In some extreme cases, even the daughter of the monarch of the state of Qi would encounter difficulties in getting married. For example, Wenjiang, the daughter of Duke Qi.
We know that, of course, the title for noble women is as follows: the word Jiang in the back is his mother’s family name, while the word Jiang in the front often follows his husband. For example, Zheng Wu Gong’s wife is called Wu Jiang; Wei Xuangong’s wife is called xuanjiang.
But this Wenjiang character has nothing to do with his husband—— Later, her husband was Duke Huan of Lu, and he was not called Huan Jiang. Wen, that is to say, because she has special literary talent, she is a beautiful writer.
Once, Duke Qi took a fancy to a young master of the state of Zheng, who was called young master Hu. He said to the young master suddenly, “my daughter will marry you. Are you willing or willing?”
The old man was very confident. He thought my daughter was so good. Can it be done? I don’t know. Young master suddenly heard that your daughter will marry me? Hey, hey, hey… “Qi is a big country, Zheng is a small country, a big country and a small country. It’s not a good match.”
Of course, he was polite. According to the people of Lu later, he refused because he thought the daughter-in-law was unreliable. Anyway, this matter is yellow. Later, Wenjiang married Duke Huan of Lu. However, before she married Duke Huan of Lu, she and her brother, later Duke Xiang of Qi, had already fallen in love.
After she married to the state of Lu, the relationship between her brother and sister was not broken, so the yuan level diplomatic conference between the two countries became an opportunity for their brother and sister to meet. This time, Duke Lu and his wife went to the state of Qi for a state visit. The brother and sister met again. This time, the matter was exposed. So Duke Huan of Lu was furious with Wenjiang—— However, historical experience has told us countless times that it is difficult for Wu Dalang to achieve good results in catching traitors.
After Wenjiang was scolded, he went to cry with Duke Qi Xiang, who was angry: “why should you ask about our brother and sister?” So he shouted to Duke Huan, “drink! Do it! Make love and feel bored!” As a result, Duke Huan was drunk. “Oh, marquis Lu is drunk, isn’t he, Pengsheng? Help Marquis Lu get on the bus.” A powerful man in the state of Qi, named Pengsheng, came up to help Duke Lu Huan get on the bus. He pinched his ribs and broke them all. Duke Lu Huan was killed in this way.
— of course, this is just a passing remark. Wenjiang cannot represent the majority of women in the state of Qi. In short, women in the state of Qi are good at singing and dancing, elegant in manners and decent in speech, which are difficult to compare with those in other countries.
On the other side of Mount Tai, the situation in the state of Lu is completely different from that in the state of Qi. It is said that the Duke of Zhou was the maker of a huge system of rites and music in the Western Zhou Dynasty. As a country governed by the descendants of the Duke of Zhou, the state of Lu, at least in theory, unswervingly implemented this set of rites and music. People from other countries come to the state of Lu to listen to the elegant music that is said to have been handed down from the entrepreneurial era of the people of Zhou Dynasty: “the sky in Qishan is bright and bright, and the people of Qishan love it…” they often have to praise: “all the rites of Zhou are in Lu.”
It is only in this environment that Confucius was born.
In the state of Lu, not only men know etiquette, but also women know how to implement it meticulously. The daughter of Duke Xuan of Lu was married to the state of song. It was only seven years before her husband, Duke Gong of song, died. After that, she was widowed for thirty years. One night, a fire broke out in the palace and burned to her residence. She said that women could not go out at night. “If they don’t see their parents, they won’t go to the hall.” but in the end, her nanny didn’t come, so she was burned alive.
And there was another widow, whose husband and son died, and she often wept. But you heard her cry for more than ten years: crying for her husband during the day, crying for her son at night, crying for her husband during the day, crying for her son at night… There is absolutely no difference. There has never been a case of crying for her husband at night and crying for her son during the day.
This is because there is a rule in the Zhou rites called “widows cry all night”. If you lie in bed at night and cry about your husband, your neighbors will hear you and they will talk about it—— The people of the state of Lu also have special gossip, which is not surprising. The greater the rules, the more gossip people have in private. “What are you crying about in the middle of the night? Do you miss a man?” Then it is concluded that you can’t be a widow for long. So I can only cry for my son at night. The son has already cried at night, so my husband stays to cry during the day.
It may be because of the tragedy of Duke Huan of Lu mentioned earlier. The custom of the state of Lu also stresses that the husband is not allowed to accompany his wife back to his mother’s house. If this happens, it will be called “two lines of horses, like animals”. It is an animal like behavior for a man to accompany his wife back to his mother’s house.
