The battle of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty to open up the Northeast territory of Han Dynasty: conquering Korea and establishing four prefectures

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Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty not only made great efforts in the west, North and south, but also extended eastward to the Korean Peninsula and the former land of Wuhuan. Wuhuan was a branch of Donghu. In the early Han Dynasty, it was destroyed by the Xiongnu fandun Shanyu. The rest of the people retreated to Wuhuan mountain because they thought it was called. Wuhuan people are good at riding and shooting, and make a living by hunting. Graze with water and grass and live in impermanent places. They live in the vault, open the door to the East, eat meat, drink cheese, and wear hair. They are young but old, and have a tough character. Wuhuan gradually declined after being conquered by randon Shanyu. He often submitted to the Huns and gave them cattle, horses, sheep and fur every year. If they failed to hand them in after the deadline, the Huns would take their wives and children as slaves. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, he launched a military counterattack against the Huns. After the decisive battle in Mobei, the Huns lost their influence in the East and the Wuhuan people were liberated. After Huo Qubing, an Hussar general sent by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, broke through the left land of the Xiongnu, he took the opportunity to migrate Wuhuan people to live outside the Great Wall in Shanggu, Yuyang, youbeiping, western Liaoning and Eastern Liaoning, which served as a barrier for the Han Dynasty, and at the same time monitored the movements of the Xiongnu people for the Han Dynasty. The leader of Wuhuan made a pilgrimage to the capital Chang’an once a year. From then on, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty set up Wuhuan captains with an official salary of twothousand stone to supervise all Wuhuan departments, so that they could not communicate with the Huns, and the peace of the northeast region was guaranteed. The Korean Peninsula was an area where China had achieved long-term success before the Qin and Han Dynasties. It had accepted Chinese culture as early as the early Zhou Dynasty. King Wu of Zhou destroyed Yin. It is said that Jizi, the uncle of King Zhou of Yan, led 5000 people to the north of the Korean Peninsula and established Jizi Korea, where advanced production technologies such as farming, weaving and sericulture were introduced. In the Warring States period, the exchanges between Korea and the Central Plains gradually increased. The state of Qi transported the skins of tigers and leopards into Korea, and the iron ware and currency “Ming Dao” of the state of Yan were also introduced into the Korean Peninsula. When the state of Yan was in its heyday, zhenpan and Korea were briefly determined, where they organized effective rule and built barriers and fortresses. Qin exterminated Yan state, and North Korea was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong Prefecture. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty felt that Korea was too far away to rule, so he delimited the border to bashui (today’s Datong River), which was under the jurisdiction of Yan, one of the feudal states. Later, Lu Wan, king of Yan, rebelled and surrendered to the Hun Khanate. Wei man, a native of Yan, led the people to flee and gathered more than 1000 followers. They dressed in alien costumes, braided their hair, went east to the frontier, crossed the troubled waters, occupied the barrier left by the Qin Dynasty, expelled king jizhun of Korea, and cut off contacts with the Central Plains. Wei man established his own regime in Wang Han (now Pyongyang, Korea), ruling the local aborigines and the outlaws of Yanqi. In the period of emperor Xiaohui and empress Gao, with the approval of the Han government, the governor of Liaodong County reached an agreement with Wei man: as a foreign minister of the Han Dynasty, Wei man managed the barbarians outside the great wall and was responsible for preventing other tribes from invading the Han border. However, if there were chiefs of other tribes who wanted to visit the emperor in the Han Dynasty, they could not be restricted or blocked. In order to repay his assistance, the Han Dynasty gave Wei man many gifts. With the financial support of the Han Dynasty, Wei man invaded neighboring countries, conquered zhenpan and lintun, and expanded his territory to thousands of miles. When Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty ascended the throne, the king of Korea had already spread to the third Wei Youqu. Wei Youqu unilaterally tore up the agreement with the Han Dynasty and stopped making pilgrimage to Chang’an according to the etiquette that foreign ministers should observe. In order to expand his power, he also widely solicited the fugitives of the Han Dynasty. The king of chenguo, another small country on the Korean Peninsula, wrote to Emperor Hanwu asking for an audience. He is in the south of Korea. He must pass through the territory of Korea to go to Chang’an. Wei Youqu considered that the Chen state standing behind him might become powerful through the power of the Han Dynasty, so he refused to let the envoys of the Chen state pass through his territory. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty felt that his emperor’s authority had been strongly challenged, and he worried that the rule of the Han Dynasty would be weakened. For the above reasons, in the summer of the second year of Yuanfeng (109 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent a special envoy to wangxiancheng to negotiate with weiyouqu. After he came to Korea, he supervised weiyouqu to abide by the covenant. Weiyouqu was tough and did not accept the orders of the Han Dynasty. He had no choice but to leave home in anger. Wei Youqu sent the king of barnyard grass to see him off. In fact, he was also monitoring the actions of the Han mission. Having nothing to say along the way, when he arrived at the border, he thought that he could not explain to Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty after he returned, so he killed the king of tares who escorted him, and then hurried across the bashui to enter the boundary of the Han Dynasty.

