The battle of Chibi in the Three Kingdoms is sun Liu’s resistance to reunification

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The battle of Chibi is the key to the history of the Three Kingdoms. If there had been no such war at that time, or if there had been such a war

Cao Cao

If we win again, the world will become a unified situation instead of three points. So this war was really the key to division and reunification at that time.

The statue of Liu Bei in Chengdu Wuhou Temple needs to know about the battle of Chibi


First, we need to know the situation of Cao, Liu and sun at that time.

Liu Bei is a man who wants to be a leader. He is unwilling to take the second place. So when he and Cao Cao united to destroy Lv Bu, he could very well rely on Cao Cao and become a senior officer. But he refused to be reconciled, and colluded with Dong Cheng to rebel against Cao Cao. After being defeated by Cao Cao, he first went to Yuan Shao and then to Liu Biao. At this time, he and Cao Cao had become irreconcilable. Simply put, if he surrendered to Cao Cao again, Cao Cao would not tolerate him, and he would never be sincere. So he always resisted Cao Cao to the end, no matter what his military might be.

As for Sun Quan, the situation is very different. When we talk about Sun Quan, we must first talk about his brother sun CE. Sun Jian has four sons: the eldest is sun CE, the second is Sun Quan, the third is Sun Yi, and the fourth is sun Kuang. Sun Jian was associated with Yuan Shu. After his death, his son naturally relied on Yuan Shu. Sun CE is also a light plagiarism and brave person, with great paternal style. Yuan Shu thought he was good, so he returned all the people under Sun Jian to him. He had fought several battles for Yuan Shu, and all of them were victories. Yuan Shu was a man with unclear rewards and punishments and could not employ people. When he was sent out to fight, he was allowed to win and how to reward him was not practiced later.

Sun CE was disappointed and felt that under Yuan Shu, there was no way out for a lifetime, so he volunteered and was willing to pacify Jiangdong. Jiangdong is the place south of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province. It is now called Jiangnan, but the ancients called it Jiangdong, and the place opposite the river was called Jiangxi. What the ancients called Jiangnan is now Hunan. This is gossip. Let’s not mention it. In the later Han Dynasty, both the East and the West belonged to Yangzhou. Yangzhou governor was originally stationed in Shouchun, which is now Shouxian County, Anhui Province. At this time, Shouchun was occupied by Yuan Shu, and Liu Yao, the governor of Yangzhou, had to be sent to qua, now in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province. Although his troops were limited, he could still stand in a stalemate with Yuan Shu, who could not swallow him for a moment. When sun CE crosses the river to the East, the situation is very different. Sun CE was the most fierce and good at fighting. As soon as he crossed the river, he defeated Liu Yao. Liu Yao fled to the current Hukou in Jiangxi and died soon. Therefore, from Jiangsu to Jiangxi along the Yangtze River, all became the sphere of influence of sun CE. Sun CE no longer obeyed Yuan Shu, and when Yuan Shu became emperor, he broke up with him in an open letter.

At this time, Cao Cao’s forces did not consider Jiangdong, and he and Yuan Shu were opposed, so he naturally wanted to win over Sun CE. So the table recommended him and added him to the rebellion


The title of “Wu Hou”.

In the fifth year of Jian’an, Cao Cao and Yuan Shao were at a stalemate across the river. Sun CE also sent troops to cross the river to the north. He didn’t want to be stabbed to death before he started. Why do you think? It turned out that when sun CE arrived in the east of the river, a prefect of Wu county (the county of Jijun, the branch of the later Han Dynasty, which is now Wu County in Jiangsu) called Xu Gong. He secretly expressed the Han Emperor, saying that sun CE was brave and similar to Xiang Ji. He should be recalled to the central government earlier, and he should not be heard to stay outside the river, causing future trouble. Sun CE was determined to secede. Hearing the news, he was very unhappy and killed Xu Gong. Several of Xu Gong’s disciples are lurking among the people, trying to avenge Xu Gong. Sun CE likes hunting best. His horse is so good that no one can follow him. This time I went out hunting and met Xu Gong’s disciples by a narrow road. I was injured by them and died soon after I came back.

