Textual research on Sun Quan’s issue of establishing Heirs: from one side to see the struggle between Sun Quan and aristocratic families

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There is a note in the “annals of the Three Kingdoms” section of the yuemantang reading notes by Li Ciming of the Qing Dynasty:

During the Three Kingdoms period, Wei repeatedly promoted the prison, and Wu sunhao’s residual punishment was to show off. Many famous ministers were killed, such as he Shao, Wang Fan, Lou Xuan and so on. It is another matter that the Shao emperor killed zhugeke and tengyin against the autocracy of his ministers. However, the great emperor was known as a virtuous Lord, and when the crown prince and were abolished, the ministers directly admonished more than ten people who were punished, such as Wu can, Zhu Ju, Zhang Xiu, Qu Huang, Zhang Chun, and several others, such as Gu Tan, Gu Cheng, Yao Xin, and so on. Chen Zheng, Chen Xiang, and Jia Zu were killed. How cool! Since it was a quarrel in the palace, there was no such thing.

This points out that Sun Quan, in the name of abolishing the establishment of the prince, brutally suppressed the Minister: “it was the quarrel of the palace, but there was no such person”, which is shocking. Indeed, during the Han and Wei dynasties, many rulers had caused political disputes due to the establishment of heirs, and some were quite serious, such as Yuan Shao, Liu Biao and Cao Cao. Among them, the dispute between Cao Pi and Cao Zhi brothers was the most famous, which has been discussed by the academic community. However, people know little about the issue of Sun Quan’s heir creation, and in the author’s opinion, there is no special article on it. For this reason, I don’t think it’s shallow, and make a brief examination on Sun Quan’s heir establishment and the conflict and struggle of the ruling group caused by it. I beg for correction for the improper place.

1? Prince and grandson Deng “often have a desire to let go”: a potential political crisis

In the historical situation of ancient family and world, the issue of succession often directly related to the rise and fall of a dynasty, so it has attracted the attention of rulers and thinkers of all dynasties. As early as the pre-Qin period, Confucianism put forward a set of succession theories based on the historical lessons of Shang and Zhou dynasties, and its core is the system of legitimate eldest son succession, “Spring and autumn Gongyang biography” then said: “Li Di to grow up, not to be virtuous, Li Zi to expensive not to grow up…. son to mother expensive, mother capital son expensive.” This is mainly to prevent the rulers from creating heirs because of love, thus causing disputes. Generally speaking, under the principle of heir succession, the ruler should establish the successor as early as possible, so as to avoid the non partying thoughts of other sons, as well as the resulting disputes among sons and the division of officials. It should be said that this theory has important guiding significance in ancient society.

However, in the specific process of practice, although the rulers of all dynasties understood the truth, they did things contrary to the teachings of the former saints for various reasons, which led to the crisis of rule. Among them, there was no lack of wise emperors like Emperor Taizong Li Shimin of the Tang Dynasty. Sun Quan’s situation is quite similar. Chen Shou commented at the end of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, biography of Sun Quan:

Sun Quan bowed himself to humiliation and allowed his talents to remain scheming. He was as wonderful as Gou Jian and as outstanding as the British. Therefore, he can be good at River Watch and become a career of Ding Zhi. However, sex is too taboo. As a result of killing, it is reaching the end of its life, and it is very nourishing. As for slander and death, is it true that those who slander and kill their descendants are those who make a fool of their grandchildren and plot to become swallow’s wings? Later, ye lingchi came to cover the country, which is not necessarily the case.

At the end of the biography of concubines in the same book, Chen Shou commented:

“Yi” said that “the world is determined by the family.” The poem says, “punishment is imposed on widowed wives, and as for brothers, it is imposed on the family.” Honestly, it’s a word! Looking at Qi Huan in the distance and Sun Quan in the near, they all have the wisdom of knowing scholars and the ambition of outstanding people. They do not distinguish between the legitimate and the common people, and the boudoir court is disordered. They laugh at the ancient and modern times and bring disaster to their descendants. Therefore, only those who take morality and justice as the heart and give priority to peace and unity, and then avoid Si Lei evil!

Here, Chen Shou pointed out that in the late period of Sun Quan’s rule, “there was no distinction between the legitimate and the common people, and the boudoir court was disordered”, as well as the serious harm caused by this “disaster and flow of heirs”. According to the historical facts, what Chen Shou said is true.

It should be pointed out that Sun Quan was a powerful separatist ruler in his early years. At the beginning, he was also relatively sober on the issue of establishing heirs. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, biography of the three heirs and biography of the five sons of Wu Zhu, Sun Quan has seven sons: the eldest son Deng, the second son Xie, the third son he, the fourth son Ba, the fifth son Fen, the sixth son Xiu, and the youngest son Liang. However, all the sons were not born of one mother and were half brothers. Sun Quan has not been formally established for a long time, so there is no strict difference between the legitimate and the common people, but only between the elderly and the young. In the second year of Huang Chu (221), when Sun Quan was king of Wu, he established his eldest son as the crown prince, and paid great attention to the cultivation of the crown prince, selecting masters and guest friends. “Sun dengzhuan” said that “at the age of, Li Deng was the prince, and he chose a master, a scholar, and a guest friend”. Among them, zhugeke, Zhang Xiu, Gu Tan and Chen Biao are called “four friends”, while Xie Jing, fan Shen, Diao Xuan and Yang Xuan are “all guests, so the Donggong is called” Doshi “. From this list, Donggong staff members are all the elites of sun Wuqiao and the second generation of old gentry; Sun Quan successively took Cheng Bing, a famous Confucian, and Zheng Chong as his master [1], and once asked Lu Xun, a representative of the Jiangdong aristocratic family, to “lead the palace and assist sun Deng. Under their influence, sun Dengshen was influenced by Confucianism, and his performance and attitude towards politics were quite Confucian. Based on a large number of facts, we can safely say that sun Deng is an excellent successor. At the end of his biography, Chen Shou commented, “Sun Dengju’s heart is full of the beauty of maode.” Ye Shi, a Song Dynasty man, also pointed out: “sun dengde is both able and wise. He knows people well and understands the essentials of governance. When he is dying, he is sparse. No matter three generations ago or after, there are few sages of the aristocratic son fan Wang. At the same time, Cao Zihuan and Zijian, what’s the point!” [2] According to the historical facts, these comments are all appropriate, not reputable. However, it is regrettable that sun Deng failed to ascend the throne. Sun Deng died of illness at the age of 33 in the fourth year of chiwu (241), which is an irreparable loss for the Sun Wu regime.

However, after carefully searching the historical facts, we seem to think that sun dengzhi’s early death may be a blessing for him personally. Because there are signs that sun Deng’s successor status was not very stable before his death. The biography of the annals of the Three Kingdoms cites the book of Wu, which states: “my brother and I are spoiled by power, respect each other, treat them like brothers, and often have a desire to let them.” “The biography of sun he” recorded that “there is less love for the mother Wang’s favor”, and the annotation quoted from “Wu Shu” said: “he Shaoqi has wisdom, so power is especially lucky, often around, clothes are polite, rank, carved, and rare gifts, which are unparalleled among all sons.” The love of power is obviously too high, so before Deng died, Shangshu made it clear: “the prince and benevolence, filial piety, wisdom, virtue and luxuriance, should be established as soon as possible, in order to tie the popularity of the people.” [3] It is really surprising to see these records for the first time: if sun Deng does not die, he is likely to be deposed. No wonder Ye Shi said anxiously, “in Sun Quan’s twilight years, arrogance and laziness guessed risks. Misfortune turned into flesh and blood. Deng was also lucky to die early. I don’t know whether the love between father and son can always be.” [4] Indeed, if he did not feel a serious crisis, sun Deng would never have “always wanted to let go”. In other words, Sun Quan doted on his second son, sun he, and intended to replace sun Deng.

