Sun Zhong, Sun Jian, sun CE and Zhenjiang in the eastern Wu

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Sun Zhong, Sun Jian, sun CE and Zhenjiang in the eastern Wu

Sun Zhong, Sun Jian, sun CE and Zhenjiang in the eastern Wu

Sun Zhong, Sun Jian, sun CE and Zhenjiang in the eastern Wu

Sun Zhong, Sun Jian, sun CE and Zhenjiang in the eastern Wu

Sun Zhong is legendary in Fuchun, Wujun

The deeds of Sun Quan’s grandfather Sun Zhong are not found in the Official History Biographies, but only in some local chronicle documents. Local chronicles and county chronicles have legends of guanguajing and Sun Zhong’s tomb.

Volume 23 of the annals of Danyang County by the Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty reads: “Sun Zhong, who lived in seclusion but did not become an official, planted melons in Baihe mountain in the west of the county, and buried his father when he died. No one can see his tracks. Today, on March 15, every year, there are priests in his ancestral temple and tomb.” It is also recorded in the mausoleum article in volume 12: “Sun Zhong’s tomb is in baiheshan.”

In the supplement to the annals of Danyang County, Volume 6 of the Republic of China, there is a historic article: “the guangua well is located in Baihe mountain, 15 miles west of the county. There is a three immortals temple on the mountain, and there is a well in front of the temple. According to legend, it is sunzhong’s guangua well.” Volume 7: “the well in front of the white crane three immortals temple is located in Zhongli village, fifteen miles west of the county. Its well is the deepest, and it is said that Sun Zhong irrigates the melon well.”

Under the mountains and rivers in volume 3 of the annals of Zhenjiang Prefecture by the Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty: “baiheshan is ten miles west of the county. Sun Zhong’s tomb is in Yan. There is zhizigang in front of it.” The difference is that the county annals say that baiheshan is fifteen miles away from the west of Danyang County, while the prefecture annals say that baiheshan is ten miles away from the west of Danyang City.

Most of the above titles are “handed down from generation to generation” and “handed down by common people”, without giving an account of the origin. Its source may be from the records of the local chronicles of the song and Yuan Dynasties, such as the records of Zhishun Zhenjiang in the Yuan Dynasty. “Zhi Shun Zhen Jiang Zhi” Volume 7 landscape: “the white crane three immortals temple is located in Zhongli village, four miles west of the county, and its well is the oldest.” Volume 8 of the temple also reads: “the white crane three immortals temple is located in Zhongli village, four miles west of the county. According to the natives, Sun Zhong set up the place of melons. This temple is the oldest.” It can be seen that in the Yuan Dynasty, there was a legend that Baihe mountain in the west of Danyang City was the melon planting land of Sun Zhong at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. However, the people of the Yuan Dynasty were more than a thousand years away from the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Wu Dynasty. Zhishun Zhi also stated that it was “handed down by the natives”, that is, handed down by the local people, which was not based on history.

The records of Jiankang written by xuhao of the Tang Dynasty preserved a large number of historical materials before the Tang Dynasty, Among them is the legend of Sun Quan’s grandfather Sun Zhong: “the case of auspicious annals” The Zhong family, born in Fuchun, lost their father early, grew up in their mother’s house, and were extremely filial. By the age of famine, thrifty to grow melons from the industry. Suddenly three young men reached Zhong and begged for melons. Zhong treated them well. The three said: This is a good place under the mountain. It can be buried and become the son of heaven. If you look down the mountain for a hundred steps, you can go to the burial place. After thirty or forty steps, Zhong looked back and saw the three men flying away together. The bell remembered it, and then died and was buried. The place is in the east of the county… “Xu Hao’s narration is richer than the old records of Zhenjiang, and it is clear that Sun Zhong was buried in the east of Fuchun county.