Sun CE sent troops this time. According to the legend of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, he was going to attack Xudu to meet Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty. This is also nonsense. Cao Cao is good at using troops. Although he is in a stalemate with Yuan Shao, the rear will not be unprepared, as was said in the previous section. Jiangdong is farther away from Xudu than Hebei. How many troops can sun CE attack? Not to mention that it cannot be defeated, whether it can be achieved is still a question! Sun CE is also a good soldier. Is there such a fool? Moreover, holding a son of heaven is actually of little use, as I have already said. But what was Sun CE’s idea of sending troops? There is a story that we don’t pay much attention to.

At that time, there was a Pei Xiang (the county and kingdom of the Han Dynasty were of the same level. The power of the king to govern the people was in the Xiang), who was called Chen Yu. He was a person who went back to the central government, and he saw that Lu Bu and Yuan Shu were very unattractive. When Yuan Shu wanted to be emperor and proposed to Lv Bu’s daughter for his son, Chen Yu was afraid that the two of them would unite and it would be more difficult to calm down, so he went to lobby Lv Bu and destroyed him. He also asked his son Chen Deng to see Cao Cao, saying that Lv Bu was brave and resourceless, capricious and unbelievable, and that he should try to deal with him earlier. Cao Cao was overjoyed, so he paid tribute to Chen Deng as the governor of Guangling (Guangling County, the current Jiangdu, at this time, Chen Deng ruled Sheyang County, in the southeast of Huai’an today). When leaving, he shook his hand and said, “I’ll pay for things in the East.” Ask him to gather the members secretly and prepare to be an insider. Later, when Cao Cao attacked Lv Bu, Chen Deng led the soldiers of his county to be the pioneer of Cao Bing. After Lu Bu was destroyed, the Han Dynasty gave him the name of general Fubo for his meritorious service. “The annals of the Three Kingdoms · Chen dengzhuan” annotated “the deeds of sages”, saying that at this time, he had the ambition to devour the south of the Yangtze River. Sun CE’s use of troops was almost invincible. He only attacked Chen Deng twice and failed. Sun CE was very angry. Before his death, he sent troops. The biography of sun CE in the annals of the Three Kingdoms quoted Jiang Biao Zhuan, saying that he wanted to attack Chen Deng. This is probably the truth.

Sun CE used his troops very sharply. This time, if he crossed the river without death, whether Chen Deng could resist is naturally a problem. However, Chen Deng is not a person with poor martial arts strategies like Liu Yao. Even if a Zhaoxiang fails, he will not be unable to recover. He will always be able to gather the embers, ask for help from the central government, or unite with another army to stand in a stalemate with sun. Besides, sun CE is good at fighting. Chen Deng may not fight with him in the field, but he can also be on the defensive. Therefore, Chen Deng was indeed a strong enemy of the sun family in Guangling. Now that sun CE’s northern expedition has not been completed, he has already killed himself. That is the best opportunity for the Central Committee. However, Cao Cao transferred Chen Deng to be the prefect of Dongcheng (Han county, in the southeast of Dingyuan County, Anhui Province. At this time, the prefect was temporarily set up). So across the river, there was no way to contain sun’s people, which was a mistake of Cao Cao. Later, when facing the river again, he sighed, “I wish I had used Chen Yuanlong’s plan earlier (see also the line of sages. Yuan Long is Chen Deng’s word)”, which was late.

Sun Yi is most similar to sun CE in nature. When sun CE was dying, Zhang Zhao and others all expected that he would entrust the rest of his life to Sun Yi, but he put the seal ribbon on Sun Quan and said to him, “take all the people in Jiangdong, decide between the two battle lines, and compete with the world. You are not as good as me. Take talents and appoint abilities, and do your best to protect Jiangdong. I am not as good as you.” I don’t know if these words were really said by sun CE? Or will future generations join us? Sun Quan is worthy of it, but it is real. Just look at his appointment of Zhou Yu during the war in Chibi, LV Meng during the invasion of Jingzhou, and Lu Xun during the war in tuoting. Although sun CE is good at battle, it is not just brave enough to pacify Jiangdong and create a foundation. Maybe he also knows people well, so leave it to him. After Sun Quan took over, while sorting out the current places of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangxi, he frequently sent troops to attack the Taishou Huang Zu of Jiangxia (Jiangxia county is now Huanggang County, Hubei Province). In the 13th year of Jian’an (208), kill Huang Zu. So Sun Quan’s forces reached the southeast of Hubei Province, and then westward, they could go to Hankou to spy on Jiangling and Xiangyang. Cao Cao also attacked Liu Biao this year.

