said: “in the past Xia Dynasty, Jie cut down on Shi, and Shi people loved their daughters with their sisters.” Jie and Mei Xi got married with Youshi. For a time, the two people were madly in love. Volume 82 of Taiping Yulan quoted the emperor’s century to describe Jie as “drinking with his sister and palace maids day and night, and often placing her sister’s joy on her (knee); her sister likes to smell the sound of cracking silk, and Jie’s hair is cracking silk, so as to suit her purpose.” However, the good times did not last long. According to the Bamboo Annals, “Jie attacked Minshan and got two women, called Wan and Yan. Jie loved two women and had no children. His name was engraved on the jade of Tiaohua, where Tiaohua was Wan and Hua was Yan. He abandoned his yuan concubine, Yu Luo, and called it the end Xi surname. The end Xi surname made contact with Yi Yin, and then came the summer.” The lustful Jie indulged in the Jiao Jiao love with Wan and Yan, completely ignoring Mo Xi. The hatred of Mo Xi arises from it, which leads to the end of a secret friendship with Yi Yin and a common summer.

Yi Yin was born in the Shen clan group, and once “cultivated in the field of Shen”. When Shang Tang visited the East after the founding of the people’s Republic of China, he was put in high position as a concubine of the Xin family. ? before that, however, his relationship with Tang was not ordinary. “Lu’s spring and autumn · Shenda” is about Yi Yin and Wei Xi’s collusion, There is the following paragraph in the summer of business assistance: “Tang and Yi Yin formed an alliance to show that the summer would be destroyed. Yi Yin returned to look at the open summer and listen to the end of Xi. The end of Xi said: in the past and present, the son of heaven dreamed that there was a day in the west, there was a day in the East, two days of fighting, the West was victorious, and the East was invincible. Yi Yin told Tang. The business dried up and drought, Tang still sent his division, in order to believe in the alliance of Yi Yin, so he ordered his division to come from the East and advance from the West. He left without a blade, drove it to the sand, separated his body, and killed for the world.” Xia was in the West and Shang lived in the East. Mo Xi colluded with Yi Yin to accuse Xia that “the west is victorious every day, and the East is invincible every day”. It was the secret disclosure of the actions and defense details of Xia Wang Jie to Shang Tang, causing Shang Shi to bypass Xia’s rear, attack Xia from the west, and succeed in one fell swoop. Therefore, if the external cause of the demise of Xia was the rise of Shang, then Jie abandoned the political significance of marriage and lost the support of the royal blood group, which was an important internal cause of his subjugation.

? Shanxi team of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Bureau of culture of Linfen region: a brief report on the excavation of the Taosi cemetery in Xiangfen, Shanxi from 1978 to 1980, archaeology, issue 1, 1983. Gao Wei, Gao Tianlin, Zhang Daihai: Several Problems about the tomb of Taosi, archaeology, 1983, issue 6. ? Dong Xia Feng, Cultural Relics Publishing House, 1988, page 113. ? Banpo Museum, Shaanxi Institute of archaeology, Lintong County Museum: Jiangzhai – excavation report of Neolithic sites (Part I), cultural relics press, 1988. ? the original work “Bo Yu’s abdomen”, according to Wen Yiduo’s “Tian Jian Shu Zheng” B Zheng. ? song Zhaolin, Li Jiafang, Du Yaoxi: Chinese primitive social history, cultural relics press, 1983, 248 pages. ? historical records Xia Benji. ? Zhou Li, di Guan, Shi Shi. ? Volume VIII of “Taiping Yulan” quotes “Li Han Wen Jia”. ? historical records, the chronicle of Emperor Xiaowen, quoted by Zhang Yan. ? the Shang note in Shuowen Tongxun Dingsheng quotes this, saying that Shang was regarded as emperor, and there was nothing. ? I have seen and heard a lot: Tianwen Shuzheng, life, reading, Xinzhi Sanlian bookstore, 1980, 53 pages. ? see zhenghuisheng: SHANGZHAN Chinese women and marriage, Henan people’s publishing house, 1988, page 96. ? Gujiegang: viewing the changes of social system from the “a”, “newspaper” and other marriage methods (Part I), literary history, Vol. 14, Zhonghua Book Company, 1982, P. 29. ? according to Zuo Zhuan, the fourth year of Xianggong, Han Zhuo and Yi’s family “killed Yi and enjoyed it to eat his son. His son couldn’t bear to eat all, and died of poverty.” ? see “Tian Wen Shu Zheng”, page 68. ? Mencius 10000 chapters. ? the song of Chu, heaven asked.

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