What is the auspicious annals cited by Xu Hao? According to the book of song written by Shen Yue, a Liang man in the Southern Dynasty, It is found that Fu Ruizhi in the book of song contains historical facts and legends about Sun Zhong’s activities: “The ancestor of sun CE was Zhong, who lived alone with his mother in Fuchun, Wujun, and was extremely filial. He was starved of years and began to grow melons. Suddenly, three young men learned to beg for melons, and Zhong treated them well. The three said Zhong:” this good thing at the foot of the mountain can be used as a tomb, buried, and become the son of heaven. You can go down a hundred steps, and if you see me go, you can be buried. When Zhong went 30 steps, he looked back and saw the three people and flew away in a white crane. When Zhong died, he was buried in the east of the county. There are five light monsters and clouds on the tomb. ” Color, which belongs to heaven, is derived from the number of Li. My father and old man said that this extraordinary Qi had made sun’s family prosperous. Jian’s mother was born strong. Her dream came out of wuchangmen to tell her neighbor’s mother. My neighbor’s mother said, “I know it’s not auspicious!”! Changmen, Wu (now Suzhou) Guomen. Strong and strange. ” However, Fu Ruizhi in the book of song also cited some materials of his predecessors. Peisongzhi, a person from Liu and Song dynasties in the Southern Dynasty, annotated the annals of the Three Kingdoms (written by Chenshou in the Western Jin Dynasty). He collected more than 150 kinds of historical materials of the Three Kingdoms, including the book of Wu by Wei Zhao, a Wu person from the Three Kingdoms (Wei Yao). According to the book of Wu cited in the biography of Sun Jian in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the emperor Jianshi was an official of Wu. His family lived in Fuchun and was buried in the east of the city. There were many lights and monsters on the tomb. The clouds were colorful. They belonged to heaven, and people looked at them for miles. My father and father said, “it is extraordinary Qi. The sun family is thriving.”

Written by the Six Dynasties and the Tang Dynasty, sun Zhongjia was buried in Fuchun and died in the east of Fuchun County, not in the west of qua county. Fuchun is now Fuyang, Zhejiang Province. At that time, it governed Wujun. In the Qin and Western Han Dynasties, Kuaiji Prefecture was set up in the Southeast (the prefecture governs Wu and now Suzhou), with 26 counties under its jurisdiction. At the time of Emperor Shun of the Eastern Han Dynasty (128-144), Kuaiji Prefecture was established and Wu prefecture (prefecture governing Wu) was established. It has 13 counties under its jurisdiction: Wu, Haiyan, Wucheng, Yuhang, piling, Dantu, You’a, you’quan, an, Fuchun, yangxianyi, Wuxi Hou state, Lou, which are roughly the current Southern Jiangsu and Northern Zhejiang regions. Dantu, qu’a, Yuhang and Fuchun are all under the jurisdiction of Wu Prefecture. There was famine in Fuchun area in the middle and late Eastern Han Dynasty. It was impossible for Sun Zhong and his mother to go to qua (today’s Danyang) to plant melons. Therefore, there are such records in Zhenjiang annals of later generations. It should be a far fetched affiliation with sun Zhongzhi’s descendants Jian who died in the Warlord’s scuffle and were buried in qua. It is a common phenomenon of event transplantation in ancient documents.

Sun Jian’s main activities are not in Jiangdong

Sun Jian (155-192), with the word Wentai, is said to be a descendant of Sun Tzu in the spring and Autumn period. He was born in the third year of Yongshou (155) of emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty. It is said in history that “Jiansheng has an extraordinary appearance”. Sun Jian’s life can be divided into four periods. Except for his youth, his main activities were not in Jiangdong.

Sun Jian, a young man, lived in Fuchun with his father. At the age of 17, Sun Zhong and Sun Zhong took a boat to Qiantang (Fuchun and Qiantang are both on the North Bank of Zhejiang River). On the boat, they saw pirates such as Hu Yu robbing merchants’ property and sharing the stolen goods on the shore, but passers-by dared not approach. He went ashore alone, operating a knife and directing things. The pirates thought the army was coming to catch them, but they all abandoned their money and fled. From then on, SunJian became famous in the local area. He was appointed as Fuchun County Lieutenant by the Wujun County guard Committee, succeeding Wujun Sima, and embarked on an official career from then on.

