Terra Cotta Warriors of Qin Dynasty
??1. Legend of Xuanniao
Among the numerous historical dynasties in China, Qin is very special. This is not only because it was the first centralized feudal dynasty in China, but also because it had a long and tortuous course of struggle.
At first, Qin was just a loose tribe, not a strict regime, and the leader had no title; Later, Qin multiplied into an ethnic group and began to be called Ying Qin. The leader still had no title; After a long struggle, Qin Rongsheng became a vassal of the Zhou Dynasty and continued to be called Ying Qin. The leader has been called a doctor since then; Later, Qin became a vassal state and began to be called the state of Qin. The title of leader also became duke or marquis of Qin; In the late Warring States period, Qin entered the ranks of powerful countries, and the title of the leader was changed to King Qin; Finally, Qin unified China and was called the Qin Dynasty. The leader was called the emperor.
From tribe to Empire, Qin has crawled for thousands of years, and each stage has a new name. To tell the whole process, the name cannot be generalized, so it is best to collectively call it “Qin people” – whether it is the Qin tribe, the Qin Dukes or the Qin Empire, it is always the cause of the Qin people.
It is human nature to get to the bottom of the matter. In the face of the Qin Dynasty, which had a distinctive personality and was fierce and violent, people could not help asking: where did it come from?
To answer this question, we must first eliminate a misunderstanding.
In people’s impression, the dynasty is the only one. One dynasty always follows another Dynasty. The latter Dynasty can only be built on the ruins of the former dynasty, and there is no possibility of peaceful coexistence. The change of dynasties in the Tang, song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties is the same in modern times.
However, the concept of great unification was a matter after the Qin Dynasty. Before that, the game of changing dynasties had different rules, that is, the system of taking turns to sit in the villa. At the same time, there were many relatively independent tribes or vassal states living together in the big family of China. The most powerful was called the Communist, and everyone obeyed its leadership. If this co – owner falls, other members will take his place and become new co – owners. But the new co owners must abide by some written or unwritten agreements. For example, after defeating the original Communist Party leader, the new Communist Party leader can only demote them to ordinary members, not kill them all, otherwise they will attract everyone’s siege.
The world in the pre Qin period is like the Jianghu in the martial arts novels. There are many Wulin sects, including Emei, Wudang, Shaolin, beggars’ sect, etc., but there is only one leader. In order to compete for the position of alliance leader, all sects will kill until a new alliance leader is determined. The so-called unifying the Jianghu is to seize the position of alliance leader, but other sects still exist.
Unifying the Jianghu is different from unifying the world in essence. The unification of the world simply cannot tolerate the existence of other forces, and no matter how unified the Jianghu is, everyone will stand on their own mountain.
Xia, Shang and Wednesday dynasties are the Jianghu world where Xia, Shang and Zhou tribes are the Allies respectively. The Qin Dynasty happened to be the dividing line for the world games. Before it, the world was the Jianghu; After it, the world is the world.
In the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, Qin always existed as an ordinary member. With the change of the Communists, Qin’s fortune also fluctuated. As a senior member of the Chinese family, Qin has a long history as the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties.
There is a beautiful legend about the historical origin of Qin people. In ancient times, there lived a girl named nun on the fertile land of the East. One day, the nun was spinning outside as usual. After being busy for a long time, she felt tired and stopped to move her aching shoulders. When I looked up, I saw a blackbird flying through the air. As it flew, a bird egg fell down. Amazingly, the bird’s egg didn’t break. Nun impolitely picked it up and ate it. However, after swallowing the bird’s eggs, her stomach grew bigger day by day. Later, she successfully gave birth to a baby boy. The nun named him Daye, which was the ancestor of the Qin people.
This beautiful legend comes from Sima Qian’s historical records. When Qin people mentioned their ancestors, they always talked about the indissoluble bond between their ancestors and bird eggs in a solemn and proud tone. However, no matter how it is recorded in the history books and how the Qin people believe it, they can not have children after eating bird eggs. However, the Qin people are willing to believe that they have a close relationship with bird eggs. They claim to be the descendants of Xuanniao, just as the Chinese people claim to be “descendants of the dragon”.