Why? An important reason for this may lie in Sun Quan’s “indistinguishability between the legitimate and the common people, and the disorder of the boudoir court”. According to the Confucian Principle of “the son is valued by the mother, and the mother is valued by the son”, although sun Deng is the eldest son of power, he still has weaknesses in his identity. According to the biography of sun Deng in the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the biography of Mrs. Xu in the Lord of Wu, Deng’s mother was “vulgar” and raised by Mrs. Xu’s mother. Later, Mrs. Xu abandoned Wu with jealousy, “Mrs. Bu is the most favored”. Therefore, when the general ascended to worship the crown prince, he said, “this is the foundation of Taoism. If you want to establish the crown prince, you should first establish it and then,” Quan asked, “where is your mother?” Deng replied, “in Wu.” Power is silent. Sun Quan didn’t establish Xu as his successor, which made sun Deng’s status unstable all the time. Therefore, he Zhuo of the Qing Dynasty pointed out that “those who have micro prevention concerns should be at this time.” [5] Later Sun Quan intended to follow Mrs. Bu, “and the ministers discussed in the Xu family. Those who violated the right for more than ten years, but all the imperial palaces were called queens, and relatives were sparsely called Zhonggong.” [6] This shows that the struggle between Xu and bu lasted for a long time and was very fierce. Those who supported the Xu family were mainly Confucian courtiers. The reason why they did so was mainly to maintain the legitimate successor status of crown prince Deng. Sun Quan, on the other hand, did not attach importance to Confucian rites and laws, intending to become a queen because of love. During the Han and Wei dynasties, the etiquette was relaxed, which was the case with many rulers. Of course, the most famous ones were Cao Cao and his son, and so was Sun Quan. Just as how Zhuo said, “the kings of the Three Kingdoms didn’t know their families, so they hired a remarried daughter instead. In their later years, this power could not inherit.” [7] In the struggle between Xu and Bu, Sun Quan was rational and did not evolve into a cruel political struggle. However, the Bu family had no children. Since then, the Bu family gradually fell out of favor and was replaced by Mrs. Wang. The Wang family had descendants and. In this way, the battle between Bu and Wang was formed. With the growth of Sun Quan’s age and the decline of his rationality, he finally promoted a serious political struggle within the ruling group under the stimulation of a new round of harem struggle.

2? “Two palace structure dispute”: the dispute between the prince and the king of Lu

Sun Deng died, and his second son, sun Xie, died early. Therefore, the beloved three sons and daughters, he, successfully won the crown prince in the fifth year of chiwu (242), which is completely consistent with the theory of the eldest son inheritance of Confucianism. According to the biography of sun he in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Sun Quan not only dotes on sun he, but also pays great attention to his cultivation. He is named Ru kaize “to teach calligraphy and learn corporal skills, which is very popular.” Note cited “Wu Shu” also contains “good literature, good riding and shooting, learning from teachers, smart knowledge, respect for teachers, love people.” After he Li became the crown prince, He Ze was the grand master, Xue Zong was the junior master, and Caiying, Zhang Chun, Feng Chu, Yan Wei and other celebrities were the attendants. According to relevant records, sun he had good Confucian cultivation and had a very harmonious relationship with Confucian scholars and doctors. Therefore, sun he was the most suitable successor after sun Deng, and the Confucian scholars and doctors who supported sun Deng in his early years gradually gathered around the prince.

However, only eight months later, Sun Quan created a new succession struggle and crisis. In August of the fifth year of chiwu, Sun Quan granted the fourth descendant Ba the title of king of Lu, “there is no difference between loving and worshiping special things and peace. Qing Zhi, the voice of peace and Ba Bu Mu was heard by Quan Er, and Quan banned contacts, pretending to be a refined learning.” [8] According to the annotation of the biography of sun he in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Tongyu said, “in the early days, Quan established he as the prince, and granted Ba as the king of Lu. At the beginning, he worshipped the same palace as before, and the rank of rites was not divided.” In this way, with the support of Sun Quan, the status of King Lu’s hegemony rose, forming a trend of seizing heirs. Due to the equal status of sun he and sun Ba brothers, the courtiers also divided, forming two camps, the crown prince party and the king of Lu party, which clashed with each other. After about seven or eight years of brutal struggle, Sun Quan vaguely felt the crisis of rule. He said to Sun Jun, the servant: “if the children are not good, the subordinate branches will be defeated by the yuan family, and the world will laugh. If one person is established, will there be no chaos? ‘, so there is a rule to change his heir.” [9] In the 13th year of chiwu (250), Sun Quan deposed sun he and gave the king of Lu Ba death, and changed his young son Liang to the crown prince. In this process, many courtiers supporting the crown prince and were condemned, exiled and even killed, and many people in the luwangba group were also killed. The struggle between the two parties came to an end. The long duration, the number of people involved, the intensity of mutual harm and the severity of the damage of the struggle between the crown prince and the king of Lu are rare in history. Although Sun Quan temporarily calmed down the “dispute between the two palaces” by decisive means, its legacy was difficult to eradicate. In the first year of the Taiyuan (252), Sun Quan died of illness, and Sun Liang succeeded to the throne. Ran Liang was only ten years old, young and ignorant, and could only become a puppet manipulated by powerful officials, so that the Sun Wu regime finally fell into decline in the deteriorating political struggle.

With regard to the “dispute between the two palaces” between sun and Wu, many old historians found it difficult to understand, and blindly scolded Sun Quan for his stupidity in his later years. For example, peisongzhi in the Liu Song Dynasty noted in the biography of sun he in the annals of the Three Kingdoms: “Chen Songzhi thought that Yuan Shao and Liu Biao said that (yuan) Shang and (Liu) Cong were virtuous, which originally meant to pass on the later meaning, which was different from Sun Quan’s standing in peace and resuming the tyrant, sitting in disorder, and self constructing family disasters. The stupidity of Fang Yuan and Liu was even worse.” Sun Quan’s faintness is great, but the key is to analyze the reasons for his doing so. According to literature records, the direct cause of the “two palace structure dispute” is still Sun Quan’s “no distinction between the legitimate and the common, and the disorder of the palace”. It has been mentioned before that Sun Quan did not abide by the Confucian ritual system, valued color and despised morality, and did not establish it for a long time, which led to a serious situation in which Mrs. Xu and Mrs. Bu fought for the queen and endangered the crown prince’s status. Mrs. Bu, a native of Huaiyin, was of the same family as Bu Jia. In her early years, she “was lucky to have Sun Quan and spoiled the backyard with her beauty”, and she was not jealous. Therefore, she had been treated with love for a long time and wanted to become a queen. Finally, she failed because the courtiers fought against Mrs. Xu. This is a typical example of Sun Quan’s contempt for etiquette and law, and his contempt for morality and love for sex [10]. However, after Bu’s delay of more than ten years, there are two main reasons: first, old age and color decline, Sun Quan empathy; The second is that Bu has no children. After the step family, the most favored by Sun Quan is Mrs. Wang. Wang is a person of Langxie, “Sheng he, spoiled the second step family”, especially after sun he became the crown prince, “he is valuable to his mother, and those who are spoiled by all concubines are all out of the house.” [11] Obviously, Wang and bu vied for favor, catching up from behind. Bu Fu has two daughters in his life. The eldest daughter is Luban. She first married Zhou yuzixun and then remarried Quan Cong, so she is called Princess Quan; The second daughter, Lu Yu, married Liu Zui first and then remarried Zhu Ju, so she was called Princess Zhu. Sun Quan doted on them very much, especially when his eldest daughter went into and out of the palace, she was concerned about politics and quite ambitious. Because her mother Bu was excluded by the crown prince and the wife of the queen mother, she hated her grandchildren and mother and son and wanted to die later. According to relevant records, Princess Quan played an important role in the “two palace dispute”. Records of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, biography of Mrs. sun Liangquan:

All are still women. From the grandmother to the princess, every time you see it, you can always get along with it. And Mrs. Pan’s mother and son were favored, and the Lord himself had a gap with his grandson and mother, but he persuaded the right to be Mrs. Liang Na, the pan’s male, and Liang Sui became his heir.

Together with the book “biography of Mrs. sun Xiuzhu”:

Zhu junnv, born to sister Xiu’s Princess At the beginning, when sun he was the prince, the Lord hurt the king’s wife and wanted to abolish the prince and set up the king of Lu. Zhu didn’t listen, so there was a gap.

Also, “biography of sun he”:

It is the Queen’s wife who has a gap with Princess Quan. Right to taste sleeping sickness, and temple sacrifice in temple, and imperial concubine Uncle Zhang Xiu live near temple, invited and lived. The whole Princess made people look at her. Because she said that the prince was not in the temple, she only discussed with the imperial concubine’s family; It was also said that Mrs. Wang was happy when she saw her sleeping sickness. The reason for power is to be angry, and the wife is worried about death, but she is slightly damaged with her pet, and is afraid of deposing.