In the winter of the first year of Xiping (172) of Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty, Xusheng and Xushao, the Kuaiji people, revolted and gathered tens of thousands of people. SunJian recruited more than a thousand local elites in the position of Wujun Sima. He joined forces with the troops of Yangzhou counties to suppress Xu and his son. Zang min, the governor of Yangzhou, expressed his merits. Sun Jian was appointed by the Eastern Han government as the Prime Minister of Yandu County, Guangling county. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, the county magistrate set up the county magistrate and the county magistrate, and the county magistrate was in charge of the document, which governed the warehouse prison; Take the county captain as the chief thief. SunJian served as the Prime Minister of Yandu County for several years, and then transferred to the Prime Minister of Xuyi county and the Prime Minister of xiapi country. Yandu, Xuyi and xiapi are not affiliated with Yangzhou, but with Xuzhou, which indicates that Sun Jian’s official activities have not been in Jiangdong since he was more than 20 years old. However, he still kept close contact with Jiangdong. The biography of Jiang Biao, cited in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, said: “jianlizuo three counties are famous for their location, and the officials and people are close to them. The village knows the old, good things for young people, and there are always hundreds of people who come and go. It is like a child to be nursed firmly.” It shows that there are a large number of Wujun teenagers and relatives and friends in eastern Zhejiang who have gone to him.

In the first year of Zhongping (184) of Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty, the Yellow turban uprising broke out and “the world responded within ten days”. The government of the Eastern Han Dynasty took huangfushong, Zhu Yi and others as the middle Lang to suppress them separately. Sun Jian was listed as the assistant commander of the army by Zhuyi, a Kuaiji man. “All the young people in the village are willing to follow (Jian) in xiapi. Jian also recruited thousands of business brigades and elite soldiers from huaisi (Biography of Sun Jian in the annals of the Three Kingdoms) to form his own basic team and” work together with (Zhu) to make progress “. In the battle of attacking Wancheng, Sun Jian’s army took the lead in climbing the city and smashed the yellow scarf army. Zhu Yi asked for credit and promoted Sun Jian to be the Sima of other departments. After Sun Jian launched his army westward, his eldest son sun CE and his mother moved to Shu county (southwest of Lujiang River, Anhui Province); After being listed as the assistant commander of the army, he stayed in Shouchun (Shouxian County, Anhui Province).

In the second year of Zhongping (185), the Eastern Han government sent Sikong Zhang Wen to calm the turmoil in Liangzhou in the northwest. Sun Jian was listed as a battalion by Zhang Wen. Once Zhang Wen summoned the Zhonglang to hold a meeting with Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo was arrogant at first, and then disobeyed orders. Sun Jian whispered to Zhang Wen, “it’s better to kill Chen Jun if you can’t summon him” (Zizhi Tongjian Volume 58). Unfortunately, it was not adopted. Otherwise, Dong Zhuo’s rebellion may not happen. After the rebellion in Liangzhou was settled, sunjianqian became Yi Lang.

In the fourth year of Zhongping period (187), Sun Jian was appointed as the marshal of Changsha by the government of the Eastern Han Dynasty, suppressed the peasant uprising in Changsha, Lingling and Guilin, and was granted Wucheng marquis. Two years later, Dong Zhuo made trouble in Guanzhong, and the separatist forces in Guandong jointly pushed Yuan Shao to join forces to fight for the leader of the alliance. SunJian responded by going north, and tens of thousands of troops reached Nanyang. In Luyang, he joined Yuan Shu, another big warlord, and was listed by Yuan Shu as a general who broke the prisoners and led the governor of Yuzhou. Later, in the battle of the Yangren (Linru, Henan), DongZhuo’s army was defeated, and the commander Hua Xiong was killed. After a long drive to Luoyang, the capital, he built a memorial temple for the Han Dynasty, forcing dongzhuoxi to flee to Chang’an. At that time, the world knew that sun had broken the prisoner, and he was famous for a time.