From the legend of the origin of the Qin people, we can conclude that: first, the Qin people took Xuanniao as their totem. Black birds are black birds, specifically swallows.
Second, the Qin people only knew their mother, not their father. It can be inferred that before Daye, Qin was still a matriarchal clan society.
Third, the ancestors of the Qin people may have lived in the East, because most tribes with birds as their totem are in the East.
The power of totem is enormous. In the kingdom of the descendants of the dragon, the image of the dragon is regarded as supreme and exclusive to the supreme ruler. No one else can touch it. The descendants of Blackbird also loved black and birds.
Although the real father of the Qin people was lost in history, his mother had a great background.
A long time ago, the wise and mighty Yellow Emperor came to the earth. He first subdued the Yan Emperor, then defeated Chiyou, and then unified China. He was honored as the son of heaven. After the death of the Yellow Emperor, his grandson, Gaoyang, was Zhuanxu.
Zhuanxu was also a great leader. His main contributions were to establish Kyushu; Establishment of political institutions; Make marriage, make marriage, make men and women different, grow up and grow up orderly; Forbid folk witchcraft; Reform the calendar, distinguish the four seasons, and divide the twenty-four solar terms.
The Yellow Emperor and Zhuanxu were both figures in the hall of honor of the three emperors and the five emperors. The whole class of the three emperors and five emperors included Suiren, Fuxi and Shennong, namely the “Three Emperors”; The Yellow Emperor, Zhuanxu, Diku, Yao and Shun are the “Five Emperors”.
Nun Xiu, the matrilineal ancestor of the Qin people, was a descendant of Zhuanxu. When it comes to matrilineal ancestors, Qin people are always full of gratitude and pride, praising “Gaoyang has a spirit, and the four sides have tripods”. That is, because the ancestor Gaoyang had a spirit in heaven, the state of Qin was able to make peace in all directions& lt;!&# 8211; end–& gt;
??2. Take “Ying” as the surname
In the pre Qin period, there were many tribes living in China, and each tribe had its own legend. However, with the passage of time, some tribes have become important roles on the historical stage, and their legends have been handed down; Some tribes disappeared halfway, and their legends were lost.
The legend of the origin of the Qin people contains many popular elements at that time, of which the two most important ones are “sentient” and “sage without father”.
The word “induced” is probably familiar to friends who have studied physics. A changing magnetic field can induce an electric field, and a changing electric field can also induce a magnetic field. In the legend of the origin of primitive tribes, the meaning of “induced” is similar to that in physics. The amorous heaven has completed the process of creating human beings with human women through various strange middlemen, during which various spectacular scenes are also displayed.
“Sage without father” is the inevitable result of induction. It was necessary for a man and a woman to cooperate with each other to produce offspring. However, some offspring later developed and became saints, so they wanted to add luster to themselves, so they tried to relate their birth to heaven. Considering the fact that the mother was pregnant in October was beyond doubt, the real father was written off.
The objects worshipped by the ancients were mostly magical things in nature. In their view, birds are undoubtedly very magical. They can fly freely in the sky, while human beings can only be bound to the ground.
Black Yan is the totem and surname of Qin people. Surname is related to totem worship and blood relationship. People of one tribe will share a surname to distinguish them from other tribes. The “surname” is differentiated from the “surname”, which marks that a group of people with common pursuit and common feelings begin to set up their own house. In an age when the writing system was still immature, Ying was a different word of Yan and had the same pronunciation, so Ying was Yan. Later, the Qin clan, which unified China, was a branch of the Ying surname.
In the period of Yao, Shun and Yu, Qin people lived in the east of China. Although they had surnames, the Qin people had been nobody for a long time. Through one person’s efforts, the “Ying” surname was officially recognized (the authentic Chinese religion with Yao, Shun and Yu as the core leaders). This man is no other than Daye’s son Dafei. Dafei also has a well-known name, Boyi. He is the offspring of a woman named nvhua of Daye and Shaodian.