“Biography of sun and He Ji”:

Sun Liang ascended the throne and Sun Jun assisted the government. Jun Su was obsessed with the Lord, and there was a gap between the Lord and his mother, so he persuaded Jun to move to Hexin capital, send an envoy to die, and Zhang Shi, his first wife, also committed suicide.

From the above four paragraphs, we can roughly see the whole process of the whole princess’s hatred with her grandchildren and mother and son and their framing. There is no doubt that Princess Quan is a key figure in the “struggle between the two palaces” from the perspective of the court struggle of Sun Wu. Some ambitious people in the sun clan, such as Sun Jun, gathered around the princess Quan to make waves. After Sun Liang took the throne, they once manipulated power. The princess Quan’s husband’s family had “five Marquis, and the rest were chamberlains, riding Duwei, and Su Wei. They were from Wuxing, and their relatives were beyond their reach.” [12] Sun Quan’s “indistinguishable from the common people and disordered palace walls” has caused such serious political harm, which is really shocking!

3? The main members of the two factions in the “two palace structure” and their confrontation

From the perspective of court struggle, the above article examines Sun Quan’s mistakes in establishing heirs. But this is only one aspect of the problem. If we only stay at this point, we cannot grasp the essence of this struggle. In other words, there are deeper reasons behind this series of events. The root of it lies in the contradiction and conflict between Sun Quan and the Confucian aristocracy. In the process of the “two palaces structure struggle”, its scope far exceeded the court struggle, and the vast number of courtiers also split, forming two groups with clear lines and carrying out cruel strife. Hu Sansheng, a historian of the Yuan Dynasty, pointed out: “the gap between peace and hegemony is also formed by the intersection of the two palaces and bureaucrats.” [13] As for the main members of the two groups, the notes of the annals of the Three Kingdoms sun he Zhuan quote Yin Ji’s Tongyu:

At the beginning, power established he as the prince, and granted hegemony as the king of Lu. At the beginning, worship was still in the same palace, and the ceremony rank was not divided. The Duke of the group thought that the prince and the king were in order, and the order of etiquette should be different, so he divided the palace into different bureaucrats, and the gap was open. The self serving guests are made into two ends, the enemy party doubts two, and the minister Ziyan. Prime Minister Lu Xun, general zhugeke, Taichang Gutan, Hussar General Zhu Ju, Kuaiji prefect Teng Yin, governor Shi Ji, Shangshu Ding MI and others were honored to act as princes. Hussar general Bu Jia, Zhennan general Lu Dai, Da Sima quancong, Zuo general Lu Ju, Zhongshu order Sun Hong and other officials attached to the king of Lu, and Chinese and foreign bureaucrat generals and ministers were divided in the country.

Yin Ji’s records are the main representatives of the two factions, which roughly shows the camp and opposition of the two factions. In addition, according to historical books such as the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu and Pei song’s notes, there are far more figures from both parties. The following is a brief description of the two groups of figures that can be examined for further discussion. First, inspect the prince and the party.

Lu Xun, according to the five eight biographies of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the Wu people in Wujun, whose clan is “shijiangdong clan”, is an outstanding representative of the Confucian clan in Jiangdong. He is an official to the general, and is in charge of the three counties of Jingzhou and Yuzhang. He has been in charge of the upper class military for a long time. After Gu Yong’s death, he also led the prime minister. On the issue of Sun Quan establishing heirs, he followed the Confucian rites and laws, first supporting sun Deng, and then supporting sun he. His attitude was very firm: “first, the two palaces are at the same time, Chinese and foreign functions, and more children are sent to serve”. Xun opposed Quan Cong and his son king aphulu, “Cong neither accepted, but even gap”, and when the prince had “uneasy suggestions”, Xun Shangshu said, “the prince is orthodox and should have the strength of a rock. The vassal of the king of Lu should make a difference in the rank of favours, get what they want from each other, and be safe up and down. I would like to kowtow and bleed to hear.” Not only that, inferior to “three or four books, but also seek attainments, and want to talk about the division of legitimate and common people, in order to overcome gains and losses.” With the intensification of the struggle, Sun Quan will support the prince and his ministers to send more troops and kill more people, and “in the tiring dispatch, he will blame and shout, and be angry and die.”

Gu Tan, according to the biography of Gu Yong in Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Tan Naijiang, one of the leaders of the eastern Confucian clan, is the grandson of Gu Yong, the nephew of Lu Xun, a Wu native of Wujun, “My grandfather Yong died for several months, worshipped Tai Chang, and advocated books on behalf of Yong Ping. At that time, King Ba of Lu had great favor and was in harmony with the crown prince. Tan Shangshu said: ‘when I heard that there was a state-owned family, I would know the end of the legitimate and common people, the ceremony of different dignity and inferiority, so that there was a difference between the high and the low, and the class was more than Miao. In this way, my flesh and blood were born, and I coveted it very much…. what I said today, I sincerely want to put the crown prince in order to facilitate the king of Lu.’ so there is a gap between Ba and tan.” In addition, Tan Su did not make friends with Quan Cong’s father and son, so he was contaminated, exiled to Jiaozhou, and died in Jiaozhi. Tan Yicheng also died in exile because of his attachment to the crown prince and.

Zhu Ju, the biography of the five or seven volumes of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, said that Wu people in Wu county “were both talented and civil and military”, Shang Princess Lu Yu, an official to the general of hussars, “were contested by the two palaces, and they supported the crown prince. Their words were sincere, their righteousness was disguised, and they kept it to death, so they moved to Xindu county to the left. Before they arrived, the Chinese imperial court ordered sun Hongchen to run the imperial court, and Hong was chased and killed by an imperial edict because of the illness of his right to sleep. At that time, they were 57.” Even when Sun Liang was young, Princess Lu Yu and her second son were implicated and died. This biography quotes Yin Ji’s “Tongyu” according to the words of remonstrance: “I heard the root of the crown prince, elegant, benevolent and filial, and the world returns to my heart. Now I will worry about it for a while. In the past Jin Dynasty, I offered Li Ji to apply for life and did not exist, and in the Han Dynasty, I believed Jiang Chong and Li, and the crown prince died unjustly. I was afraid that the crown prince could not bear the worry, although I established the palace of thinking of the son, there was nothing left.”

Ding MI, according to the biography of Yu FANZHUAN in volume five and seven of the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the annotated and quoted code of Kuaiji, Kuaiji Shanyin people, father Ding LAN, “clear body and stand on the line, meticulous intention, promote wealth from his brother, call it righteousness and concession,… He is a delicate and clean person, and there are no miscellaneous guests.” The secret has the style of being the father, which is praised by the great Confucian scholars in Wu, such as Kan Ze and Yu fan.

Shi Ji, according to the biography of Zhu ran in volume V and VI of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Ran’s surname was Shi, Dan Yang Zhu ruled his adopted son, Ji was Ran’s son, and then his surname was Shi. In the “two palace structure dispute”, the king of Lu paid attention to the performance, tasted it, sat down on it, wanted to tie it up, lived and stood under the performance, and resigned improperly Obviously, he refused the king of Lu and kissed the prince.

Teng Yin, according to the biography of the sixth and fourth volumes of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, was born in Beihai Opera (today’s Dongchang and Lexi). His father and Zhou avoided disaster in Jiangdong at the end of the Han Dynasty, and Yin was weak in the title of “Princess Shang” and his deeds in the “two palace structure dispute” are not detailed. Before his death, Sun Quan ordered him to “be assisted by the imperial edict with Zhuge Ke and others.”

Zhugeke, according to the biography of Zhuge Jin in volume 64 and Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, was born in Langxie Yangdu (now Shandong is near Yinan) and the eldest son of Jin. Jin Han took refuge in Jiangdong and was an important Confucian scholar among overseas Chinese. The specific performance of Ke in the “dispute between the two palaces” is not detailed. Sun Quan assisted Sun Liang before his death. According to the biography of sun Fen in Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, when Ke Fuliang was born, Liang’s younger brother worked hard, Zhuge Ke admonished: “Yuan Shao and Liu Biao each have their own territory. The land is not narrow, and the people are not weak. They destroy their ancestral sacrifices regardless of their own interests. This is the folly and pain of the world…. the king should take the king of Lu as a warning, change his behavior, be cautious, and respect the court as much as possible, so there is no need to ask for it…. this ancient and modern justice, the king knows it too…. to make the king of Lu accept the words of loyalty, fear and fear, and enjoy endless power, is there the disaster of destruction?” He admonished sun Fen about the king of Lu and strictly declared “the difference between the legitimate and the common people”, which showed that he and Lu Xun had the same attitude.

