Strange people and unusual numbers: Jiang Taigong’s misfortune before his rise

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Jiang Ziya fishing in Weibin

Jiang Ziya, the surname Jiang, the surname Lu, has a reputation of Ziya, also known as LV Shang and Jiang Shang, commonly known as Jiang Ziya. He was born in the late Shang Dynasty. Jiang Ziya is a well-known and famous figure in Chinese history. He is well-educated and has both civil and military skills. He can judge the situation, seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, skillfully use strategies, and show superior decision-making methods and command art. Therefore, he is praised as the founder of statecraft and strategists by the historians.

Not in time, hidden in the slaughterhouse

It is said that Jiang Ziya’s ancestor was an aristocrat. He served as an official in the time of Emperor Shun, and made many military achievements. He was granted Lu Di (now Nanyang, Henan) by Shun. Therefore, Jiang Shang is also called Lu Shang. But after Jiang Ziya was born, his family had fallen. So when Jiang Ziya was young, he was a butcher who killed cattle and sold meat. He also opened a hotel and talked about making bricks without straw. However, Jiang Ziya’s ambition was not short. He always studied astronomy and geography hard


Strategy, study the way to govern the country and stabilize the country, and hope to display their talents one day.

Jiang Ziya used to be an official of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty. Unfortunately, he was born at a wrong time and did not meet the Lord. The Shang Dynasty began to decline after Wuding. When Emperor Xin (King Zhou of Shang Dynasty) arrived, the Shang Dynasty finally came to the brink of collapse. King Zhou of Shang Dynasty was a famous tyrant in Chinese history


Daji abolished and denounced Shang Rong, Bigan, Weizi, Jizi and other virtuous ministers one by one, and completely entrusted the government affairs to Fei Zhong and other jesters. For this reason, not only the ministers and nobles in the court opposed King Zhou, but also the princes and all the states were estranged from the Shang Dynasty. In the hands of such a foolish king, you can’t display your talents in advance, and you can’t save your life in retreat. Therefore, Jiang Ziya resolutely left, went to various places to lobby the princes, and decided to retire to the East China Sea after meeting nothing.

Living in a foreign country and traveling in official circles for many years, Jiang Ziya was frustrated in officialdom and finally set foot on the land of Shandong. The hometown where he was born and raised gave him a moment of peace and comfort. However, Jiang Ziya is not a man who is good at making a living. He planted the land but could not collect the seeds; When you fish, you cannot catch back the net. He was even more unwilling to be indifferent to life. Returning to the East was just an expedient, not the ultimate goal. When he heard the news of the rise of Zhou Xibo Jichang (later known as King Wen of Zhou), he was very excited. A strong sense of mission called him to go west again.

Jiang Ziya started his life of exile again. He once slaughtered cattle in Chaoge and sold drinks in Mengjin. Chaoge was the capital of Shang and Zhou dynasties, and Mengjin was the throat of Chaoge. Under the guise of slaughtering cattle and selling drinks, Jiang Ziya collected the political and military intelligence of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty, observed and became familiar with the geographical situation of the Central Plains, so as to formulate a plan for defeating Zhou and destroying Shang Dynasty


General plan, and take it as a gift to meet Zhou Xibo Jichang.

Jiang Ziya finally arrived at Chaoge after several days of rough and tumble. Jiang Ziya felt melancholy at the thought of returning to the old land, where things and people were different. The aristocrats of the slave owners in the Shang Dynasty were addicted to alcohol, so there were many Street hotels in Chaoge.

There is a surname from the state of Lu, surnamed song, surnamed Li, with strange characters. He is a cousin of Jiang Ziya. He found Song Yi’s family. Seeing his cousin coming, Song Li hurried out of the villa. The two entered the villa hand in hand, saluted and sat down. Song Li was very excited and said, “since we parted, I have often missed you. It is a great pleasure to meet again today.” Jiang Ziya sighed and said, “since I left my cousin, I really hope to return to my official career, so I returned to Chaoge to see Yan Zheng.” However, Song Li said, “in today’s court song, all the officials can’t face the monarch. The purpose is spread by the treacherous fawn Fei Zhong. How can a virtuous brother enter the monarch’s gate? My cousin is a man of insight. He can hide in the court song. He will be developed in the future.”

Jiang Ziya lives in the Song family and is at ease. Half a month has passed in a hurry. One day, Jiang Ziya said, “cousin, you should make your own living between heaven and earth.” Song Li asked, “what do you want to do?” Jiang Ziya said, “I can only weave hedgerows.” Song Li said, “there are bamboos in the backyard. You can cut bamboo strips, weave some fences, and sell them in the Chaoge city. Both big and small are businesses.”

Jiang Ziya weaves a load of hedgerows and sells them to Chaoge. From morning to noon, I went straight to HongRi xixie, but I didn’t sell any, so I had to pick them back to the Song family. Song Li asked for the reason and sighed: “it’s my fault. You don’t need fences in Chaoge city. I have wheat in my warehouse. You can ask the younger generation to grind more flour every day. Cousin picked Chaoge to sell goods. The profit belongs to you!”