The nature of Liu Biao is actually a scholar. He will only sit by and watch the success or failure, trying to gain the benefits of fishermen, rather than face the former enemy and go to attack the city and seize the land. Such people are also enough to protect the environment and the people when the world is disturbed, and steal a moment of peace. When the world is coming, there will be no place for them. In July of the 13th year of Jian’an, Cao Cao invaded Jingzhou in the south. In August, Liu Biao died of illness. His eldest son is called Liu Qi, and his youngest son is called Liu Cong. Liu Biao and his wife, Cai Shi, both love Liu Cong and want to make him the queen. Liu Qi felt uneasy and went to ask for advice


? Zhugeliang said to him, “don’t you see that Shen Sheng is in danger inside, and Chonger is safe outside?” Liu Qi understood. Just as Huang Zu was killed by Sun Quan, he took the opportunity to ask to go out and became the governor of Jiangxia. After Liu Biao died, Xiangyang established Liu Cong on the one hand. Cao Bing is naturally irresistible. In September, when Cao Cao’s soldiers arrived in Xinye, Liu Cong surrendered.

At this time, Liu Bei was stationed in Fancheng on the other side of Xiangyang. He could not surrender to Cao Cao and could not resist him. He had to cross the Han River and walk southwest. “Annals of the Three Kingdoms · biography of the first lord” said: when he passed Xiangyang, Zhugeliang advised him to attack Liu Cong, and Jingzhou was advisable. He said, “I can’t bear it.” This may not be true. At that time, Xiangyang’s people were naturally unstable, and it was naturally easy to defeat him. In a flash, Cao Cao’s soldiers came, but how could they defend it? “Zhu Ge is only cautious all his life”, I’m afraid he won’t come up with such an idea?

Liu Bei then went south again. According to the biography of the first lord, many people around Liu Cong and Jingzhou belonged to him. By Dangyang, there were more than 100000 people, and they only walked more than ten miles a day. This statement or Zhang Yide’s uproar over Osaka bridge is a little too much, but it doesn’t have no impact. Because if you want to do business, you must have someone under you. As long as the people have enough food, warm clothes and live and work in peace and contentment, who will care about your struggle for heaven and earth? It is by no means easy for a light worker to mobilize the local people to fight for himself wherever he goes, so the basic team must not be abandoned. Moreover, the number of Jingzhou people unwilling to lower to the north is considerable. In the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, it was not long before ancient times, and social organizations contained more meaning of large families. People who became officials, joined the army and took refuge often took their families and relatives with them, so the number was so large. Only in this way, naturally, I can’t walk fast.

At this time, Cao Cao was quite determined to eliminate Jingzhou at one fell swoop, so he rode Qingqi, walked 300 miles a day and night to chase him, and caught up with him in Nagasaka, northeast of Dangyang. Liu Bei naturally could not resist, so he fled to Xiakou (now Hankou) to rely on Liu Qi.

At this time, Liu Bei was obviously at a loss. If no one allied with him, he would probably have to flee to Hunan now. Hunan was not very developed in the Han Dynasty, and it definitely could not stand there. So at this time, Liu Bei is really coming to an end. But unexpectedly, a grandson came to unite with him.

Sun Quan is very different from Liu Bei in terms of his qualifications and his relationship with Cao Cao.

Although Liu Bei was defeated repeatedly, he never got a place, which was just bad luck; He started his army in the late years of Lingdi and moved to the north for more than ten years, with the same qualifications as Cao Cao, Eryuan, Lu Bu, etc; And known as a hero; At that time, some people did return to him; So Cao Cao did have some fear when he saw him.