After Dong Zhuo’s failure, the Kanto alliance disintegrated and gradually formed several large separatist regimes. Among them, Yuan Shao occupied the three northern prefectures of Qinghai, Hebei and Henan, Cao Cao occupied the two prefectures of Gung and Henan, Yuan Shu occupied Huainan, Liu Biao occupied Jingzhou, and Liu Bei and Lv Bu successively occupied Xuzhou. In the third year of the reign of Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty (1922), Yuan Shu took Sun Jian as the vanguard to subdue Liu Biao, the governor of Jingzhou, and was shot dead in an ambush by Liu Biao’s department and Huang Zu, the Grand Marshal of Jiangxia, at the age of 38.

According to the records in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Zhi: “Jian Hong also buried qu’a.” According to the records of Jiankang in the Tang Dynasty, “later (SunJian) enlisted Liu Biao in Jingzhou, ambushed and killed him in Danshan for the Jiangxia Prefecture governor Huang Zu. Brother Ben Yu Jian was buried in qua, and all of them were returned to Yuanshu.” Sun Jian’s tomb is called Gaoling, “wugaoling is in Wuling port, and was buried by the WuLie Emperor… The natives are called sun Fen from now on, so it is also called Da Fen because it is different from other graves” (Volume 12 of Zhishun Zhenjiang annals). The reason why Sun Ben was buried in qua (today’s Danyang) was that after Sun Jian joined Yuan Shu, his wife and brother Wu Jing was listed by Yuan Shu as the prefect of Danyang county (today’s Xuancheng in Anhui and Nanjing in Jiangsu), and once stationed in qua. After the death of his father, sun CE “moved his mother to qua, and joined LV fan and sun he.”. Sun Ben was the son of sun Qiang, Sun Jian’s brother. After Sun Jian set up the army, sun Ben followed him. After Sun Jian was buried, he led the old army to take refuge in Yuan Shu and was appointed as the Duwei of Danyang.

After Sun Jian’s wife Wu died, she was also buried in Gaoling. Mrs. Wu is from Qiantang. In the 12th year of Jian’an (207), “Madam Wu Shihong was buried in Gaoling together” (Volume 1 of the actual records of Jiankang).

Sunce creates Jiangdong base area

Sunce (175-200), the eldest son of Sun Jian, with the word Bofu. “Wu Zhi” said that he was “beautiful, funny, broad-minded, good at using people.” When the young man lived in Shucheng, he was friendly with the local hero Zhou Yu. When sun Jianzhan died, sun CE was only 17 years old. Upon the burial of his father, he crossed the river to Guangling to plan for rejuvenation.

Sun CE discussed with Guangling counsellor Zhang ? and said, “the first emperor and yuan family jointly defeated Dong Zhuo, and Huang Zu was the victim of his unsuccessful career. Although CE was childish, he had little ambition. He wanted to ask the first emperor for more soldiers from yuanyangzhou (Yuanshu), so his uncle was in Danyang, collected and scattered, and took revenge on Wu and Hui in the East. He was a foreign vassal of the imperial court. What do you think?” (Wu Lu is cited in the annals of the Three Kingdoms.). Zhang ? agreed very much: “today, the emperor Shao followed the path of the first marquis. He has the name of Xiaowu. If he invests in Danyang and collects Wu soldiers, he will be able to defeat Jing Yang and the enemy will be able to repay him. According to the Yangtze River, he will strive to be virtuous, wipe out the filth of the county, and help the Han Dynasty. His achievements are based on Hengwen. How can he be a foreign vassal?”