In addition to the above-mentioned people recorded by Yin Ji, there were more than ten courtiers who supported the crown prince and.

Lu Yin, according to the biography of Lu Kai in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, is the son of Lu Xun’s family, “he was first the imperial envoy, the minister selected Cao Lang, and the crown prince heard his name, waiting for special rites. Hui Quanji, Yang Zhu and other king bullies of Fu Lu, fought with peace, and the Yin was in conflict with each other. Yin sat in prison, and Chu poison was prepared, and there was no other word.”

Gu Ti, according to Pei’s note in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Gu Yong’s biography, Ti is a member of Yong’s people, from the official to the general, “in the last years of power, there was no distinction between the legitimate and the common people. Ti Shu and the Hussar General Zhu Ju shared Chen Zhenfu, his words were straight, and the imperial court was afraid of it.”

Zhang Chun, a native of Wu County, is as famous as Lu Xun as his father Dun, according to Wu Lu. Chun Ren is the prince and Fu Du Wei [14]. According to the commentary of Wu Shu in the biography of sun he, Sun Quan wanted to replace him with the king of Lu, “Zhang Chun also made great comments, and the power was quiet, so he abandoned the market.”

I can, according to the five or seven biographies of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wucheng people in Wujun were less “in unison” with Lu Xun and others, and the official to the crown prince and the grand Fu, “suffered the change of the two palaces, resisted to govern, and was divided into the Ming Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty. If the king of Lu wanted to send Yang Zhu out of Xiakou, he could not order him to be in the capital. There were also news saying Xun, who was stationed in Wuchang at the time of Xun, and even expressed remonstrance and contention. Therefore, he was harmed by Ba, Zhu and others, and was sentenced to prison.”

Yao Xin, a native of Wuxing, Wujun County, has a straight character. He is an official of taichangqing and Lu Xun’s nephew, who “attached to the crown prince personally and saw the exile in vain.” [15]

Ji Zhi, according to the “Wu Lu” annotated in the “annals of the Three Kingdoms · biography of SUN Hao”, on the word Zhi, Danyang people, “at the beginning, it was zhongshulang, and Sun Jun’s envoy heckled Nanyang king he and ordered him to quote points. Zhi Mi’s envoy ordered Zheng Ci to take care of himself, severe anger. Zhi was afraid and kept his door closed.” It also said, “Hao, who is connected with he by his fathers, all his family members moved to Dongye, but Zhiyi has a secret decree, and he specially sealed the Marquis of Fudu.” Zhi Zhi happened after he Xiao, but he secretly protected sun he, which shows his attitude.

Shi Yi, according to the biography of volume 62 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, was born in Yingling, Beihai (now Southeast of Changle, Shandong Province). At the end of the Han Dynasty, he avoided chaos in the east of the river, and was deeply trusted by Sun Quan, “the special code is confidential”. He maintained the orthodox position of the crown prince and: “When the two palaces of Nan and Lu were first established, Yi was competent to lead the Fu of the king of Lu. Yi suspected that the two palaces were close and cut, but it was a sparse saying: ‘it is appropriate for the minister to steal from the king of Lu to support virtue and virtue, and also to invest in civil and military affairs. Today, it is appropriate to town in all directions and assist the state vassals. It is a good rule of the country to promote virtue and beauty, and to spread prestige and prestige. But the minister’s words are contemptible and wild, and his meaning cannot be investigated. It is advisable for the two palaces to be demoralized, correct the upper and lower order, and the foundation of enlightened education.’ Book 34. Be loyal to Fu at any time Remonstrance. ” In fact, Shi Yi rarely admonished, “power often blames him for not saying anything and doing nothing wrong.” Moreover, he was also the master of the king of Lu, who “readily admonished” the king of Lu for self-discipline, and repeatedly suggested that Sun Quan serve as the king of Lu outside, with “the order of the top and the bottom, the foundation of Mingjiao”, which was obviously inclined to support the prince and.

Zhang Xiu, father Zhang Zhao, according to the biography of Zhang Zhao in Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, born in Pengcheng (now Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province), took refuge in Jiangdong at the end of the Zhao Han Dynasty, and was an outstanding representative of overseas Chinese scholars with integrity and fortitude. Hugh had the wind of being his father. He was an official to General Yang Wu, and attached to the crown prince and “was killed by the overlord of the king of Lu”, and “moved to the state with the brothers of Gu Tan and Gu Cheng”. The Chinese Book ordered Sun Hong to “be cunning, false and dangerous, and Hugh was angry. Hong issued an imperial edict to give Hugh his death because he was suing. He was forty-one years old.”

Qu Huang, a native of Runan (now Pingyu, Henan Province), according to the biography of sun he, Huang Ren was the minister and supported sun he, and Sun Quan abolished peace, Huang and Zhu Ju and others “led all the officials to bind their heads with mud, and asked for peace for days…. it was not difficult to supervise Chen Zheng and Chen Xiang, the governor of the five camps, to write a letter, calling on the Duke of Jin to kill Shen Sheng, making Xi Qi, the state of Jin was disturbed, and Huang Gu admonished more than once. Quan was furious, and he executed Zheng, Xiang, Ju, Huang led them into the temple, and with a hundred sticks, they were moved to Gu Zhang, and the group division sat and admonished, and more than ten people were put away, all of whom were bitterly wronged.” Peisongzhi’s note quoted Qu Huang’s admonition in Wu Lu and said, “the crown prince is kind and bright, and he is well-known all over the world. Now the three sides are relying on each other, so it’s really inappropriate to shake the crown prince in order to create the hearts of all people. May your Majesty pay less attention to the holy concerns, and although the old minister is dead, he is still alive.” Even kowtow and bleed. This record not only shows that Qu Huang firmly supports prince he, but also has many generals and officials such as Chen Zheng and Chen Xiang. There are as many as “more than ten” people who were killed and exiled simply because of remonstrance.

According to the Wu Lu annotated in the annals of the Three Kingdoms sun dengzhuan, Yang Cong, a native of Nanyang (now Nanyang, Henan), was a prince in his early years and became a concubine of the Middle Kingdom. He was talented. According to the biography of King Lu, in the “struggle between the two palaces”, he was the envoy of the army, Zeng shusun Quan said: “Hearing that there was a world in ancient times, all ministers first showed their different legitimate and feudal sons. Therefore, they respected their ancestors and expressed their respect for the state and vassal…. or it was said that the two palaces did not follow the code, so the minister could not sleep at ease. As suspected, it was still advisable to pay close attention and consider closely, so that there would be no dissenting words from far and near. The minister was afraid of accumulating doubts into slander, and would be publicized for a long time,… It would be said that the two palaces had misdeeds. How can you solve it if you don’t try your majesty? May your majesty issue an excellent edict early, so that the two palaces would circle the ritual order as before, and the sky would be clear Heaven and earth are at peace, and all nations are blessed. ” Obviously, Yang Xuan also advocated the division of legitimate and common people, and tended to support the prince and.

According to the above, it can be confirmed that there are 20 courtiers supporting the crown prince and. This list can be roughly analyzed to see its basic characteristics. First, the leader of this school is Prime Minister Lu Xun, and the backbone is the Confucian aristocracy in Jiangdong. Among them, Lu Xun, Lu Yin, Gu Tan, Gu Cheng, Gu Ti, Zhang Chun and Zhu Ju, the representatives of Wu’s “four surnames”, and other Jiangdong figures are Wucan, Yao Xin, Ding MI, Shi Ji and Ji Zhi. There are a total of 12 people in Jiangnan; There are six people living in overseas Chinese: zhugeke, tengyin, Zhang Xiu, Shiyi, Qu Huang, Yang Xuan, etc. most of them are scholars of Confucianism of beiren, not generals of huaisi army, so they have common political ideas with Jiangdong clan on the issue of establishing heirs. In addition, Chen Zheng and Chen Xiang have no place of origin to test. Second, the Underachievers in this faction, such as Gutan, zhugeke, Zhang Xiu and Yang Fan, were subordinate officials of the crown prince in their early years, and later turned to support the crown prince and followed the same line, strictly abiding by the principle of Confucian legitimacy and growth, and were not a sudden mob; Third, the figures of this faction opposed Sun Quan’s indifference to the common people and opposed the imperial power, so they were severely attacked by Sun Quan. Lu Xun was blamed and killed, Zhang Chun, Wu can, Zhu Zhu Zhu, Chen Zheng, Chen Xiang, etc. were killed, and Gu Tan, Gu Cheng, Zhang Xiu, etc. were exiled to death. The dead were mainly Jiangdong people, and only Zhang Xiu and other individuals in the north. This shows that Sun Quan’s treatment of the northern and southern figures in this school is different.