As for brother sun, although he founded his foundation in Jiangdong, the land of Jiangdong at that time was relatively irrelevant. So you don’t think there are so two people in your mind. According to the biography of Zhang Zhao in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, when sun CE pacified Jiangdong, the letters of scholar bureaucrats in the north were exclusively attributed to Zhang Zhao. The biography of Zhang Zhen said that when sun CE died, Cao Cao wanted to take advantage of the opportunity to attack Wu, and Zhang Zhen dissuaded him. Cao Cao showed that Sun Quan was a general who wanted to be captured, understood the governor of Kuaiji, and took Dan as the eastern Duwei of Kuaiji (Kuaiji County in the later Han dynasty ruled Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. Duwei was a military officer, called a Duwei of a certain department, also in charge of part of the land, and had the right to govern the people). He should be made “auxiliary power attached”. The so-called “auxiliary power is attached”, that is, the movement even coerces Sun Quan to surrender. When sun CE died, there were many problems in the north. How could Cao Cao think of attacking Wu? This sentence is also inaccurate. However, taking Zhang Zhen as the commander of the eastern part of Kuaiji wanted to make “auxiliary power attached”, but this sentence should not be framed. At that time, in the eyes of northerners, we can imagine what kind of person Sun Quan was. When Cao Cao broke Jingzhou, he wanted to go downstream. He had committed the taboo of military strategists. Jia Xu once dissuaded him, but he didn’t listen. Maybe he underestimated Sun Quan? However, the reason why it is underestimated is also the so-called qualification limit, which is a very easy mistake to make. No wonder Cao Cao.

When the death toll of Liu Biao reached Jiangdong, Lu Su said to Sun Quan: Jingzhou is an important place to go. Please go to see the situation in the name of mourning. If there is no quarrel between Liu Bei and Liu Biao, we have to unite with him. If you are obedient to each other, you have to make another plan. Sun Quan allowed him. Lu Su went back to Jiangxi and went to Hankou. He heard that Cao Cao’s soldiers had made their way to Jingzhou. Lu Su also made his way day and night, and the Qing palace Opera Album chaisangkou entered. When he came to the boundary of Nanjun, he heard that Liu Cong had fallen to Cao Cao, and Liu Bei ran south. Lu Su rushed up to meet him in Osaka. Persuade Liu Bei and Sun Quan to unite. Liu Bei was naturally happy. Zhugeliang under Liu Bei also said, “it’s urgent. Please be ordered to ask general sun for help.” So Lu Su went back to reply. Zhugeliang traveled eastward from Hankou to Jiujiang now, and met Sun Quan.

At this time, Sun Quan, on the one hand, must decide to surrender to war. According to historical records, it is like this: Sun Quan gathered at the meeting, and most of them advocated welcoming the surrender. The reasons are: (1) Cao Cao named Han Xiang, and his resistance to the enemy seems to be against the central government. ?2? Cao Cao has won the water army of Jingzhou, and there are infantry. He advances by land and water, and does not rely solely on horsemen. Therefore, the danger of the Yangtze River is not enough to rely on. And its (3) is outnumbered. Only Lu Su didn’t speak. Sun Quan went out to change clothes, but Lu Su followed him out. Knowing that he had something to say, Sun Quan shook his hand and said, “what are you going to say?” Lu Su said, “what everyone said just now is wrong for you. Don’t listen to him. For example, I can surrender to Cao Cao, but you can’t do it. Why? I’m under your control, but I’m an official. After I surrender to Cao Cao, an official still has something to do, but what about you?” These words were exactly what Sun Quan meant, and Sun Quan said they were adopted. At this time, Zhou Yu went to Poyang for business, and Lu Su persuaded Sun Quan to recall him and discuss the plan of war surrender. When Zhou Yu arrived, he decided to fight. His reasons are: (1) the North has not been decided, and there are Han Sui and Ma Chao in Kansai. Cao Cao’s soldiers must not make a long-term plan. ?2? People in the north are not good at water warfare, and people in Jingzhou are not convinced. ?3? And in the cold, the lack of horse grass, the weather is not suitable. Zhugeliang lobbied Sun Quan for the same reason, so Sun Quan decided to unite Liu Bei and resist Cao Cao. Zhou Yu and Cheng PU were appointed as the left and right supervisors, and Lu Su was appointed as the colonel of the Zan army to work with Liu Bei.

Zhou Yu at Sanjiangkou set fire to the troops of the two sides at that time: about 150000 or 60000 soldiers in the north, 70000 or 70000 soldiers in Jingzhou, a total of more than 200000. On the one hand, Liu Bei had a total of 10000 troops in Heshui, and there were also 10000 Jiangxia soldiers under Liu Qi. Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu’s soldiers. In the annals of the Three Kingdoms, some places say there are 10000 people each, and some places say there are 30000 people in total. There are also some people under Lu Su, with a total of 30000. The soldiers of sun and Liu are about 50000. The strength of the two sides is about one to five. However, in terms of geographical advantages and military skills, the soldiers of the South took advantage, and Huang Gai entered the fire attack plan again, and defeated Cao Bing in Chibi, Jiayu county.

