Shu Han and Cao Wei vied for Longyou: three world wars exhausted Shu Han’s financial and material resources

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1? The situation at the beginning of the Three Kingdoms in the Eastern Han Dynasty since DongZhuo went to Beijing to hold the emperor hostage in the first year of Guangxi (189), the world was divided, and there were many years of scuffle. In the first year of Jian’an (196), after Cao Cao came to power in the imperial court, he gradually destroyed the separatist forces in Kanto. The battle of Chibi in the 13th year (208 years) laid a solid foundation for the Three Kingdoms. After that, Cao Cao defeated the generals of Kanto and Zhang Lu, who ruled separately in Hanzhong; Liu Bei annexed Jingzhou and Yizhou and captured Hanzhong from Cao Cao. In the first year of Yankang (220 years), Cao Pi abolished the Han Dynasty and became the emperor. The Wei Dynasty was founded and its capital was Luoyang. The following year, Liu Bei became emperor in Chengdu and the founding Han Dynasty (known as Shuhan in History). Another year, Sun Quan officially became emperor in Wuchang. Thus, the coexistence of the Three Kingdoms was officially formed.

At the beginning of Cao Pi’s accession to the throne, Tianshui Prefecture and most parts of Longyou belonged to Wei. In order to strengthen its rule over the land, the Wei Dynasty set up Qinzhou (in the east of today’s Shuishi) in the first year of the early Yellow Emperor (220 years). Soon, Qinzhou was withdrawn and its territory was merged into Yongzhou (governing Chang’an, now Xi’an). To the south of Longyou, it is under the jurisdiction of the Shu Han Dynasty. Liu Bei regards himself as the orthodox Liu clan, and often cherishes the ambition of northern expedition to the Central Plains and rejuvenation of the Han Dynasty. After Liu Bei’s death, Zhugeliang obeyed his will and insisted on the northern expedition with the strength of only Sichuan. In 227, the fifth year of the founding of Shu Han Dynasty, Zhugeliang wrote to Liu Chan, the empress of Shu, saying: “now the South has been determined, the army armour has been sufficient, and the three armies should be rewarded and led to the Central Plains in the north. The people are exhausted and dull, fighting off evil and evil, reviving the Han Dynasty, and returning to the old capital.” Then he led the main Shu and Han troops to Mianyang (now Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province) to prepare for the northern expedition.

2? Zhugeliang attacked Longyou in the first month of the second year of Weitaihe and the sixth year of Jianxing of Shuhan (228), and led the Shu army to attack Wei. Before leaving the army, he claimed that he would go north from the xiegu road to take Xi (now Meixian County, Shaanxi Province). Cao Zhen, the great general of Wei, heard the news and immediately sent his troops to refuse. Zhugeliang sent Zhaoyun, the general of Zhendong, and dengzhi, the general of Yangwu, to lead his troops into TunJi Valley, where they were at a stalemate with the Wei army in the Qinling Mountains. Since then, he led the main force out of Yangping pass (in the west of Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province), north to Longyou, and first conquered Qi Mountain (in the northeast of Li County). The three prefectures of weiyongzhou, Tianshui (namely Hanyang County in the Eastern Han Dynasty, governing Ji County, in today’s Gangu), Nan’an (separated from Hanyang County in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Southeast of Longxi County, governed by Nan’an county and now Wushan), and anding (governing Linjing County, in today’s Zhenyuan and Jingchuan County Boundaries), rebelled against Wei. At that time, Guohuai, the governor of Yongzhou Prefecture, and Ma Zun, the Tianshui Prefecture governor, patrolled to Luomen (today’s Luomen in Wushan, which belonged to Jixian County at that time). When they heard of the change, they quickly turned to the divinatory symbols (Tianshui Prefecture belongs to the county, which governs the east of Ma paoquan in today’s Shuishi city), and guarded it according to the city. Tianshui, who accompanied him on the patrol, joined the army. Jiang Wei was also supreme. Ma Zun suspected that Jiang Wei had a different heart and closed the gate. Jiang Wei had nothing to depend on and was forced to join Zhugeliang. As the three prefectures attached to Shuhan, Guanzhong was shaken. When Emperor Wei Ming came to Chang’an, he added Zhang Ying, the general of the left, as a special Jin (the title of the third Duke only), and the army went to Longyou to resist. Zhugeliang sent Ma Su to join the army and led his army to Jieting (Jiequan County in the former Han Dynasty, Lueyang in the later Han Dynasty, Longshan Town in Zhangjiachuan in the old times). After arriving at the Street Pavilion, Ma Su did not listen to the advice of General Wang Ping and camped in Nanshan. Zhang Ying led the Wei army to, that is, surrounded Nanshan, cut off its waterways, and stormed the Shuhan military camp. When Ma Su saw that the drinking water was cut off, he led the army to break through. Zhang Ying divided his troops and intercepted them. The Shuhan army was defeated by the enemy on all sides. Ma Su and his generals Li Sheng, Zhang Xiu, and Huang Chong all lost. However, Wang Ping led a thousand people near the Street Pavilion in bietun. When he saw the Wei army attacking, he sounded his drums and dared not attack. Zhang Ying was suspected of being an ambush. He was able to retreat peacefully. Another general of Shu Han, Gao Xiangbu, marched in Liucheng (not far from Jieting) and was defeated by Guohuai, the governor of Wei Yongzhou. Zhugeliang heard of the defeat of the various roads and knew that Longyou was no longer defensible, so he moved more than a thousand households back to Hanzhong in Qianxi county (Tianshui county is a county, governing the Honghe town of Li county and the shizichuan area in the southwest of Tianshui City). Caozhen and Zhang Ying supervised the Wei army directly into Tianshui and other three prefectures, and Longyou still belonged to Wei. After returning to Hanzhong, Zhugeliang put Ma Su in prison (shortly after he died in prison), beheaded Zhang Xiu and Li Sheng, and wrote a letter to Liu Chan, the empress, demoting himself to the third class.