As for the courtiers who supported Lu wangba, according to the previous quotation of Yin Ji’s Tongyu, there were mainly Bu Gu, Lu Dai, Quan Cong, Lu Ju and Sun Hong. In addition, according to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu and Pei Zhu, there were still many people, which were examined and described as follows.

Bu Jia, according to the biography of Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, came from Huaiyin (now Huaiyin, Jiangsu Province) and took refuge in Jiangdong at the end of the Han Dynasty. He was a scholar of Confucianism. In political struggles such as the Lu Yi incident, he was in line with the attitude of famous scholars in Jiangdong such as Lu Xun and Gu Yong. He called him “a minister of the country with his heart and shoulders”. In his early years, he also supported Prince Deng, which was consistent with Confucian etiquette. Why did he finally turn to support Sun Ba? Peisongzhi noted in the biography of sun he: “Bu Gu is famous for his virtue and is a good minister of Wu, while a Fu Yu Ba is the same as Yang Zhu. What’s the matter? Since he is in the right position and divided between the legitimate and the common people, he makes the talent and morality not different. He will still be righteous but not party and the common people, and Kuang Ba is really unheard of, but he is making the heir?… if there is such a thing, the rest is not enough!” Peisongzhi regretted that he did not understand the reason why the Buchang party attached to the king of Lu. In fact, the main reason for the party hegemony of Kan is the activities of Princess Quan. Mrs. Bu is of the same family as Gu. Therefore, Mrs. Wang and the crown prince are favored, which is detrimental to the Bu family. Therefore, for the benefit of the family, Gu has done something against the integrity of Confucianism.

According to Lu Ju, according to Lu Fan’s biography in Volume 56 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, according to his father fan, who was born in Xiyang, Runan (now Southeast of Taihe, Anhui Province), fan led more than 100 private soldiers into Jiangdong and became military generals. It is reported that he also practiced martial arts, and his party’s attachment to sun Ba is not detailed.

Lu Dai, according to the biography of Volume 60 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, was born in Hailing, Guangling (now Taizhou, Jiangsu Province). He crossed the south at the end of the Han Dynasty and led the army for a long time. There is no detailed account of the party’s attachment to the king of Lu.

Quan Cong, according to the biography of Volume 60 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, was born in Qiantang, Wujun, and was not a Confucian family. Cong married Lu Ban, the eldest daughter of Sun Quan. “Cong is both pro and respected, and the children of the clan are favored”, “he is obedient, good at accepting Yan and rules, and his words are not serious.” This shows that Cong is clever and good at speculation. According to Lu Xun’s biography and Mrs. sun Liangquan’s biography, under the arrangement of Princess Quan, Quan Cong and his son were affiliated with sun Ba, and tried to slander Lu Xun, Gu Tan and others.

Sun Hong, according to “Wu Lu” cited in the annotation of “Zhang Zhao Zhuan”, Hong, the person of Kuaiji, and the written order, “being a dangerous man”, was Sun Quan’s sycophantic minister, and many ministers who supported the crown prince and were framed by him.

“Lu Wang Ba Zhuan” also contains: “Shi Quanji, Wu’an, sun Qi, Yang Zhu are all attached to the Ba, trying to endanger the crown prince. If the destruction is done, the crown prince will be defeated, and the Ba will also be killed.” Quan Ji, the second son of Quan Cong, “Lu Xun Zhuan” called him “king of apulu, light as cross structure”. Gu Tan and Zhang Xiu were attacked and heckled by him, and then died with the tyrant. Wu’an, according to the “biography of Mrs. Sun Jian Wu”, an Nai, the grandson of Mrs. Wu’s brother Jing and a native of Qiantang, Wujun, “sat on the throne of the king of Lu and died.”

Yang Zhu, a native of Guangling (now Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province), was su and Lu xunbumu [16]. Later, the party attached to the king of Lu and caused trouble. He was the main adviser of the king of Lu. According to Wu Lu quoted in the commentary of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Lu Kai’s biography, “the crown prince is afraid of being deposed, and the king of Lu covets benefits very much. When he sees Yang Zhu in power, he sets aside his left and right sides and talks about hegemonic talent. Zhu said that hegemonic has civil and military heroism and should be his legitimate heir, so his power is limited.” After the tyrant was defeated, Zhu Liushi died in the river.

Sun Qi, native place and track record have no test.

Zhuge Chuo, according to the biography of Zhuge Ke, “Ke’s eldest son Chuo, riding a Duwei, had the right to send Fu Ke to deal with the affairs of the king of Lu, so that he could teach more and kill him with poison.”

Sun Jun, according to the biography of Volume VI and IV of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Sun Jian’s younger brother Jing’s great grandson, Sun Quan, at the end of his tenure as a minister, “Jun has no duplicate name, arrogant and dangerous”, and has an affair with Princess Quan, so he is attached to the king of Lu. According to the book of Wu cited in the biography of sun he, “the disease of sleeping in power has a great meaning. If you want to levy and return it, Princess Quan, Sun Jun and Sun Hong will fight for it.” It can be seen that Sun Jun, Princess Quan and Sun Hong hurt sun he and were afraid of his ruling.

Of course, the core figure supporting Lu wangba is Princess Quan, which has been detailed in advance, so it’s not redundant.

From the previous examination, there are mainly 12 members of the Lu Wang party. Generally speaking, they mainly have the following characteristics. First, from the perspective of region, there are five people living in overseas Chinese residence, including Bu Jia, zhugechuo, Yang Zhu, Lu Dai and Lu Ju. In the south, there are Quan Cong, Quan Ji father and son, Wu’an, Sun Hong, Sun Jun, etc. on the surface, bu Jia has the highest reputation and can be regarded as a representative, but in fact, the core figure is Princess Quan; Secondly, most of the figures of this school come from poor families, rather than Confucianism, which is obviously different from the crown prince party, so there are obvious differences in political ideas; Third, the main members of this sect are mostly the clans, relatives of the Sun Wu regime or the sycophants of Sun Quan, which are closely related to the imperial power, such as Bu Gu, Quan Cong’s father and son, Quan princess, Sun Jun, Sun Hong, etc. in a sense, it seems that this is a political sect cultivated by Sun Quan, and it is the vassal and tool of the imperial power. Because of this, Sun Quan had much protection for this faction, killing only a few insignificant people. The main characters, Princess Quan, Sun Jun, Sun Hong, all turned to support the young master Sun Liang and once held power.

After the formation of the two major political factions, there was a fierce struggle and brutal confrontation around the issue of Sun Quan’s heirs, and both sides used a large number of conspiracy means. “Sun he Zhuan” contains: “King Lu Ba coveted Zi very much. Lu Xun, Wu can, Gu Tan and others counted Chen Di Shu’s righteousness, which can’t be taken away. Quan Qi and Yang Zhu supported the Party of King Lu and sued Rixing.” According to the former quote “Prince and biography”, sun he and his wife went out to the temple, and the princess sent people to watch. Sun he group also had a similar performance. According to Wu Lu quoted in the biography of Lu Kai and Lu Yin in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Sun Quan and Yang Zhu planned to establish the king of Lu. The prince and his envoy “gave the envoy to lie under the bed, heard of it, and told the prince. (Lu) Yin when he came to Wuchang, and left the prince. The prince disappeared, but he took a micro suit on his car, and secretly discussed with him, hoping to make Lu Xun express his remonstrance.” Prince Taifu Wucan and others “told the news that they were inferior. When they were inferior, they were stationed in Wuchang and even expressed remonstrance.” [17] There are many such cases, which are difficult to describe. The above few cases have generally shown their situation. The so-called overt and covert fighting is indeed true.