Cao Cao really couldn’t last long. Cao Ren was left to guard the Jiangling and returned home with his soldiers. Zhou Yu followed the attack, and Cao Ren couldn’t hold it, so he had to give up Jiangling. As a result, there was no trace of North soldiers in the Yangtze River Basin, and the situation of separation between the north and the South was achieved.

The battle of Chibi, the military victory or defeat, the truth is quite clear, there is no need to study. Among them, only Sun Quan’s determination to resist Cao Cao is a mystery. People who read history were fascinated by the words “although Cao Cao was named as a Han Xiang, he was actually a Han thief”, thinking that Cao Cao certainly wanted to resist, and there was no problem among them. Unexpectedly, these two sentences are the words of Zhou Yu. Can an Neng be the final conclusion? What’s more, according to my research, Cao Cao really had a Han Dynasty in his heart, not a Han thief? But what are the reasons for Sun Quan’s determination and Cao Cao’s resistance? What are the reasons why Zhou Yu and Lu Su urged Sun Quan and Cao Cao to resist? This is from the public on the one hand, from the private side, it is the same.

In the battle of Chibi, Cao Cao certainly violated the taboo of military strategists and had his way to defeat. However, sun and Liu did not see any reason to win. Since then, Cao Cao fortunately used his troops in Kansai and Hanzhong, and never focused on the south. If Cao Cao set the other side as a slow plan and tried his best to attack Jingzhou or Yangzhou, is Sun Quan sure of his support? Sun Quan is different from Liu Bei. Liu Bei surrendered to Cao Cao, and Cao Cao was absolutely incompatible, so he had to fight to the death. There was no quarrel between Sun Quan and Cao Cao. If Cao Cao surrendered at that time, Cao Cao would give special treatment and set an example for those who did not surrender. So at that time, if Sun Quan came down, the world could be unified as soon as possible and avoid the disaster of division; The Sun Quan family is also a great happiness; Peisongzhi has already said it in the note of the annals of the Three Kingdoms – Biography of Zhang Zhao. However, Sun Quan’s determination to resist, Zhou Yu and Lu Su’s efforts to encourage Sun Quan to resist, is just a fluke of chaos and danger.

According to the biography of Lu Su in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, when Lu Su first arrived in Jiangdong, he went back to Dongcheng to bury his grandmother (Lu Su was from Dongcheng). He had a friend who advised him to return to the north. Lu Su wanted to listen to him and went to Jiangdong to move his family. Zhou Yu persuaded him, saying that the prophecy of the past people said that “those who represent the Liu family will thrive in the Southeast” and advised him not to go back. And recommended him to Sun Quan. After meeting, I was very speculative. Everyone retreated, and Sun Quan left him alone to drink. During the discussion, Lu Su said, “the Han Dynasty cannot be revived, and Cao Cao cannot be quenched. For the sake of the general, the only way is to make a full contribution to the east of the river to see the world’s quarrel.” Later, when Sun Quan was proclaimed emperor, “when he was on the altar, Gu called Gongqing and said: in the past, Lu Zijing tasted this, which can be said to be clear in the situation.” (the biography of Lu Su in the annals of the Three Kingdoms) the biography of Zhang Zhao quoted the biography of Jiang Biao and said: After Sun Quan became emperor, he gathered all officials, which is due to Zhou Yu. Zhang Zhao also raised wat to praise his merits. Sun Quan said, “like Zhang Gong’s plan, I have begged for food now.” It can be seen that Sun Quan, Zhou Yu, Lu Su and others have long had the ambition of self-reliance. During the battle of Chibi, Sun Quan gathered a crowd to discuss the war, saying instead that “the old thief wanted to abolish the Han Dynasty and stand on his own for a long time, and he hated two yuan, Lu Bu, Liu Biao and Gu”. I don’t know who the monarchy did it for himself, after all? The fact is the most eloquent, so I don’t need to say it again.

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