The next day, Jiang Ziya went to sell Chaoge. He walked around the four streets, but he didn’t sell a kilo. Out of the south gate, he decided to take a short rest, stop to put down his burden, and sit down against the wall. Jiang Ziya sat for a while and was about to get up and set off on the road when someone across the street shouted, “stop selling noodles!” Jiang Ziya immediately rested and waited for the man to approach. Jiang Ziya asked, “gentleman, how many noodles do you want?” The man said, “it’s for paste. You can buy a penny.” Jiang Ziya is not the one who has been carrying the burden for a long time. He threw his shoulder pole on the roadside and scattered the rope on the ground. At this moment, a war horse was startled and ran like a flying horse. Jiang Ziya didn’t see it and wasn’t wary of it. Suddenly, someone behind him shouted, “sell noodles, Malaysia.” Jiang Ziya hurriedly stood up sideways, and the flying horse was in front of him. The rope on his shoulder pole was scattered on the ground, and the horse was in a hurry. The rope happened to be tied to the horse’s hoof and dragged two baskets of noodles five or six feet away. As soon as the baskets were turned over, all the white flour was thrown on the ground. Jiang Ziya hurried to collect his face. Unexpectedly, a gust of wind blew up and wrapped his face in white. After the wind, the ground was clean. When the buyer saw Jiang Ziya’s appearance, he put down a penny and left.

Jiang Ziya was in pain. He picked up the empty baskets, looked up and sighed, “this is heaven’s funeral for me.” Jiang Ziya returned to the Song family. When Song Li saw that he was covered with faces, he was shocked and hurried to say, “cousin, why did you become so handsome?” Jiang Ziya told the story of selling noodles again. Song Yiren hurriedly summoned his wife to change clothes for his cousin, while comforting Jiang Ziya: “how much is the face value of the bag? Don’t be angry, my dear brother. There are thirty or fifty hotels in Chaoge City, and all the shopkeepers are my acquaintances. Let you open the South Gate Zhangjia Hotel for a day tomorrow, OK?” Jiang Ziya thanked, “thank you, cousin!”

The South Gate of Chaoge is near the religious center. It is a place to get rich. On this day, Jiang Ziya asked the chefs to kill pigs and sheep, steam snacks, tidy up the wine and rice, and wait for the staff of the training ground to eat after the training. Who expected that at noon, it would rain cats and dogs, and Feilian could not come to practice. It was hot at that time, and the pork and mutton dishes were steamed by this heat, and suddenly changed their flavor. Jiang Ziya called the guys and said, “eat the wine and food. It’s called Jiang Ziya opening a restaurant &\8211; you can’t sell it and eat it yourself!” All the guys laughed together.

Jiang Ziya returned to song’s House late in the day. Song Li asked, “cousin, how is business today?” Jiang Ziya said, “ashamed, I’ve lost a lot of money.” He explained in detail what he had never practiced in the military field. Song Yiren sighed, “cousin is unlucky. Be punctual and find another way!”

Song Yiren was afraid of his cousin’s embarrassment, so he exchanged 50 liang of silver to let the younger generation take Jiang Ziya to the market to sell pigs and sheep. On this day, the sun rose in the East, Jiang Ziya finished breakfast, drove pigs and sheep, and sold them in Chaoge city. At this time, it was a long drought without rain. In order to pray for rain, the emperor banned the slaughtering industry, and posted a notice on that day, telling the military and civilian people. Jiang Ziya didn’t know that he had just rushed the pigs and sheep to the city gate and was seen by the poster. The man shouted, “break the law, take this man down!” Jiang Ziya saw that the doorkeeper came to catch him with a knife and ran away. Poor pigs and sheep are ignorant, and they are all exiled into the official family. Jiang Ziya hurried back to the song’s house, looking pale.

Song Li asked in surprise, “Why are you so flustered, cousin?”

Jiang Ziya heaved a sigh and said, “thanks to my cousin’s love, I can’t do every business, and I have suffered many losses. Today, I don’t know that the emperor prays for rain, cut off the two businesses of Tu and Gu, illegally enter the city, and pigs and sheep enter the government. I have run out of money, making me feel ashamed of my land.”

Song Yiren said with a smile, “break dozens of liang of silver into the official, why bother it, cousin! Cook it a pot of wine today, and you will have a good time!” Jiang Ziya was speechless and nodded in agreement.

The next day, Jiang Ziya woke up, looked up and stared at the fence. I thought to myself: if you can’t sell them in the city, why don’t you go to the countryside? So, Jiang Ziya picked up the fence and walked to the East. Out of ten miles, I met a jar seller. The jar seller asked, “master, did you make up the fence? Your workmanship is good.” Jiang Ziya said with a smile, “you look good? Let’s change.” The man saw that Jiang Ziya had a good carrying pole and said, “do you even change the carrying pole?” Jiang Ziya said, “OK.” The VAT seller took up the burden of the hedgerow and turned around and left. In fact, Jiang Ziya didn’t know that his shoulder pole could replace the man’s shoulder pole and VAT, and he was cheated out of a load of hedgerows for nothing!

Jiang Ziya picked up two jars and wanted to sell them in the city! He thought and turned to Chaoge. When he walked into the east gate, two young men happened to be fighting, running forward and chasing after each other. The running young man hides behind Jiang Ziya, and the chasing young man catches people around Jiang Ziya. He held up his hand and said, “bang! Bang!” The jars at both ends fell to pieces. As soon as the young runner couldn’t see well, he ran out of sight.