The story needs to be told from the beginning.
When Yao was in charge, the Yellow river overflowed and the people were in dire straits. Water control became a top priority. At first, Yao appointed Yu’s father GUI to control the flood. Yao was so angry that he executed him.
In Shun’s time, Shun overcame public opinion and appointed his son Yu as the commander-in-chief of flood control. Yu embarked on the journey of flood control under great pressure. He learned from his father’s life and used the guiding method to control the water. After 13 years of hard work and overcoming various difficulties that ordinary people can hardly imagine, Yu finally subdued the flood and rejuvenated the land of China.
Yu’s success had much to do with his intelligence and diligence, but it was also inseparable from the full support of his subordinates. Yu had two heavyweight subordinates, Hou Ji and Boyi. These two men could be called Yu’s right-hand men. Without their help, Yu would not have achieved great success.
The reason why Boyi was favored by Yu and attracted his command was precisely because of his talent and knowledge. The original Qin people were friends of nature and had special insight into mountains, rivers, swamps, fish, insects, birds and animals. As the leader of the Qin people, Boyi knew the shape of the mountains and rivers in the eastern region clearly. These knowledge were invaluable to Yu. Yu had only a set of theories, and the real effectiveness of the theory could not be separated from the first-hand information provided by Boyi.
Yu made great contributions to the success of flood control. Shun wanted to reward Yu. Yu said modestly, “it’s not just one man’s effort to control the flood. Bo Yi has done a lot.” So Shun also rewarded Bo Yi.
Boyi’s harvest was not small. His reward was mainly composed of four parts.
The first part, fief. Fei land (now Fei County, Shandong Province) became the fief of Boyi. It is for this reason that Boyi is also called “Dafei”.
The second part is to give the flag. The ribbon on Bo Yi’s flag given by Shun was black, which symbolized that Bo Yi was the deputy of Yu. This means that the Qin people have their own proprietary logo. After a thousand years, the black flag, which evolved from the black ribbon, will be everywhere, becoming a symbol of terror and power.
The third part is to recruit relatives. In order to attract talents, Shun made a lot of emotional investment and married his only daughter, Yu, to Boyi.
The fourth part, giving surnames. “Ying” officially became the surname of the Boyi clan. From then on, Boyi was no longer a nobody living in the East, but a well-known leader of a large tribe.
Finally, Shun Sincerely said a blessing: “your descendants will be prosperous in the future.” Thanks to shun’s auspicious words, the descendants of the Ying family did indeed shine brightly. Many branches established their own countries and became princes. Among them, the most powerful is the descendants of the Qin family. Of course, that’s the later part of the story.
Compared with Boyi, Yu reaped more. Soon after the success of water control, he took over Shun’s class according to the system of abdication at that time and became the Lord of the world. As a comrade in arms of that year, Boyi also got an official position where he could give full play to his expertise. At that time, Yu Guan, who was responsible for the management of mountains, rivers, fields and lakes, was equivalent to the current Minister of land and resources.
In Yu’s official position, Boyi loved his job and made many contributions by giving full play to his professional advantages. Under the guidance of Boyi, people learned to open up wasteland, cultivate land and build houses, and the quality of life was significantly improved.
Later, Yu also died of old age at work. Before he died, Yu wanted to give up his position to Comrade Boyi, his comrade in arms. But Xia Qi, Yu’s son, was not satisfied. He had long coveted his father’s position. However, the long-standing custom of abdication was put there, and Yang could not be taken, so they could only plot to seize power.
Xia Qi not only has a thief’s heart, but also has a thief’s courage. It is his power that gives him the thief’s courage. Yu prepared to give his position to Bo Yi, but allowed Xia Qi to serve as a senior leader for a long time. This power allocation doomed the country to long-term stability.