In February of the fifth year of the reign of emperor Taihe of the Wei Dynasty and the ninth year of the reign of emperor Jianxing of the Shu Han Dynasty (231), Zhugeliang led the main force to return to Longyou to attack the Wei Dynasty, and transported grain and grass with wooden cattle. He was determined to win. In March, when the army arrived at Qishan mountain, Wei generals Jia Si and Wei Ping led the army to hold on and sent people to Luoyang for help. Cao Rui immediately ordered Sima Yi, the senior general and governor, to go to Chang’an to mobilize the armies of Yong and Liang prefectures, and Zhang Ying, the general who commanded the chariots and horses, Fei Yao, the later general, Dai Ling, the guard of the Sichuan expedition, Guo Huai, the governor of Yong Prefecture, and so on.

3? Zhugeliang attacks Longyou again

When Zhugeliang heard that Sima Yi was about to lead his army, he divided his troops and stayed to attack Qishan mountain. He led his main force to attack Shangying. He ordered his soldiers to use up all the wheat in Shangying along the way to make up for the food of the Wei army. Sima Yi went to Longyou and ordered Fei Yao and Dai Ling to retain 4000 elite soldiers to guard Shangying. The rest of the people learned that they had rescued Qishan mountain in the West. As a result, Fei Yao, Dai Ling and Guohuai who assisted Shangying met the Shuhan army in Shangying. Fei and Dai were defeated and retreated into the city.The. Shortly after Sima Yi arrived, Zhu Geliang ordered him to stay on the defensive and not to fight with the Shu and Han armies. Zhugeliang led his people to fight with the Wei army for many days. They wanted to attack but were afraid of losing their support. So they withdrew westward. Sima Yi’s army followed him. The two sides held a stalemate in Hanyang (today’s Gangu). Sima Yi sent General Niu Jin to lead the battle with light cavalry. Seeing that the Wei army was powerful, Zhugeliang led the whole army southward to defend Lucheng (today’s Yanguan Town, Li county), and stationed troops in the north and South Mountains to prepare for the decisive battle. When the Wei army arrived outside the halogen City, Sima Yi ordered to dig camps along the mountain to confront the Shu and Han armies, and told all the ministries not to go to war. The intention was to wait for the Shu and Han armies to go out after they were exhausted. Wei Pingping asked for war several times, saying to Sima Yi, “the public is afraid of Shu like a tiger, which makes people all over the world laugh.” Sima Yi just ignored him, pretended to be ill and refused to meet the generals. In May, the generals asked for war again and again, but Sima Yi was obstinate, so he ordered Zhang Ying to attack Shuhan without his own army to guard he Qianbu in Nanwei, and led his army to attack from the middle road. Zhugeliang finally hoped that the Wei army would go to war, that is, he sent the western general Wei Yan, General Gao Xiang and Wu ban to lead the army to fight against the Wei army, smashed the Wei army and beheaded 3000 people. Sima Yi saw that the war was not going well, so he still insisted. In June, it was discovered that the Shu Han army was tired for a long time. Sima Yi ordered the whole army to attack and attack the periphery of the Shu Han army first. Zhugeliang, judging by his strength and the difficulty of supplying food and grass, knew that he could no longer resist him, so he led his army to withdraw to the south. The Wei army took advantage of the situation to pursue and kill tens of thousands of Shu troops. Zhang Ying pursued him to the wooden gate, fell into the ambush of the Shu and Han armies, and died in midsagittal.