The young man who chased people stopped, made amends to Jiang Ziya and said, “uncle, I lost money because I missed.”

Jiang Ziya said frankly, “I changed the vat with a fence. It didn’t cost me any money. Besides, you didn’t deliberately destroy the VAT. You don’t have to pay for it.”

The young man said, “even if uncle doesn’t want me to pay for it, he can have a seat in my shop and let me make it clear.”

Jiang Ziya was tired of walking and said, “OK!”

The two entered a butcher’s shop, and the young man shouted, “Dad, I’ll invite you a distinguished guest!”

The door curtain was lifted and an old man came out of the inner room. His hair was half white and his eyes were full of spirit. After staring at Jiang Ziya for a while, he said in surprise, “I recognize you. You are the doctor Jiang Ziya.” Jiang Ziya said, “how do you know me?” The old man said, “you and I belong to the same family. I used to live in the countryside and slaughter cattle. Two years ago, I sold the village house to Song Li and built this butcher’s shop.”

Jiang Ziya was surprised and said, “Song Li is my first cousin. It’s really a coincidence.” Then he laughed.

Jiang Zhi asked, “why did doctor Xia come to our shop?” The young man said, “Dad, just talking, I haven’t let the child interrupt.” So he told me about chasing people and smashing the VAT.

Jiang Zhi said, “that young man was an apprentice in our shop, and his hands and feet were not clean. My son Jiang Ji checked the accounts today and found that he had stolen again. He taught him a lesson. He didn’t admit his mistake, but began to beat people. So he fought inside the shop, fought outside the shop, and met the doctor. How are you doing?”

Jiang Ziya said, “everything goes wrong.” He told me about the repeated setbacks in business.

After hearing this, Jiang Zhi said with a smile, “this is God’s will. Two months ago, our cashier died of illness. Now there is no suitable person to hire. If you like, you can condescend to be the cashier of the shop.”

Jiang Ziya readily promised, “OK.”

Jiang Ziya has worked in the beef shop since then. One month later, he also learned to slaughter cattle. Jiang Ziya actually slaughters cattle in Chaoge and heaven in his heart. He walked through the streets and alleys of the city, inspected the mountains and rivers outside the city, got familiar with the current situation of the monarchs and officials in the court, and remembered the troop deployment of the Yin and Shang Dynasties.

One day, suddenly someone outside the door shouted, “Xiqi is paying tribute to the song!” Jiang Ziya hurried out of the store. Sure enough, he saw a group of people walking through the street. The man in the middle is riding on a tall horse. He is tall and respected.

Jiang Ziya asked each other, and Jiang Zhi said, “I know this marquis. He is Xibo Jichang. He respects the old and the young, salutes the wise, and is a good monarch who accumulates kindness and virtue.”

Hearing this, Jiang Ziya couldn’t help thinking, “does my future have to come true in this person?” Until Xiqi’s men went away and the crowd dispersed, Jiang Ziya still stood at the door in a daze.

Jiang Ziya has lived in the butcher’s shop since then in order to know more sages in the world. Two years later, Jiang Zhi died of illness. Jiang Ji succeeded the shopkeeper. He kept his own accounts and ordered Jiang Ziya to sell meat in the shop.

One day, the heat was too hot. No one came to the butcher’s shop. Jiang Ji was angry, so he scolded Jiang Ziya and said, “Jiang Ziya, you talk about Chengtang and Wuding all day long. Now it’s the reign of King Zhou, and you can’t become Yiyin or Fu Shuo! You’re a butcher, and you can’t even sell meat. You’re just a waste butcher! Waste butcher of Chaoge!”

Jiang Ziya thought: what he said is also true. Living in Chaoge for a long time, how can I make a difference? I’m over 60 years old. I’m old! There is only Xibo Jichang who respects the old monarch in the world. Why don’t I go west to Zhou Yuan? Thinking of this, Jiang Ziya said nothing, returned to his residence, took up his luggage and left Chaoge.

Catch the Weihe River and meet the Lord Ming

After years of hard work, Jiang Ziya collected a large amount of information about the destruction of business. First, these materials need to be systematically sorted out. Second, we need to observe the movement of Zhou Xichang nearby and wait for the opportunity of interview. So Jiang Ziya hid in the Qinling Mountains and fished in the Panxi river. There are tall and straight mountains and towering ancient cypresses. On the Bank of Panxi River, there is an ancient fishing platform. Under the platform is a pool about two meters deep. There is a huge stone on the platform. It is said that Jiang Ziya lives in seclusion here. This is an ideal place. The environment is quiet and quiet, which is conducive to concentrated research; Near the ground room, easy to capture interview opportunities. Living in the Hexi River, fishing in the Ziquan, looking forward to “catching big fish”.

As early as when Mengjin sold drinks and slaughtered cattle in Chaoge, Jiang Ziya established friendship with San Yisheng and others in the “four friends of King Wen”. With this kind of relationship, he could go to Qizhou city for a post. But Jiang Ziya’s ambition is not here. He wants to observe whether King Wen is wise and wise and wait for the opportunity to do a vigorous career.