Yu’s neglect of this problem had a bad effect immediately after his death. Xia Qi recruited forces to plot to seize power. Unexpectedly, things fell and he was detained. However, Xia Qi unexpectedly managed to escape from prison. His followers’ morale soared and he launched a siege on Boyi. Boyi was defeated and fled in a hurry. Xia Qi seized the opportunity to seize the world.
After all, Boyi did not escape and was captured by Xiaqi. In line with the principle of doing everything possible to kill the enemy, Xia Qi dutifully killed Boyi.
The Qin people, who lost their great leaders, had their fortunes plummeted from high mountains to low valleys. Boyi left behind two sons. The eldest son was Dalian, the leader of niaosu; The youngest son is Ruomu, the leader of Fei.
In the Xia Dynasty, Qin people existed silently, and there was nothing else to do except to multiply their descendants. With the passage of time and the increase of population, the descendants of the surname Ying have divided into many branches, and their places of residence have become more scattered, some in the Central Plains and some in the border areas.
Qin people have to wait until the arrival of another era to regain their glory. What they have to do now is to endure slowly. In the long history, this period is not too long, only less than 500 years& lt;!&# 8211; end–& gt;
??3. An official in the Shang Dynasty
During the reign of the Xia Dynasty, the Qin people, as the ruled people, had been trampled under their feet and had a hard time. This situation has not changed in the past 500 years. But the fact that it has not changed in 500 years does not mean that it will not change in the future. Change and changelessness all depend on one opportunity.
Generally speaking, there are two ways to go from slave to general: one is to follow the existing master in a stable period, and the other is to follow the new master in a shuffle period. There is only the second way left for the Qin people.
Jie, the last monarch of the Xia Dynasty, created a precedent in China, and set a “brilliant example” for countless groups of ignorant monarchs.
Jie was an architectural fan, an aesthete and a hedonist at the same time. His palace is tall and magnificent, with gorgeous and exquisite floors, crystal clear rooms, and even the gate is flawless. Looking around, there was a bright white. In Jie’s view, this feeling was really good.
Jie loved wine and was good at making fun of it. He likes to pour the wine into the pool and drink it with others. On one occasion, he even organized a drinking Conference for 3000 people, and all the participants were full of wine.
A monarch who pursues enjoyment will not let women go. The beauties from all over the country were collected by Jie in the harem to serve his happy life in an all-round way.
These mannerisms can only be described by the word “loser”.
However, Jie did not admit this. Any minister who dared to say “no” to him would be killed. In the long run, the virtuous ministers were either killed or learned to be silent, while the common people struggled on the line of life and death. The upper and lower subjects only hated Jie.
Tang, the leader of Shang tribe, saw the opportunity to contact Sifang tribe to condemn Xia Jie’s sins and set up a banner of righteousness to fight against rebellion. The Sifang tribes responded. Fei Chang, the eldest son of Dalian of niaosu family, also led a group of Qin people to help the war. The power of Shang Tang increased greatly.
The decisive battle took place in mingtiao (West of today’s Xixia County), and Shang Tang overthrew the decadent Xia Jie in one fell swoop.
Fei Chang played a vital role in the decisive battle. In the Long Xia Dynasty, the Qin people not only did not lose their original professional advantages, but also expanded their business scope and learned to drive chariots. A large number of driving experts emerged in the tribe, and Fei Chang, the leader, was one of the experts.
During the battle, Shang Tang rode in the chariot driven by Fei Chang, adopted a big circuitous strategy, and launched an attack from the west of Xiadu in a big circle. Xia Jie was caught off guard and rushed to fight from the west gate. As a result, he suffered a devastating blow at mingtiao.
Fei Chang’s outstanding performance was highly praised by Shang Tang. After the successful overthrow of Xia Jie, Fei Chang smoothly became a powerful man. The Qin people breathed a sigh of relief. Since then, they have enjoyed a good life.