Suncexian raised hundreds of people from his mother’s Uncle Wu Jing, the governor of Danyang. In the first year of Xingping (194), he went to Shouchun to meet Yuanshu, who had already separated Huainan. He took back more than a thousand of his father’s former troops and pulled up one of his own. Seeing that Shouchun was being occupied by Yuan Shu, Liu Yao, the governor of Yangzhou appointed by the Eastern Han government, did not dare to take up his post, so he crossed the river from Xuzhou to occupy qua, built Liu Youcheng as a temporary administration, and in the name of the imperial court, rushed Wu Jing, the governor of Danyang appointed by Yuan Shu, and sun Ben, the Duwei of Danyang, to Liyang (Hexian County, Anhui Province) on the North Bank of the river, and sent heavy troops to guard the crossing of Jiangjin and dangli, controlling the ferry hub into Jiangdong. At this time, in addition to Liu Yao, the separatist forces in Jiangdong included Xugong, the prefect of Wujun, Wang Lang, the prefect of Kuaiji, and Yan Baihu, a local power.

Yuanshu, who separated Huainan from the rest of the country, felt that his territory was not large and wanted to win Jiangdong. He sent troops to attack the ferry controlled by Liu Yao for many times. Sunce took the opportunity to introduce himself and was willing to help Yuanshu expand eastward. In the winter of the second year of Xingping (195), sun CE, with the consent of Yuan Shu, sent troops to the southeast from Shouyang to Liyang, and there were 5000 or 6000 people. Zhou Yu, who is visiting his father in Danyang County, also joins him with his troops. The army crossed the river by quarrying stones, broke down LiuYao niuzhu camp and occupied moling and Jiangcheng. Following the defeat of Liu Yao in qua, Liu Yao was defeated and fled to Yuzhang (Jiangxi). Since he crossed the river, sun CE has paid attention to military discipline and won the hearts of the people. “The soldiers are ordered not to invade. The chickens, dogs and mushrooms do nothing. The people are happy and compete to work with cattle and wine” (Zizhi Tongjian Vol. 61), which has been expanded to more than 20000 people. Sunce first ignored Wu Yi, crossed the South and went straight to the north of Zhejiang, crossed the Zhejiang River and occupied Kuaiji, followed by the Hui army to occupy Wujun.

In the second year of Jian’an (197), Yuan Shu became emperor in Shouchun. Sun CE took the opportunity to break off relations with him, and soon Yuan Shu died. Later, sun CE won the Yuzhang and separated Luling county from Yuzhang county. In the fourth year of Jian’an (199), Lujiang County was occupied again. So far, the six prefectures of Yangzhou were fully occupied, and the Jiangdong regime (governed by Wu) was established. Sun CE was the founder of Jiangdong regime, which laid the foundation for Sun Quan to establish the state of Wu. In the annals of the Three Kingdoms written by Chen Shou in the Western Jin Dynasty, he once commented that “the policy is heroic and outstanding. It is powerful and takes the world by storm. It is unique and unique. It is the midsummer of Zhiling… And it is the foundation of the policy to separate the East of the Yangtze River. The (sun) right has not yet been respected. Until the Marquis, it is just thrifty!”

In the fifth year of Jian’an (200 years), sun CE led his army westward from Wu (Suzhou) to attack the Guangling prefect Chen Deng first. At Dantu West Mountain, he was ambushed by Xu Gong’s family, the former governor of Wu County. He was hit by an arrow in the face and died of serious injuries. He was only 26 years old. Sun CE’s tomb is either in Suzhou or in the south of Zhenjiang (old local chronicle). The tomb in Zhenjiang may be inaccurate. First, sun CE’s family and administration were still in Wu when he went west for military operations, and there were no good conditions for rescue and treatment during his march; Second, why not be buried near the tomb of qu’a’s father, but only in the “south of the city” of Zhenjiang? As mentioned above, seven years later, Mrs. Wu, sun CE’s mother, died of illness and was buried in Gaoling, qua. The picture above is the mausoleum of Sun Jian of Danyang.

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