Jiang Ziya, an 80 year old, lives in seclusion by the Bank of Fuxi River and fishes on a big stone near Ziquan every day. This stone is now called the kneeling stone. There are two and a half deep and one foot long dents on the kneeling fishing stone. It is said that it is the knee seal left by Jiang Ziya when he was fishing. It is called kneeling stone seal.

As the first fisherman of the ages, Jiang Ziya has an unparalleled position in the history of Chinese fishing. What makes him win this honor is not how excellent his fishing skills are, but his fishing without fishing.

Jiang Ziya’s fishing is characterized by using a straight needle as a hook and never hanging bait. Later, such a allegorical saying came into being: Jiang Taigong fishing &\8211; Those who wish take the bait. When the woodcutter Wu Ji saw that Jiang Ziya’s fishing needle was straight but not crooked, he made fun of it and taught Jiang Ziya a method: “burn the needle red with fire, make it like a hook, and use incense bait on it; attach a float to the line, and the fish will swallow it, and the float will be automatic, so you will know the fish has arrived. Look at it, hook the fishing gill, and you can get a carp. This is the way to fish. Otherwise, don’t say three years, or you won’t get a fish in a hundred years.” Jiang Ziya replied, “I’m here. Although my name is fishing, I don’t want to fish. I’m here just to keep the green clouds and get my way. I can’t catch fish in the middle of the song. It’s not my husband’s doing. I’d rather take fish in the middle of the straight rather than in the middle of the song. I don’t want to set up brocade scales, but only catch kings and marquis.” Confidence and heroism are about to emerge. But is Jiang Ziya really so confident? Do you really sit on the Diaoyutai as people often say? Is it true that we only take from the straight, not from the curve? “Wu Ji laughed and said,” you old fisherman also wants to be a prince? You look like a living monkey! ” Jiang Ziya replied, “you look unlucky. Be careful to go into the city and kill someone!” Wu Ji thinks that Jiang Ziya has cursed people. When he gets angry, he picks firewood and leaves.

When Wu Ji arrived in the city, the people were very crowded. When the shoulder pole carrying firewood was changed, a bundle of firewood was knocked down. The head of the shoulder pole that lost its center of gravity hit a man’s ear. The man immediately fell to the ground and died. Life is at stake. King Wen happened to run into him. King Wen thought that Wu Ji had an accident, and Wu Ji was lonely. He had an old mother, so he gave him some silver and allowed him to go home and settle down with his mother and return to the city to serve his sentence.

Wu Ji came home and told his mother what had happened. Mother Lian said that Jiang Ziya, who was fishing, must be an expert. If he can make a prediction, he will certainly help you eliminate the disaster and rescue you. Wu Ji hurried to Fuxi. Seeing Jiang Ziya, who was fishing, fell to the ground, he bowed down and couldn’t get up. “Master Jiang, save my mother and son!” Jiang Ziya held the fishing rod in his hand and did not look back. He pondered for a long time. Finally, he said, “I want to save you. You can worship me as a teacher!” Then he asked Wu Ji to do so. Wu Ji followed Jiang Ziya’s orders and learned martial arts and martial arts.

When Jiang Ziya was fishing in the Weishui Puxi River, he also taught the nearby residents to sing songs such as “when there are rulers in the court, people will suffer more; when there will be a Ming Lord, the sun will be seen through the clouds”.

The ancients believed in divining good or bad luck first. King Wen of Zhou wanted to hunt. The result of divination was that the prey he captured was not tigers, leopards, jackals and wolves, but Wang zuozhi, who could achieve hegemony. King Wen of Zhou was very surprised. Naturally, he paid special attention. In addition, he was moved to visit Yin because he dreamed of a flying bear. Thus, King Wen and others disguised themselves to observe the people’s feelings and visit virtuous officials in this area. When they heard such songs, they were very moved.

On the way to visit the sage, he first heard a group of fishermen singing. The lyrics included the demise of Jie, the last monarch of the Xia Dynasty, the establishment of the Shang Dynasty and the subsequent 600 years of political harmony, the later immorality of King Zhou, and the story of Emperor Yao’s visit to Shun. He said: “the day chases the flood waves, the song is vast, the night watches the stars, and the lonely fishing; the lonely fishing does not know the width of the world, and the white head looks down on the old world.” Every word and sentence touches the heartstrings of xibohou. He thought that since he could sing this song, there must be a great man among them. He hurriedly asked his hand to invite him. When he asked, he realized that the fishermen had learned it from an old fisherman by a small river 35 miles away. King Wen once went to the Fuxi River to ask for talents but did not meet them. He wrote a poem for this reason: “seeking talents goes far to the head of the river, but only sees the hook. He has never met an old man with a hanging pole, and people all over the world are worried about taking a few days off.”