4? Analysis of the nature of “two palaces structure dispute”

Mr. Fang Beichen discussed the nature of the “two palace structure dispute” in the article “on the Jiangdong aristocratic family in the Wei, Jin and Southern Dynasties”. He believes that the two parties are mainly political factions linked by region. “Those who support the prince and are mainly Jiangdong aristocratic families”, while “those who support the hegemony of King Lu are mainly Jiangbei landlords”, and Sun Quan supports Jiangbei landlords and attacks Jiangdong aristocratic families. Therefore, the nature of this struggle “is the struggle between the two political factions of Jiangdong aristocratic families and Jiangbei landlords.” [18] Indeed, in the process of the establishment of the Sunwu regime, there were obvious conflicts and struggles between scholars in the north and South regions. Since then, there has been a shadow of regional contradictions in Sunwu politics. From this, it can be said that what Mr. Fang said really reveals the characteristics of the “two palace structure dispute” from one side, which can be described as a clear view.

However, as far as the overall evolution trend of Sunwu politics is concerned, it is the Jiangdong transformation of Sunwu regime and huaisi group, and this change has been basically completed in the reign of Sun Quan and Huang Wu, and huaisi figures have been integrated into Jiangdong society. Therefore, simply discussing the nature of the “two Palace structure” that occurred in the late years of Sun Quan and the previous LV Yi case and Ji Yan case based on geographical divisions is not only inconsistent with the truth, And many historical facts cannot be explained roundly. For example, among people in the north, the confrontation between Sun Quan and Zhang Zhao is quite serious, and Zhang Zhao is completely consistent with Jiang Dong Lu Xun and others in opposing Sun Quan’s expedition to Liaodong and other major events. As another example, as early as when the crown prince and sun Deng asked him about a virtuous person, he called Lu Xun and other Jiangdong figures. When Lu Yi played with Lu Xun, Guyong and other Jiangdong figures, he wrote Sun Quan: “prime minister Gu Yong, general Lu Xun, Taichang Panjun, are deeply worried and responsible, are determined to be wholehearted, be cautious day and night, and want to settle the country and benefit the people, and build a long-term plan. It can be said that they are the ministers of the country.” [19] Another example is Lu Dai, who once took charge of the military and political affairs of Jingzhou with Lu Xun, and cooperated and coordinated. Zhang Cheng sent a letter to Dai: “in the past Dan and the Yi Zhou dynasties, the song” Er Nan “is sung, and now it is with Lu ziye.” Dai was also “close to Xu Yuan in Wujun”, “he was loyal and frank, and he was always ready to admonish him about his gains and losses.” Dai regarded him as a “good friend”. After Yuan died, Dai cried bitterly, thinking that no one could “smell” [20]. According to the “annals of the Three Kingdoms · Wu Shu · biography of Zhuge Jin”, Yu fan, a famous scholar in Yuyao, Kuaiji, said that “he moved in a crazy way, but Jin repeatedly did it.” Not only that, the Confucian clans in the north and South have begun to intermarry. For example, Zhang Zhao’s granddaughter married Lu Xunzi, and the most important marriage was marriage. At that time, intermarriage between the two most influential families in the north and South began, which shows that they have fused to a certain extent. Among the subordinates of Prince sun Deng, North and South talents live in harmony with each other. Therefore, after Sun Quan became emperor, he did not see typical cases of intentional exclusion and strife between northern and southern scholars. On the contrary, there are many examples of mutual cooperation, which are difficult to enumerate one by one. It is precisely because of the Jiangdong style of the northerners and the mutual integration between the northern and southern scholars that the regional gap has gradually weakened. Therefore, after entering the Jin Dynasty, many Northerners who migrated southward in the late Han Dynasty have registered in Jiangdong [21]. In addition, in the “two palace structure dispute”, members of both parties have mixed north and south, that is, there are northerners in the first Department of Jiangdong and southerners in the first Department of Jiangbei. What is more difficult to explain is that Zhuge Ke’s father and son are different from each other, he is attached to the crown prince, and his son is attached to the king of Lu. I’m afraid the above historical facts cannot be explained by a simple “regionalism”.

Therefore, we need to think and demonstrate more deeply on this issue in order to get a view closer to the historical truth. By searching the literature and referring to the research results of previous scholars, I think that in terms of its fundamental nature, a series of major political changes in the process of founding the state of Sun Wu are the inevitable reflection of the profound internal contradiction between the imperial power from the humble family and the Confucian aristocracy.

The period between Han and Wei Dynasties was an era of rapid change in ancient Chinese history, and its influence involved social politics, ideology, culture and other fields. Although there are many reasons for this situation, one of the key factors in politics is the rise of poor warlords in chaos, and they have launched a fierce conflict and struggle with the Confucian aristocracy. We know that since the Eastern Han Dynasty, the forces of the Confucian aristocracy have risen day by day and gradually become the leading force at that time. Although they were destroyed by the imperial power and its dependent forces at the end of the Han Dynasty – eunuchs and relatives, their prosperity ended. However, the warlord scuffle between the Han and Wei dynasties temporarily interrupted their development process. Most of the warlord regimes that rose in the scuffle came from poor families, and the military representatives of the Confucian aristocracy such as Yuan Shao, Liu Yu, Liu Biao, Liu Yan, etc. were successively destroyed. In the process of fighting for domination and its rule, the poor warlords in various regions have clashed with the local Confucian aristocracy to varying degrees, and implemented various policies to destroy and suppress the Confucian aristocracy. The most famous is that Cao Cao practiced the rule of “magic” and the system of “school affairs” in the Central Plains, killing celebrities such as Kongrong, which changed the customs and had a great impact. Others, such as Gongsun Zan, Gongsun Du, father and son, are dedicated to harming people of aristocratic families. Even Zhugeliang’s rule of Shu is also to promote the rule of law and curb aristocratic families [22]. As for the eastern Wu, there is a similar situation, but in the past, people generally said that Sun Wu established the country with the support of the northern and southern ethnic groups, thus ignoring the in-depth exploration of this issue.

In fact, the sun family of Fuchun came from a poor family, and Chen Shou said in the “review” of the annals of the Three Kingdoms – Sun Jian’s biography that Jian “made his fortune alone” [23]. According to the “Fu Ruizhi Shang”, Volume 27 of the book of Song Dynasty, “Sun Jian’s ancestor was Zhong. His family was in Fuchun, Wujun, and he lived alone with his mother. He was extremely filial. He suffered from age shortage and took melon planting as his industry.” “Taiping Yulan” volume 599 “etiquette Department · tomb III” quoted from “Youming record” is also contained. The ancestor of Jian “takes planting as his industry” as his industry. He is completely an isolated family, and there is no cultural inheritance at all. Because of this, Sun Jian could only seek to be a county official at the beginning, and then began to use martial arts and suppress the Yellow turban, and soon had a conflict with Confucian aristocratic figures. According to the original biography of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Jian was appointed as the governor of Changsha. “Wang ruisu, the governor of Jingzhou, was rude to Jian and was more determined than to kill him.” Wang Rui, who comes from the Wang family of Langxie [24], is a child of the Confucian clan. He despises Jian with his family status. The annotation of “Wu Lu” in Sun Jian’s biography contains: “Rui first attacked the zero and GUI thieves with Jian, and it’s quite light to use Jian as a military officer.” After Jian looked for an opportunity to kill Rui, Rui asked: “what is my sin?” Jian said: “sitting without knowing.” Rui was poor and forced to scrape gold and drink to death. ” The contradiction between Sun Jian and Wang Rui was caused by his family status. Sun Jian later attached to Yuan Shu, the tyrant, and was despised by scholars of Confucianism. Sun CE was ordered by Yuan Shu to attack Lu Kang, the governor of the Lujiang River. He was the representative of the Lu clan in the east of the kangnaijiang river. During this battle, more than 100 people of the Lu clan were trapped, and half of them died. This is the beginning of the sun family’s feud with the Jiangdong clan. Since then, sun CE returned to Jiangdong, and the Jiangdong clan regarded it as the remaining sins of Yuan Shu, with few collaborators. Therefore, sun CE fully relied on the support of Jiangbei army generals and counselors who accompanied the expedition, and carried out a bloody crackdown on the Jiangdong clan. “Annals of the Three Kingdoms · Wu Shu · sun Shaozhuan” annotated and quoted “Kuaiji Dianlu” as: “Sun CE pacified the Wu Hui and killed its heroes.” “Biography of Wu sovereignty” annotated and quoted “Fu Zi” also contained the policy of “moving thousands of miles, there are places in the south of the Yangtze River, killing its famous heroes, and threatening neighboring countries.” In the past, people paid little attention to these historical facts. After Mr. Tian Yuqing’s exquisite textual research and research in the article “the road to the founding of the state of Sun Wu” [25], he finally revealed the political millennium of Sun Wu and basically clarified the truth of the facts. According to Mr. Tian’s examination, sun CE killed many scholars in Jiangdong, including the Huiji Shengxian clan, the Zhouxin clan and the Jiaxing Wangsheng clan. Until the beginning of Sun Quan’s reign, he personally killed the Qingyi scholars such as Sheng Xian and Shen you. Later, he successively detained and exiled famous scholars such as weiteng, Yu Fan and Lu Ji in Wujun, similar to Cao Cao’s killing Kongrong. Lu Ji died in exile. Before his death, he claimed to have “Lu Ji in Wu County, a man with lofty ideals in the Han Dynasty” [26], which was not intended by the sun regime at all!