He sent a memorial to Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. The report said: “the DPRK is unwilling to surrender. I have killed their famous generals.” Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty also hated Wei Youqu’s ignorance. He felt happy about what he had done and did not trace the details of the incident. In order to commend him, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty asked him to stay where he was and served as the lieutenant of Liaodong County, responsible for the military and defense of the county.

Wei Youqu heard that Shehe had killed his barnyard king. Of course, he would not let the murderer go. After asking about Shehe’s whereabouts, he sent a cavalry to raid Liaodong and kill Shehe.

Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty felt that his death had given him an excuse to send troops. So he ordered to recruit prisoners who had committed capital crimes to form the eastern expedition army, which was led by General Yang Pu and general Xun swine, and attacked Korea by sea and land.

When the Han army invaded Korea, weiyouqu held its fort. The general of the building ship, Yang Fu, led 7000 sailors to the foot of the king dangerous city first. Wei Youqu learned from the intelligence that there were not many Han soldiers. Taking advantage of the precarious foothold of the Han Army and unfamiliar terrain, he immediately launched an attack. Yang’s army was defeated and scattered, fleeing to the mountains to escape. It took Yang Fu more than ten days to gather the remains. When Xun swine went out of the southeast of Liaoning Province and reached bashui, he was doggedly resisted by the Korean people and was unable to move.

Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was greatly surprised by the embarrassment of the two generals. Seeing that they could not win militarily, he switched to political means and sent an emissary, Weishan, to instruct weiyouqu by virtue of the military prestige of the Han Dynasty.

Wei Youqu’s consideration of antagonizing the Han Dynasty had no good result after all. The arrival of Wei Shan just gave him a chance to go down the stairs. Wei Youqu said to Wei Shan, “I would like to belong to the Han Dynasty, but I’m afraid Yang Fu and Xun swine killed me by fraud. Now that I see the emperor’s talisman, I’m willing to maintain my original intention to surrender to the Han Dynasty.”

In order to test whether Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was sincere, weiyouqu sent his crown prince into the Han Dynasty with 5000 horses and a batch of grain. When they were about to cross the troubled waters, Wei Shan and Xun swine saw that there were more than 10000 followers of the North Korean crown prince with swords and guns. They were afraid of fraud and insisted that they disarm. The North Korean crown prince doubted the sincerity of the envoys of the Han Dynasty. He suspected that Wei Shan and Gou swine wanted to dismiss his guards and then kill him. So he refused to cross the bashui in the north and ordered him to turn around and go back.

Wei Shan was annoyed to see the cooked duck flying again. He returned to Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty dejectedly. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was so angry that he blamed Wei Shan for ruining his great event and ordered him to be beheaded.