On one occasion, xibohou and his party continued to search for talents and met a woodcutter who was singing. The woodcutter’s lyrics are more attractive to xibohou than the fisherman’s, because it simply tells the future King Wen of Zhou: there are not no sages, the sages are between the mountains, but the world doesn’t know them, and uses “the spring water is long, the spring grass is strange, and the goldfish didn’t meet the hidden River; the world doesn’t know Gao Xianzhi, and only acts as an old rock fisherman by the river.” Express your talent. This woodcutter is none other than Wuji, Jiang Ziya’s new apprentice. Wu Ji told xibohou that the song was sung by his master, Jiang Ziya, a native of Xuzhou in the East China Sea and a flying bear. King Wen returned to the court, sent a message to all officials, fasted in the palace for three days, and then went out to hire great sages; Jiang Ziya. On the fourth day, all civil and military officials took a bath and burned incense. They dressed up and wore hats. They followed King Wen to the Fuxi River to invite Jiang Ziya.

Jiang Ziya sat by the stream with his back, fishing with a pole. King Wen quietly walked up to him and stood behind Jiang Ziya. Jiang Yuya knew that King Wen was coming, but he deliberately sang a song: “the west wind is blowing, the clouds are flying, how can I be at dusk? The king is singing, Allah is coming, and I know I am missing when I hang my rod.” After singing, Jiang Ziya turned back to see King Wen, hurriedly threw the fishing rod aside, fell on the ground and kowtowed to the first: “the people Jiang Shang didn’t know they were coming, so they missed the welcome. Please forgive Jiang Shang for his rudeness.” King Wen hurriedly picked up Jiang Ziya and offered a generous gift to show his desire for excellence. After some humility, Jiang Ziya said, “King mengshengming will not give up. Jiang Shang is willing to spare no effort to assist the king and accomplish great things.”

Meeting Jiang Ziya on the Bank of the Weihe River, Jichang was impressed by his philosophical words. Jiang Ziya said: “If the source of the river is far away, the river will flow continuously, so there will be fish inhabiting; if the tree is big and the root is deep, it will be luxuriant, and then the fruit will be fruitful. The same truth, only mutual understanding and spiritual connection between people can provide the premise for the development of great undertakings. For example, when fishing by the stream, the small fish always stare at the small bait. If there is no fishing line, it will relax its vigilance; the larger fish always look forward to the big tasty bait It is expected that even if the hook is around, it will forget the danger and take risks in order to obtain sweet food. If you want to catch a big fish, you need to put a large piece of bait on it, and the fishing line should be strong and strong, otherwise you will lose the bait. Once the fish swallows the hook, the fishing line will firmly hold it; The same is true of employing people. Once they receive the corresponding treatment, they will try their best to serve the benefactor. If you fish with a net, you may miss the net; You can fish with bait, but you can catch all the fish in the water. In the same way, providing corresponding treatment can attract talents from all over the world. Although there are big and small differences in matters and high and low goals between hanging nylon fishing and governing the country, the truth is the same. The three main points of fishing are nothing more than fishing point judgment, bait design and fishing with a pole. There are also three magic weapons for governing the country and the world: providing generous treatment is to enable the people who use it to contribute their wisdom, promoting the spirit of treating death like return is to make the soldiers brave and good at fighting, and setting up high-ranking officials is to let the good ministers and generals help the king achieve great achievements. “

Jiang Ziya’s concise and simple analysis made King Wen of Zhou’s heart beat. He saw the wisdom of the old man wearing a bamboo hat and coir raincoat, and realized that he was a pillar with great strategy and foresight. Xibo Marquis asked Jiang Ziya to ride in his luanyu. Jiang Ziya knelt down and declined. Finally, Xibo Marquis rode in luanyu and Jiang Ziya rode on Xibo Marquis’ carefree horse to Qishan.

Jiang Ziya talks about the general trend of the world with eloquent words. As for the essentials of governing the country, he puts forward the theory of “three constants” that “the monarch should always uphold the sages, the officials should always appoint the sages, and the scholars should always respect the sages”. Ji Chang praised him as “Taigong Wang” and worshiped him as a national teacher.

Help King Wu destroy the business and lay the foundation of the Zhou Dynasty

Jiang Ziya came out of the mountain and was entrusted with the great responsibility by Zhou Xichang. It can be said that he was entrusted with the task at a time of crisis, and thus opened the most brilliant page of history in his life.

After Jiang Ziya arrived in Qi Zhou, he actively assisted King Wen of Zhou in repairing morality and politics, comforting the people and running the army, and preparing for the destruction of business. First of all, to advance is to retreat. On the one hand, to show sincere submission to the Shang Dynasty and eliminate its vigilance; On the other hand, they offered tribute, bribed widely, sent people to the commercial capital to create public opinion, and tried to please the subjects and princes of the Shang Dynasty. Then there is the selection of talents. Jiang Ziya proposed that “six thieves and seven evils” must be taken into account when selecting officials, namely: “building palaces and advocating music; people violate the calendar and do not follow the official education; forming parties for personal gain and burying sages; fighting high power and not respecting their masters; disdaining titles and harming senior officials; powerful families and bullying the poor and weak.” “There is no wisdom, strategy, but nobility; there is no real name, but opportunism; the appearance is simple and the language is clever; the appearance is magnificent and empty talk; the people are obsessed with flattery and flattery, risking their lives to covet money; building a palace to hurt farmers and mulberry trees; deceiving kindness with talisman and mantra.” In addition, Jiang Ziya also helped xibochang win over allies and expand Qi Zhou’s influence. Under his planning, more than 40 renegade merchants returned to Zhou and xianzun Xibo was king, increasing Qi Zhou’s national strength and influence.