Of course, the Sunwu regime and the Jiangdong ethnic group also have the side of compromise and cooperation. The rulers of Sunwu realized that in order to establish a stable rule in Jiangdong, they must strive for the support and cooperation of Jiangdong aristocratic families. Zhang Zhao, the representative of overseas Chinese scholars, tried his best to attract Jiangdong figures. Lu Xun and Gu Yong, pragmatic figures in the Jiangdong clan, saw that the sun regime had a large scale, and only by cooperating with it could it bring a broader development space to the Jiangdong clan. Therefore, they successively entered the sun regime and became the leading figures in the military and political fields during the Huang Wu period, marking the realization of the “Jiangdong transformation” of the Sun Quan regime, and the gradual convergence of Confucian scholars from the north and the south, such as Zhang Zhao, Gu Yong Like Lu Xun, they all advocated moral politics and advocated the use of Confucian political ideas to regulate the politics of sun and Wu. Even Sun Quan’s sons, sun Deng and sun he, who had close contact with Confucian scholars, were obviously Confucian. In particular, sun Deng attached great importance to virtuous and loving scholars. His friendship and administration were no different from those of Confucian scholars, and he was deeply dissatisfied with the Lu Yi incident adopted by sun Quan to curb the aristocratic family. Before his death, he also spared Sun Quan: “ministers heard that politics listens to the people, laws and orders go by with time, and it is sincerely appropriate to carefully choose the time with generals and ministers, absorb public opinions, lenient punishment and light taxes, and even rest on military service, so as to comply with the popularity of the people.” [27] sun he also has the thought of rule of virtue, such as “when there is a secretary who asks about things with a book, and people who think they are treacherous and cunning will make mistakes because of things to produce evil intentions, which should not be long and should be avoided.” [28] this shows that after the founding of the state, Sun Wu realized the combination with the Confucian aristocracy to a certain extent.

However, sun Deng and sun he could not realize their Confucian political proposition. Sun Quan is a ruler who has been in power for a long time, which must not be a lucky thing for him personally or for history [29]. Because under the ancient centralized system, autocrats often had great political decision-making power, and changes in policies usually depended on the death of the old emperor before they could be implemented. Otherwise, some old things would continue, or even deteriorate, causing serious disasters. This is the political situation of Sun Quan in the middle and late period. On the one hand, for the sake of political stability, the regime had to be opened to the Confucian aristocracy in Jiangdong; On the other hand, in the face of the development of Confucian aristocratic forces and the Confucianization of their successors, he felt that the monarchy was restricted. Generally speaking, the politics of the humble clan advocates centralization, while the aristocratic clan requires decentralization to a certain extent. This is a pair of contradictions, and it is also the theme of the political struggle of various regional regimes during the Han and Wei dynasties. There is no doubt that Sun Quan, who came from a poor family, advocated strengthening imperial power like Cao Cao. The biography of Zhuge Jin in the annals of the Three Kingdoms contains a comment by Sun Quan on Cao Cao, which is very illustrative:

Recently, Bo said that he thought Cao Pi was dead, and the people of poison chaos should watch the signal collapse and be more calm. Wen all chose loyalty, leniency, grace, and sparing provincial service to please the hearts of the people, which is more harmful than exercising time. I thought otherwise. What he did was too bad to kill a small one, and to alienate people’s flesh and blood, which was cool. As for the imperial general, there have been few since ancient times. PI is not as good as Cao. Today, wisdom is not as good as pi, and still Pi is not as good as Cao He is also a disciple of Changwen (Chen Qun). In the past, those who were able to keep good deeds used to exercise their heads and were afraid to exercise their dignity. Therefore, they exhausted their hearts and minds and did not dare to do wrong. Catch PI Jiye, who has grown up in years, after undertaking Cao, add it with kindness and use it to feel righteousness. Today, Rui is young and weak, and he goes with others. This generation of Cao and others must be skillful in their behavior. Ah Dang bizhou, each of whom helps. On such a day, treachery and slander rise together, and resentment turns into disrespect. In the past, the group competed for profits, and the Lord and the young did not resist. How can it be defeated for a long time? Therefore, it is known that since ancient times, there are fourorfive people holding the handle of punishment, who do not leave the thorn and turn to the hoof! When the strong is weak, the weak should ask for help. This is the way of chaos and death.

These words can be described as Sun Quan’s heartfelt words. He strongly agreed with Cao Cao’s policy of centralizing power against the aristocratic family, but said he could not accept the fall of power of his successor, and clearly accused the aristocratic courtiers of being in power as a way of chaos and death, which must be avoided. Therefore, it can be said that Sun Quan took Cao Cao as an example and the situation after Cao Pi as a lesson, which was obvious in the middle and late period of his reign. Following Cao Cao’s example, he set up “school affairs” to supervise and report on figures of the Confucian aristocracy, which caused a huge political storm. With the aging of his age, Sun Quan became more and more worried about the things behind him. He was very worried about the rise of the Confucian family, and was very uneasy about the Confucianization of sun Deng and sun he. Therefore, he continued to create trouble and crack down on the figures of the Confucian family. The so-called “two palace structure” was the most serious political struggle Sun Quan launched against the Confucian family after the Lu Yi case.

In order to curb the rise of the Confucian clan, Sun Quan mainly relied on clan and relatives, and supported some talented and handsome people from poor families. In terms of the concept of establishing heirs, the Confucian clan followed the principle of establishing heirs based on their lineage, and successively supported eldest son Deng, crown prince he, and hoped to further promote the Confucianization process of the Sun Wu regime through them. Sun Quan is certainly very clear about the intentions of the aristocratic family. In order to avoid the rise of the Confucian aristocracy in the Cao Wei regime after Cao Cao, he intended to appease the king of Lu and cultivate new political forces to counter the political forces of the aristocracy. Unlike the crown prince and the members of the group, the main figures of the luwangba group are mostly from the humble family, clan and relatives, such as Wu’an, Sun Hong, Quan Cong and their sons in the south, who are not Jiangdong aristocratic families. Lu Dai and Lu Ju in the north are huaisi generals, Yang Zhu is a cold man, Sun Jun and Princess Quan are clan, of course, also a poor family. Among them, the scholar of Confucianism is only Bu Jia, but he is the mother of the whole princess, who is a relative. Therefore, this is a poor political group carefully cultivated by Sun Quan, whose behind the scenes manipulator is actually Sun Quan himself. Because of this, Sun Quan punished the crown prince and party figures more severely when dealing with the “two palace structure dispute”, and the main figures were killed and exiled; On the contrary, bu Jia, the main figure of the king of Lu’s hegemon party, was highly valued, and only killed Yang Zhu, Wu’an and several other cold warriors who were not closely related to the royal family. According to the biography of Sun Quan in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, after Lu Xun died in anger, Sun Quan rearranged the candidates for the assistant Politics: “take the Hussars general Bu GA as the prime minister, the Cavalry General Zhu Ju as the chief commander, the general of Wei Quan Cong as the right chief commander, the Zhennan general Lu Dai as the upper general, and the Weibei general zhugeke as the general.” Obviously, Lu Wang’s hegemonic faction had many bases and once divided Lu Xun’s power. The crown prince and other figures were only Zhu Ju and zhugeke, who were also Sun Quan’s son-in-law, so they were temporarily protected, but they were finally killed by Princess Quan and sun Jun.