After Xia Jie’s defeat, he led a very small number of remnant troops to Nanchao (now Chaohu, Anhui). His body was washed away by his long life of extravagance and drunkenness, and his spirit was destroyed by his political failure. Soon he died in the local area, bringing an unsatisfactory end to his life of beauty and pleasure.
Shang Tang held a grand inauguration ceremony in Xibo (now Yanshi West, Henan Province) as a winner, which won unanimous support from the attendees. The new Communist Party came into being and history entered the Shang Dynasty.
Throughout the Shang Dynasty, the Qin people had been regarded as a reliable alliance force by the Shang Dynasty Royal family and enjoyed the first-class treatment. The expertise of the Qin people was brilliant in the Shang Dynasty, and some leaders passed down in history.
Comparatively speaking, the descendants of Dalian branch developed better. Because they are not only good at driving, but also good at divination.
In ancient times, people lacked understanding of nature and themselves. There were too many unknowns in life. There were no experts to ask questions, no police to find difficulties, and no psychological experts to consult when they were depressed. The only thing that could help was a fortune teller. Diviners are regarded as the messenger of heaven, with mysterious power. Their social status is high, and they comprehensively interfere with people’s production and life.
Dalian’s descendants have a pair of brothers, namely Meng Xi and Zhong Yan. The two brothers studied and practiced hard to carry forward their ancestral divination. When carrying out business, the two were dressed in bird clothes and swaying in a strange way, which could not help but remind people of their special relationship with heaven.
After hearing the news, Tai Wu, the tenth generation leader of the Shang Dynasty, made a special trip to find the brothers and divined a divination. He was very satisfied. Tai Wu was so happy that he promoted them to be his own drivers. Unexpectedly, the two brothers’ driving skills were extremely good, and Taiwu was even more satisfied. They gave each other a daughter, which was definitely good news for the Qin people.
Since then, the life of the Qin people has stepped into a smooth path, and many officials have emerged. The good days always passed quickly, and time inadvertently reached the middle and late Shang Dynasty.
The border of the Shang Dynasty, which had always been stable, was surging. A powerful tribe rose in the west of the border. Its ancestor was Houji, who helped Yu control the flood with Boyi mentioned earlier. The descendants of Houji established the Zhou Dynasty, the longest lived Dynasty in Chinese history.
Under the management of Gugong and Gongji and their sons, the tribe of Zhou people was full of vitality. They didn’t do anything earth shaking, but they were kind and made everyone feel secure and promising with them. As a result, the surrounding tribes rushed to come.
This did not bode well for the rulers of the Shang Dynasty. They have raised their vigilance and taken preventive measures. One of the leaders of the Qin people, the xuansun Zhongzhen of Zhongyan, was ordered to lead a Qin people through the hinterland of the Shang Dynasty to the western border garrison. His primary task was to monitor the Zhou people. It was this inadvertent diversion that part of the Qin people gradually cultivated a strong wolf nature and conquered their opponents in the new environment.
The Qin people lived in a very complex environment. There were not only Zhou tribes, but also countless Xirong tribes. We live together, and communication and conflict are inevitable. Although the lineage of Qin people is noble, the number is not large after all. Localization is inevitable if they want to take root in the local area for a long time. They adapted to the needs of the situation, absorbed a large number of the surrounding population and culture, and their strength grew rapidly. For the first time, they showed the unique melting pot of Qin culture.
If the Qin people in the late Shang and early Zhou dynasties are compared to a big tree, its roots are in the East, and its branches and leaves come from the western border of the Shang Dynasty. The roots, branches and leaves of trees are interdependent and constitute a vibrant life.
Qin people from the East have a high position in the tribe. They have seen advanced culture and have a strong cultural awareness. This is also reflected in their tombs. “Birds fly against their hometown, and foxes die on their heads.”. After their death, most of them rest under the tombs with their heads facing east and their feet facing west. It is said that only in this way can the soul fly out of the celestial cover, cross thousands of mountains and rivers, and return to the East where the Xuan bird is located.