Because Jiang Ziya was familiar with the ruling situation of the Shang Dynasty and the geographical victory of the Central Plains, and had rich military experience, he made great contributions to the military construction of the Zhou nationality. He led his troops to attack and destroy Shang’s allies, Sui (now Longxian County, Shaanxi Province), Mizu (now Gansu Province), and gunrong (a minority tribe at that time, now Fengxiang, Shaanxi Province). Banyi (West of Xi’an city) was also expanded, and Jichang was moved here to consolidate the rear area of Zhou Dynasty. Politically, it contacted local princes and all ethnic groups in the southwest, which gradually strengthened the power of Zhou, resulting in most areas under the rule of the Shang Dynasty being occupied by Zhou. Later generations described the situation at that time as “three parts of the world and two parts of the world belonging to Zhou”.

Zhou Xibo Jichang did not complete the great cause of destroying commerce, died with regret and expectation, and his posthumous title was King Wen. His son Jifa ascended the throne as King Wu. King Wu still took Jiang Ziya as his teacher and respected him as “teacher and father”. With the assistance of Jiang Ziya and other good officials and generals, King Wu made great efforts to govern the country. After nine years of preparation, he led his army eastward and made a tentative attack on the Shang Zhou regime. In this battle, Jiang Ziya was the commander in chief of the front line. The soldiers arrived at Mengjin and received the response of 800 princes. But King Wu and Jiang Ziya thought that they were not sure of winning, so they withdrew temporarily.

Two years later, King Zhou of Shang Dynasty killed Bigan and imprisoned Jizi. King Wu prepared to attack King Zhou, but the result of divination was unlucky. Moreover, the soldiers did not go out and encountered a storm. All the ministers were terrified. Only LV Shang insisted on sending troops. He said that the tortoise shells and yarrow used for divination did not understand good or bad luck at all. King Wu finally followed Lu Shang’s advice.

In the first month of 1046 B.C. (1057 B.C.), King Wu of Zhou commanded 300 chariots, 3000 Huben and 45000 Jiashi, and marched eastward to attack merchants. In the last ten days of the same month, Zhou’s army arrived in Mengjin, where it joined forces with the anti business tribes of Yong, Lu, Peng, PU, Shu (all living in the current Han River), Qiang, Wei (all living in the current Weishui river basin) and Pei (living in the current Pinglu south of Shanxi Province). King Wu, taking advantage of the favorable situation that the people of the commercial areas returned to Zhou, led his headquarters and the tribal troops that cooperated with him to fight. On the 28th day of the first month, he quickly moved eastward from Mengjin (now the south of Mengxian County, Henan Province) in the rain. After crossing the Yellow River from Sidi (today’s Sishui Town, Xingyang, Henan Province), he went north to Baiquan (now the northwest of Huixian County, Henan Province) and turned eastward, pointing directly to Chaoge. The Zhou division did not encounter any resistance from the Shang army along the way, so it drove smoothly. After only six days’ journey, it was convenient to arrive at Muye at dawn on the fourth day of February. The news of the Zhou army’s attack spread to the court song, and the Shang court was terrified. King Zhou of Shang had no choice but to hastily deploy defense. However, at this time, the main force of the merchant army was still far away in the southeast region and could not be immediately transferred back. So they had to arm a large number of slaves, together with about 170000 commercial troops guarding the capital of the country, and led them to the pasture to meet the Zhou division.

In the early morning of the fifth day of February, the Zhou army completed its formation and solemnly swore, known as the “shepherd’s oath” in history. Before the battle, King Wu denounced King Zhou for listening to the slander of pet Ji, not offering sacrifices to his ancestors, luring sinners and fugitive slaves from all directions, brutally harming people and many other crimes, thus arousing the hatred and fighting spirit of conscripts. Then, King Wu solemnly announced the action requirements and military discipline in the battle: to maintain the formation to stabilize the formation; It is not allowed to kill those who have surrendered in order to disrupt the Shang army. After taking the oath, King Wu ordered to launch a general attack on the Shang army. He first made “the division is still the father and a hundred men to the division”, that is, Lu Shang led a part of the elite assault troops to challenge the Shang army, in order to contain and confuse the enemy and disrupt their positions. The slaves and prisoners of war in the merchant Army wanted King Wu, so they revolted one after another, turned their spears and helped Zhou Shuai fight. Taking advantage of the situation, King Wu rushed the emperor and Zhou division with “big soldiers (main force)” and violently killed the enemy. As a result, more than 100000 people of the Shang army immediately collapsed. Seeing that the general trend was gone, King Zhou hurriedly fled back to Chaoge that night, boarded the deer terrace and burned himself to death. The Zhou army took advantage of the victory to attack, captured Chaoge and destroyed the Shang Dynasty. Later, King Wu divided his troops and attacked all the princes of the Shang Dynasty to eliminate the residual forces of the Yin and Shang Dynasties. The Shang Dynasty perished.