4? Jiang Wei attacks Longyou

Zhugeliang regarded Jiang Wei as a rare general in the Shu Han Dynasty. Even if he was appointed Cang Cao, he was appointed general Fengyi and recommended to be the Marquis of Dangyang Pavilion. After the death of Zhugeliang in the 12th year of Jianxing (234), Jiang Wei was appointed as the right supervisor of the army and helped unify the armies. In the first year of Yanxi (238), he was stationed in Hanzhong with the great general Jiang wantun. In the ten years (247), he was promoted to general Wei, recorded books with the senior general and participated in the supreme military decision-making. Although Jiang Wei had the ambition to follow Zhugeliang’s last words to attack and seize Longyou, due to repeated unsuccessful northern expeditions, the ministers of Shu held a negative attitude towards the northern expeditions after Zhugeliang’s death, which made it difficult for Jiang Wei to take action. In the spring of the 16th year (253), Fei Yi was assassinated by Wei’s generals. After Jiang Wei became the sole military commander, he began the northern expeditions again.

In April of the fifth year of Wei Jiaping and the sixteenth year of Yanxi reign of Shu Han (253), Jiang Wei led the Shu Han Army to invade Wei. Tens of thousands of people moved north from Wudu (which was a prefecture in the past and is now Chengxian county. Wudu Prefecture belonged to Wei at the beginning of the Three Kingdoms and belonged to Shu Han in 229 until Shu Han was destroyed). They left Shiying, passed Dongting (both places are in the south of Wushan), and surrounded Nan’an. Chen Tai, the governor of weiyongzhou, led the reinforcements to Luomen. Jiang Wei was afraid that the Wei army would cut off its way back and run out of food, so he withdrew south.

In July of the first year of Ganlu of Wei Dynasty and the 19th year of Yanxi of Shuhan Dynasty (256 years), Jiang Wei, a senior general of Shuhan, and Hu Ji, a senior general of Zhenxi, met in Longyou to take Shangying. Jiang Wei leads his troops to take Qi Mountain first. General Wei Anxi leads the guard of the East Qiang school captain Dengai. He knows that the Shuhan army wants to take Qi Mountain, and has sent heavy troops to hold on. Jiang Wei turned to Nan’an and met the Wei army of Deng AI’s headquarters at Wucheng mountain (in the southwest of today’s Wushan mountain). Deng AI was guarded by danger, and the Shu Han army could not attack. He turned east to attack Luomen (today’s Luomen in Wushan), which was still defeated by Deng AI’s army. So Jiang Wei led his army to cross the Weihe River to the East, and went to take Shangying. Deng AI led his army to pursue the attack, and fought with the Shu army to duangu (today’s Donghengyu River in Shuishi). Jiang Wei’s army was defeated because Hu Ji’s army didn’t arrive. Many people died. The remnant scattered and fled from duangu to the south. At that time, Shu Han ministers blamed Jiang Wei for his failure, so Jiang Wei took the blame and asked to be demoted. The later Lord liuchan issued an imperial edict to demote him to the post general, and he still served as a senior general. Deng AI was appointed general of weizhenxi and governor of Longyou military for his merits, and was granted Marquis Deng.

When Shu Han attacked Wei, Longyou was one of the main battlefields, and today the water territory bears the brunt. It was a wrong decision to invade the Wei Dynasty with a weak country, which was far stronger than the Wei Dynasty. Therefore, Zhugeliang, a wise genius, could not get rid of the outcome of the war. Later, Jiang Nan’s northern expedition was a reckless act of his subordinates when the general situation was gone. Although the Shuhan government and the people had always had objections to Zhugeliang’s Northern Expedition, Zhugeliang regarded the northern expedition as a national policy that followed Liu Bei’s will, exhausting the people’s and financial resources of Shu, which was a mistake of governing the country.

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