The Achievements of Du Fu’s Poems

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According to the late Tang Dynasty poet Du Mu Zhi by Lin Jianlue, Du Mu’s poems can be divided into two categories: one is heroic, the other is fragrant, and the former is “either for sorrow, or for nostalgia, or for sentimentality, which is mostly written in a sharp style, with a strange idea”; The latter is “mostly understated with a fresh style, so the paper is not full of powder”.

Wang Shuxiang’s “Poet Du Mu” believes that Du Mu’s “prose is such a change of Chen Houqi, and poetry is so heroic”, “His poems are charming and moving, and are too steep, so they sometimes become delicate. But you should know that Yuanzhen, Bai Juyi, Li Shangyin, Wen Tingyun and others are all at the same time with him. He does not want to imitate the Yuanhe style created by the popular Yuanbai, nor does he want to emulate the obscurity of Wen Li; he has to become one of his own, and try to correct the shortcomings of the times, and his intention must be unique.”



According to Miao Qian’s A Brief Review of Du Mu’s Poems, the handsome style of Du Mu’s poems, which can be both vigorous and elegant, is outstanding in the late Tang Dynasty and original in the whole Tang Dynasty poetry circle. This is the characteristic of Du Mu’s strong and grand embrace of worrying about the country and the people in his life, interwoven with other beautiful and tender feelings of hurting the spring, and expressed by his artistic talent.

ancient poetry

Influenced by Du Fu and Han Yu, Du Mu’s ancient poems are good at integrating narrative, argumentation and lyric into one. They are tight and vigorous, and have thin sentences. For example, “Feeling Poems”, “Poems of Du Qiuniang”, “Poems of Zhang Haohao”, “Poems of Li Gan”, “Poems of Jun Zhai”, “Poems in the Snow”, “Sending Ji Chushi to the East in the Fall”, “Sending Shen Chushi to Suzhou to Li Zhong for a poem as a gift”, “Chizhou to the Ancestors of Mengchi”, and “Chezhou to stop drinking water” are typical examples. Among them, the more common is the prose like interlocution.

Du Mu’s ancient poems are influenced by Han Yu. But sometimes he talks in figurative and figurative language, which is lyrical. Du Mu’s ancient poems often have different realms. They are simple, honest, heroic and vigorous, such as “Chizhou Send Meng Chi’s Ancestors”. The style of poetry in the late Tang Dynasty is weak, and most of them are rhythmic poems and quatrains. Few people can write long ancient poems. Du Mu’s ancient poems are also outstanding in the poetry circles of the middle and late Tang Dynasty. His poems of this kind, as well as the rhythmic and excellent works known as “handsome”, constitute the three main aspects of his poetry creation.


Du Mu’s quatrains are as numerous as regular poems, and he has also achieved great success, and has always enjoyed a high reputation. Guan Shiming’s Preface to Reading Tang Poems in the Snow Mountain Room said: “Du Ziwei is talented and elegant, with the wind of too white, and sometimes comes and goes in the dream. The seven-character quatrains are integrated, and he is particularly good at it.” “He Shang’s” Another Compilation of the Poems in the Wine Garden “said:” Du Ziwei’s poems, but the quatrains are the most melodious, and the taste is always interesting. There is the image of the bright moon and the high clouds alone, and the rest of the poems can’t be heard. “

Shen Deqian believed that Du Mu’s quatrain “to make a peaceful and quiet” could be called the “voice” of the great Tang Dynasty, and summarized its characteristics as “far charm and far spirit”. His seven unique achievements are the highest, and his artistic conception is beautiful, his argumentation is vigilant, and his charm is meaningful. This is a unique poem about history. It has a strange idea and a high sense of history. Du Mu’s lyrical verses in landscape painting are beautiful in artistic conception and meaningful in charm. Apart from the seven wonders of the prosperous Tang Dynasty, there is no other wonderful scene. Du Mu is good at capturing the images of beauty and beauty in natural scenery, describing them in quatrains, implicating and refining, and blending feelings and scenes. In a short four sentences, he writes a complete and beautiful scene, just like a picture, such as “Jiangnan Spring quatrains”.

Metrical poetry

Du Mu’s metrical poems have a considerable number. There are about one hundred of them in the “Fan Chuan Wen Ji”, and about one hundred sixty and seventy in the “Fan Chuan Wai Ji” and “Other Collections”. His metrical poems play an important role in all his poems, and his artistic achievements are also very high, especially the seven metrical poems. The style of Du Mu’s poems, which are handsome, vigorous and heroic, is the most prominent in the metrical poems. Descendants of poetry critics have pointed out that “obstinacy” is the characteristic of Du Mu’s metrical poems. Liu Kezhuang of the Song Dynasty said in his “Poems of Houcun”: “Du Mu and Xu Hun are both in different styles at the same time. Pastoral poetry is often used in the laws of the Tang Dynasty to correct the shortcomings of the times.”

Yang Shenyun of the Ming Dynasty said: “In the late Tang Dynasty, Li Yishan went down, and Du Mu was the best. The Song people commented that his poems were magnificent and beautiful, and that they were especially steep in the poems to correct the current situation.” The reason why Du Mu “contained less steep” or “especially steep” in the poems was that, as Zhao Yi of the Qing Dynasty said: “Since the Middle Tang Dynasty, metrical poetry has prevailed, and the voice is diseased, so the multi-syllabic harmony and the wind is round and beautiful. Du Mu is afraid of being weak, so he created a bold and steep school to correct its disadvantages.”

On the one hand, obstinacy refers to the steep and precipitous momentum caused by the use of verses that are not in accordance with the laws and regulations of the body; On the other hand, it refers to the vigorous and vigorous artistic conception which is similar to the ancient poetry in the metrical poetry. Du Mu pretended to be an obstinate sentence in the verse style, or expressed the ancient meaning, showing a strong and vigorous momentum, to correct the weak and mellow style of poetry. Du Mu’s seven rhythms have strong realism. In addition, Du Mu’s metrical poems use ancient tunes, and there is a simple and unrestrained charm in the bold and lingering..

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