Ji Zhou’s descendants wrote a song in praise of Jiang Ziya’s achievements in the battle of Makino: “the Makino battlefield is wide and wide, the sandalwood chariots are magnificent, and the four flower horses are strong. Ah, the Grand Master Lu Shangfu is flying like a goshawk. He helped the King Wu of Zhou and quickly sent troops to attack the big merchants. Once the world was clear.” In the same year that the business was destroyed, a unified Zhou regime was established, with the capital of Gaojing, historically known as the Western Zhou Dynasty.

Enfeoffment and development of economy

After seizing the world, King Wu adopted the method of “seizing the state and establishing the country” to strengthen the rule over remote areas and the Ping fan of the Zhou royal family. Jiang Ziya was granted the first title in the land of Qi and built the capital Yingqiu (now Linzi District, Zibo City, Shandong Province). Jiang Ziya led a team to the fief day and night, beat back the Lai people who came to fight for the country, and established his own political power.

Since then, Jiang Ziya, regardless of his old age, has worked diligently for governance in the state of Qi. In politics, he adopted the 15 character policy, that is, “simplify etiquette because of its vulgarity”, “cultivate Taoism”, “respect virtue, wisdom and merit”. Qi was originally the home of the barbarians, who had great power. On the issue of dealing with the barbarians, Jiang Ziya adopted “cause” and “simplicity” measures, which were flexible and effective, and the political culture of Qi was democratic. “Taoism” also had a great impact on the political culture of the state of Qi, which formed the Taoist tradition in the spring and Autumn period. During the Warring States period, it was divided into three different and related schools: Huang Lao Taoist school, Yin Yang School and immortal school. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, the combination of Huang Lao’s learning and immortals and prescriptions evolved into Taoism. “Respect” and “reward” are mainly manifested in two aspects: first, regardless of origin, they are only competent; The second is to give priority to meritorious deeds and not to duplicate names. Since then, Qi has formed a good political and cultural tradition.

Although the state of Qi was close to the mountains and the sea, the economic foundation was not good when Taigong first sealed Qi. The land was thin and there were few people. Taigong adjusted measures to local conditions and changed with the situation. He adopted economic policies such as “connecting the business of Commerce and industry, benefiting from the benefits of fish and salt”, persuading female workers to “use extreme skills” and “be suitable for mulberry and hemp”. As a result, men, women, young and old, as well as vehicles transporting goods rushed to the same place from all over the country. This obviously gave Jiang Taigong a taste of sweetness, so “industry” and “commerce” were listed as the “three treasures” of the country together with “agriculture” in Jiang Taigong’s book “six Taos”. The state of Qi seems to have become a big manufacturing country, and the clothes, shoes and hats produced here are all over the world. All the princes from the East China Sea to Mount Tai went to pay homage, because they saw real interests. According to the records of the historian, Jiang Taigong was in charge of Qi and “because of his popularity, simplicity and courtesy, he was familiar with the business and industry, which benefited the fish and salt, and the people came back to Qi”. The developed handicraft industry and commercial activities suddenly made Qi a great Eastern country.

The reason why the goods produced in Qidi are sold all over the world is closely related to the convenient monetary system. Jiang Taigong cleverly used the important economic lever in his hands &\8211; The monetary system enables natural resources, labor production and trade circulation to connect and flow.

According to the system of the Zhou Dynasty, commercial currency was used to exchange goods. When Jiang Taigong was still an official in the Zhou Dynasty, he established the Jiufu yuan method on the basis of increasingly frequent exchange of goods. The so-called “nine prefectures” refer to the nine government management departments, namely, Taifu, Yufu, neifu, Waifu, Quanfu, Tianfu, zhinei, Zhiqian and Zhijin, which are responsible for controlling and controlling money. The word “round” means all things are common; The yuan method refers to the monetary system.

The “nine government yuan method” established by Jiang Taigong is a complete set of monetary system: it stipulates that gold is square and weighs 1 jin; Money is round on the outside and square on the inside. Its weight is measured in baht; The cloth is 2 feet and 2 inches wide and 4 feet long. In the currency system created by jiangtaigong, gold is the most precious and knife money is the most convenient. People use it like a spring, which flows around like cloth and silk, which can be rolled up like silk.

The book of history, Hong Fan, records eight aspects of ancient state governance, namely the so-called “eight policies”: food, goods, worship, Sikong, situ, Sikou, bin and Shi. Food and goods are in the forefront because they are related to the daily life of people and the normal operation of social economy, which is particularly important. Food refers to the cultivation of fields and the planting of grains; Goods refer to the production of cloth and silk and the circulation of gold, knives, tortoises, shells and other currencies. It seems that Jiang Taigong has a good eye for the construction of monetary system in the life of commodity economy.

“There is a good way to trade between agriculture and industry, while the coins of tortoise shells, money, knives and cloth are flourishing” (“Shiji pingzhunshu”). Money came into being a long time ago. It can even be traced back to the legendary emperor Ku, but there is no written record for reference. With money, we can better develop the economy and accumulate wealth. After Jiang Taigong retired from office in the Zhou Dynasty, he introduced this monetary system to Qi, where he was granted the seal, making it easier to buy and sell goods in Qi. This finally makes Qidi’s products sell all over the world and become famous in the East.