The war began again. Under the threat of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, swine fought to the death to break through the Korean garrison, forcibly crossed bashui, and attacked to the foot of Wang Xiancheng, encircling the northwest. Yangbuzhong surrounded the south again. Wei Youqu was entrenched in the city, and the Han army attacked for months without taking down Wang Xiancheng.

Xun swine’s headquarters were soldiers in the Yan Dynasty. They were good at fighting and arrogant. They had a radical attitude and insisted on military solutions. Most of Yang Pu’s subordinates are prisoners of Qi Di. They have been defeated by the Korean people. They are still terrified and have a shrinking morale. When Yang Pu besieged weiyouqu, he adopted a moderate attitude of peace rather than war. However, swine launched a fierce attack and was determined to flatten the king’s dangerous city.

Taking advantage of their contradictions, the ministers of the DPRK have sent secret envoys to meet with Yang Pu to negotiate the terms of surrender and conduct consultations. No final decision has been made yet. Xun swine repeatedly sent people to ask Yang Fu to appoint a date to launch the general attack. Yang Fu agreed every time, but then he sat on the mountain and watched the tiger fight.

In this way, Yang Fu and Xun swine were at odds with each other and suspected each other. Xun swine suspected that Yang Pu had committed the crime of losing his master before, and now he is in private with the Korean Minister, and the Korean side has no sign of surrender. Therefore, he suspected that Yang Pu had a conspiracy to rebel, but he has not dared to attack it.

Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was very angry about the actions of the two generals. He sent Gongsun, the prefect of Jinan, to investigate and deal with them. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty authorized Gongsun Sui to act arbitrarily in an emergency.

Gongsun hurried to the front and went to swine’s army first. Xun swine said, “the DPRK should have been defeated long ago. There is a reason why it cannot be defeated.” Then he talked about the situation that he had agreed many times to break the enemy together with the general louchuan, but Yang Fu did not join the army on time, and told gongsunsui all his doubts. Finally, Xun swine said: “the situation is so serious now. If you don’t ask him about it, I’m afraid it will lead to great disaster. Not only is Yang Fu rebelling, but he will cooperate with the Koreans to destroy my army.”

Gongsun was shocked. He also thought this explanation was reasonable. He called Yang Fu to Xun swine’s camp to discuss military affairs. Yang Fu took the command and was immediately arrested by Gongsun. Gongsun then ordered that the two armies be handed over to commander swine.

Gongsun thought he had done a good job. After hearing his report, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was furious and thought he had abused his power, so he killed him.

After swine united the two armies, he immediately attacked them. The North Korean prime minister, Han Yang and General Wang Xia discussed and said: “now that Yang Pu has been arrested, the war is getting more and more urgent. I’m afraid we can’t stick to the end, and Wei Youqu refuses to surrender.” After some discussion, they all fled to the Han camp and surrendered. Their surrender to the Han Dynasty greatly weakened the strength of the DPRK.

In the summer of the third year of Yuanfeng (108 BC), Nixi xiangchan ordered people to kill weiyouqu and surrender to the Han army. However, Wang Xiancheng has not been won, and a North Korean Minister named Cheng Ji still continues to resist. Xun swine launched a propaganda offensive. He sent Wei Youqu’s son, Wei Chang, and Lu Min, the son of a passer-by, to tell the local people to stop resistance and kill Cheng Ji. Wang Xiancheng was finally broken and Wei’s Korea was destroyed.

At first, in the autumn of the sixth year of Yuanshuo (128 BC), 280000 people, such as the emperor Nanlu of Dongyi (also known as “filthy”) surrendered to the Han Dynasty. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty set up Canghai County in his hometown. Later, he concentrated on dealing with the Huns and gave up Canghai county when running Shuofeng. After the extermination of the Wei Dynasty, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty set up four prefectures in his hometown, namely Zhenfan, lintun, Lelang and xuantu.

So far, the central and northern regions of Korea were incorporated into the territory of the Han Empire.

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