Of course, we don’t deny that Sun Quan often consciously or unconsciously has regional factors when dealing with the internal struggle of his ruling group, which makes people boil down to regional struggle. But this is only a superficial phenomenon, not the essence of things. In dealing with the Ji Yan case, Lu Yi case, especially the political struggle of “the two palaces structure”, Sun Quan had many support and mercy for the scholars living in the north. As the crown prince and a member of the party, Zhu Geke was not only not severely punished at the beginning, but also appointed by Sun Quan as the Order Minister of the crown prince Liang. The reason why Sun Quan handled it like this is due to deep consideration. There are contradictions between Sun Quan and the Confucian aristocracy, and the main body of the Confucian aristocracy of Sun Wu is the Jiangdong Aboriginal clan, so the object of the struggle is also mainly the Jiangdong clan. The number of Confucian scholars living in Sun Wu is not only limited, but also separated from the rural society, and they are weak. Although they gradually integrate into the Jiangdong regional society with the common cultural foundation, they are still different after all. For the imperial power of Sun Wu, they not only lack the fierce antagonism of the Jiangdong clan, but also have strong dependence, which is easy to be controlled by the imperial power. Therefore, when Sun Quan attacked the Jiangdong aristocratic family, in order to make the state machine work normally, he often used exiles. Some exiled poor men saw Sun Quan’s mentality and were willing to serve as a tool for Sun Quan to fight against the Jiangdong clan in order to seize more power and interests. In short, as exiles, after Sun Quan formally established the country and realized the “Jiangdong transformation”, they themselves did not have the conditions to confront the Jiangdong indigenous clan. Every political event against the Jiangdong ethnic group was caused by Sun Quan, whose purpose was to solidify the imperial power. Of course, in these struggles, the Confucian clan in Jiangdong has been hit to varying degrees, but in the long run, the support of the local clan is the cornerstone of the survival and development of the regional regime. Sun Quan has repeatedly caused trouble, which makes the Jiangdong clan inevitably exert centrifugal force on the sun regime, losing the support of the Confucian clan, and the crisis of Sun Wu’s rule is coming. In this sense, it was Sun Quan himself who opened the end of the extinction of Sun Wu. Looking at the development track of the Sun Wu generation, it is true that since the Lu Yi case and the “two palace dispute”, Sun Wu has embarked on the path of decline. He Zhuo has pointed out that Sun Quan “is confused by the old villain, and Wu’s death will not be decided by Hao.” [30] reviewing the full text, he Zhuo’s insight into subtle insight is sufficient.

This article was published in the Journal of Nanjing University of Technology (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition, the first issue in 2003)


[1] Wu Shu Cheng Bing Zhuan, Volume 53 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, and Wu Lu, an annotation. [2] “Three Kingdoms · Wu Zhi · sun dengzhuan” in Volume II VIII of the preface to learning records. [3] Wu Shu sun Deng Zhuan, Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [4] “records of the Three Kingdoms · Wu Shu · sun dengzhuan” in Volume II VIII of the preface to learning records. [5] “annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, biography of concubines” in Volume II and VIII of Yimen book of reading. [6] Wu Shu, concubines, biography of sun quanbu, Volume 50 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [7] “annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, biography of concubines” in Volume II and VIII of Yimen book of reading. [8] Wu Shu, biography of sun Ba, Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [9] Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu sun he Zhuan, is annotated with Yin Ji’s Tong Yu. [10] according to Wu Shu – Biography of Mrs. pan, Volume 50 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the pan family “has a father who is an official and can’t sit down to die. Both his wife and his sister are lost to the weaving room, and their rights differ, so they are called into the harem.” Later, the pan family gave birth to a son Liang and became the queen. “They were dangerous, jealous and charming. From the beginning to their death, they harmed Mrs. yuan and many others.” Sun Quan didn’t care about family etiquette at all in his marriage, which was the same as Cao’s father and son’s “humble after standing up”, both of which were manifestations of poor family style. In this regard, my article “on Sun Quan and his son’s” light off “has a detailed examination (published in the first half of 2003 in Taiwan’s Sinology research, included in this book), please refer to. [11] Volume 50 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms: Wu Shu, biography of Mrs. Wu sovereign. [12] Wu Shu, biography of Mrs. sun Liangquan, Volume 50 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [13] Hu Zhu in the first six years of the seventh quarter of the “general review”. [14] Wu Lu is cited in the biography of Gu Yong and the biography of sun he in Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [15] Yao Xin, there is no biography of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. See the annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shu, Lu Xun, sun he, Jin Shu, Rulin, fan Ping, Chen Shu, Yao Cha, and Lu Deming’s classic commentaries, preface, and so on. [16] see Wu Shu Lu Xun Zhuan, Volume 58 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [17] Wu Shu Wu can Zhuan, Volume 57 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [18] on the Jiangdong aristocratic family in the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, No. 42&\8211; 44 pages, Taiwan Wenjin publishing house, 1991. [19] Wu Shu Bu Jia Zhuan, Volume 52 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [20] biography of Wu Shu Lu Dai, Volume 60 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [21] for details, please refer to Mr. Tang Changru’s relevant textual research on the famous scholars with big surnames in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, which is compiled into the collection of historical theories of the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, Zhonghua Book Company, 1980 edition. My article “the conflict and confluence between the indigenous minorities in the south of the Yangtze River and the scholars living in overseas Chinese during the Han and Jin Dynasties” supplements Mr. Tang’s relevant argument, published in the collection of the Institute of Chinese culture of Yangzhou University (the first series), Jiangsu ancient books publishing house, 1998 edition. [22] refer to Mr. Chen Yinque’s incisive discussion on the social and political changes between Han and Jin Dynasties in the book “Shi Shuo Xin Yu · literary articles”, after the beginning and end of the four treatises written by Zhong Hui. This article is included in the first edition of Jinming library, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1980 edition. [23] according to Wan Shengnan’s compilation of Chen Yinque’s speech on the history of Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, Mr. Chen believed that “the sun clan is a second-class scholar in Jiangdong region who is not known for its culture” according to the “Three Kingdoms · Sun Jian biography”, so Sun Wu “has a different way of governance from Wei and Shu, and is similar to that of the Western Jin Dynasty”, “The reason is that the social class of the rulers of Sun Wu is different from that of Wei and Shu, but the same as that of the Western Jin Dynasty.” (see page 29&\8211; 30 of the book, Huangshan publishing house, 1987 Edition) Mr. Chen’s inference about the class of the sun family can be discussed. The sun family comes from a poor family, which is very different from Sima family, but the same as Cao family. As for the family background contained in the annals of the Three Kingdoms. Wu Shu, Mr. Tian Yuqing has discriminated in the article “the road to the founding of Sun Wu”. He pointed out that Chen Shouxiu’s annals of the Three Kingdoms, Wu Shi was based on the history of Wu compiled by Wei Zhao, and Zhao was born in Wu, so he had to modify it. This can complement Mr. Chen’s argument. In addition, Mr. Fang Shiming also has the same textual research and views in Article 37 “the cunning disciple Sun Jian” of the scattered theory of the Three Kingdoms, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2000 edition, please see. [24] the book of Wu, biography of Sun Jian, Volume 46 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, is annotated with Wang’s spectrum. [25] “the road of Sun Wu’s founding a nation”, published in the first issue of “historical research” in 1992, included in “a probe into the history of the Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1993 edition. [26] Wu Shu Lu Ji Zhuan, Volume 57 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [27] Wu Shu sun Deng Zhuan, Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [28] Wu Shu sun he Zhuan, Volume 59 of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. [29] song Hongmai’s “Rongzhai essays” Volume VIII “examination of the longevity of the monarch” pointed out that there were 136 monarchs in Han, Jin, Tang, the Three Kingdoms, the northern and Southern Dynasties, and the Five Dynasties. Only Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Wu, Emperor Liang, Emperor Gaozu of Tang, and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang lived a long life, but none of the five monarchs ended in good governance. Therefore, the theory said: “although the five monarchs have a noble position, how beneficial it is to enjoy the longevity of an old man!” [30] “annals of the Three Kingdoms · Wu Shu · Wu Zhu Wu Zi”, Volume II VIII of Yimen book of reading.

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