During the reign of King Cheng of Zhou Dynasty, uncle Guan and uncle Cai colluded with Wu Geng, the son of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty, and Huai Yi also took the opportunity to rebel against Zhou Dynasty. The rule of Zhou Dynasty was seriously threatened. At that time, Jiang Ziya was old and still ordered to send troops to cooperate with Zhou GongDan in the eastern expedition to fight the rebellion. The Zhou royal family sent Zhao Gongyu to authorize him to “five Marquises and nine uncles. You should make a real expedition”. On the vast land to the East, to the sea, to the west, to the Yellow River, to the south, to Muling (now Huainan in Anhui), and to the North, to Wudi (now Wudi in Shandong), the state of Qi had the right to carry out expeditions. This provided a favorable political condition for Qi’s foreign military expansion, and Qi became a great power. In the sixth year of King Kang of Zhou Dynasty (about 998 BC), Jiang Ziya died.

Taigong’s art of war will benefit future generations

Jiang Ziya was one of the earliest statesmen and military strategists who enjoyed great fame in Chinese history. He upholds martial arts, pays attention to wisdom, ignores ghosts and gods, has broad and profound military thoughts, and is invincible in war. After fishing in the Weishui River and meeting the Ming Lord, he assisted King Wen and King Wu of Zhou to cultivate morality and manage politics, revitalize the country and stabilize the country, led the army to gallop across the battlefield, and made great achievements for the establishment of the Zhou Dynasty, known as the ancestor of strategists.

One of the rich cultural heritages left by Jiang Ziya to later generations is the Taigong art of war. As for Jiang Taigong’s works, there were records of Taoism in the annals of art and culture of the Han Dynasty, which said: “there are 237 Taigong, 81 Mou, 71 Yan, and 85 Bing.” The title of “six Taos” was first recorded in “Sui Shu Jing Ji Zhi”, with the title “written by JiangWang, the master of King Wen of Zhou Dynasty.” Shen Qinhan of the Qing Dynasty said: “the person who wrote the plan was Taigong’s conspiracy, the person who spoke was Taigong’s golden chamber, and the person who wrote the war was Taigong’s art of war.” During the Warring States period, Su Qin won the Tai Gong Yin Fu, and Zhang Liang won the Tai Gong art of war in the early Han Dynasty. Unfortunately, most of Taigong’s studies have been lost, and only the six Taos has been handed down, which is commonly known as Taigong’s art of war.

Six Taos was written in the form of Taigong answering the questions of King Wen and King Wu of Zhou. The book consists of six parts: Wen Tao, Wu Tao, long Tao, Hu Tao, Bao Tao and dog Tao, with a total of 60 articles. It was compiled by the Qi government during the reign of Duke Huan of Qi according to the original archives of the Western Zhou Dynasty. However, its basic content and ideological core are undoubtedly what jiangtaigong said.

The six Taos has formed a complete and detailed military theory system. As the epitome of the military science of the pre Qin period, it has a detailed list of strategic attack, strategic defense, military training, the composition of the headquarters, the operational principles under special terrain, the mutual cooperation of infantry and cavalry, battlefield communication, weapons and equipment, and functions. It can be called an ancient political and military encyclopedia.

The main contents of six Tao are as follows: first, the strategy of total victory. According to the six Taos, “a complete victory without fighting is a non-invasive army.” Therefore, it is proposed that the twelve festivals of cultural criticism, or because they are happy, they will be arrogant; Or kiss his love to divide his power; Or Yin bribes, the country will harm; Or supplement their ballads, entertain beauties, etc., with the purpose of disturbing the interior of the enemy country and weakening its combat effectiveness. The second is about the choice of fighter planes. The book “guarding the earth” says: “in the middle of the day, we must be wise, we must cut with our swords, and we must cut with our axes. If we are not wise in the middle of the day, we will lose time; if we do not cut with our swords, we will lose time; if we do not cut with our axes, we will be thieves in the future.” “The military doctrine” says: “disorder outside but integrity inside, showing hunger and satiety.” “The enemy does not know what to do. He wants to attack the West and attack the East.” Third, generals should employ all kinds of talents according to their abilities and take their own advantages. Such as the 72 person division of labor of Wang Yi. Generals should have five talents, and those who are generals should be polite generals, powerful generals, and anti desire generals. Fourth, it elaborates on the ideas of weapons and equipment and the use of terrain to attack and defend. The “speed of arms” and “surprise, surprise” have become the magic weapons of the past generations of strategists. Fifthly, as for the method of judging the enemy’s situation, we should keep secrets, create all kinds of false images to confuse the other party, investigate the way of heaven, personnel, yin and Yang, both inside and outside, and finally make correct decisions.

“Six Taos” is a complete monograph on military theory that will shine through the ages. Therefore, Jiang Ziya has been respected by military strategists of all dynasties. Zhang Liang


They all regard “six Taos” as the most precious treasure.

Jiang Ziya is well-known for his people-oriented thought, talent thought and strategic thought. He upholds martial arts, pays attention to wisdom, ignores ghosts and gods, has broad and profound military thoughts, and is invincible in war. After fishing in the Weishui River and meeting the Ming Lord, he assisted King Wen and King Wu of Zhou to cultivate morality and manage politics, revitalize the country and stabilize the country, led the army to gallop across the battlefield, and made great achievements for the establishment of the Zhou Dynasty, known as the ancestor of strategists.

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