Of course, Zhou Li is not only these things. As we have already said, in terms of essence, Zhou Li is the social order of the feudal patriarchal society that emphasizes the superiority and inferiority of the upper and lower levels. In the face of bloody political struggle, Li, like other countries, often seemed powerless. So Sima Qian was puzzled when he wrote the historical records. “To the point of bowing and yielding, it’s OK. How cruel is it?” Bowing is a polite thing to say, but people in the state of Lu do the same thing about plotting violence?
But don’t think that the moral sense preached by etiquette is completely useless. It was during the struggle between Chu and Han. After Xiangyu committed suicide in Wujiang, all his territory surrendered to Liu Bang. Only Ludi refused to surrender. Not only did he not surrender, but he was still studying the ritual music of the late king when his life and death were suspended under heavy encirclement. “The sound of string songs never stopped”, while playing the piano and singing at the same time.
This was a shock to Liu Bang. He must feel that if his world wants long-term stability, it still needs such common people. Liu Bang didn’t like Confucian scholars and liked to pee in their high hats. Later, his attitude gradually changed, and this must be one of the reasons for the change.
Now turn to Henan. When King Wu of Zhou’s army reached the time when the song of the Shang capital was sung, it was Wei Ziqi, the brother of Zhou, who took the lead in opening the door to surrender. He was also the first king of the song state. In order to show the preferential treatment to the defectors, Zhou Tianzi gave song a very high level. It is said that the rank of the monarchs of the Zhou Dynasty was as follows: Marquis, uncle, and male were five. The Duke of the Zhou Dynasty was regarded as the most important one, and the Grand Duke of the Song Dynasty was the Duke. Moreover, the emperor of Zhou regarded song as a “guest state” and treated him with the courtesy of treating guests.
But the so-called taking you as a guest means respect and points. I am afraid there is no trust in the state of song. Its fief is around Shangqiu, which is a flat land with no danger to defend. In times of strife, the state of song was always beaten. In fact, this foreshadowed the founding of the people’s Republic of China.
I don’t know if there are still good memories of the Yin and Shang Dynasties. Although the national strength is not strong, the state of song has always been a very responsible country, which means that it takes the maintenance of international peace as its own responsibility. For example, songxianggong also wanted to seek hegemony. Hegemony was not derogatory at that time. The behavior of hegemony was just a little similar to the American national police, which will be discussed later. For example, in the middle and late spring and Autumn period, when all countries were exhausted, the peace conference was held under the leadership of Hua Yuan and Xiang Xu, senior officials of the state of song.
Since song is an ancient civilization, it pays more attention to the old tradition. Song Xianggong sought hegemony, so of course he had to fight against Chu, the military superpower at that time. The course of the war was a typical example.
The army of the state of song has already formed a formation. The Chu army has only crossed half of the river. People told Duke Xiang song, let’s charge. Songxianggong said no.
All the Chu troops have crossed the river, but the troops have not been lined up yet. People will tell songxianggong that they can charge now, right? Songxianggong said, not yet.
As a result, when the Chu army also lined up, there was no need to fight. The result was that “the public wounded the public, and the sect officials annihilated Yan”. Songxianggong’s thigh was injured, and his guards were also wiped out. Soon after, he died of the injury.
But Rao is so. Songxianggong has no regrets. He thinks that this is a defense of the old tradition and morality. He said this:
“A gentleman is not seriously injured. He is not a bird. In ancient times, he was an army and did not obstruct the pass. Although I have lost my country, I can’t stand in line.”
In ancient times, there were many rules for fighting. There are five pieces of Zhou rites, including auspicious and ominous bin Jiajun. Military rites are a special piece.
The word “no serious injury” is used to describe insects rather than people. It means to cut you once. If you don’t kill yourself, don’t cut you again. Otherwise, you can shout: “indecent!”
“No birds, two hairs” means that birds are common words and can be caught. What is er Mao? Gray hair, black and white two colors of hair, this is called two hair. This means that we should respect the old people when fighting – of course, it can be seen that if anyone goes to the battlefield and highlights a pinch of white hair, it is a very shameful cheating.
“In ancient times, it was an army, not a barrier”. In ancient times, it was forbidden to occupy favorable terrain in war. Find a flat and open place to fight.
“Although the few people have lost their country, they will not be listed if they do not drum up”. Song is a descendant of the perished Yin and Shang Dynasties, so Duke Xiang of song calls himself “a country that has lost its country”. The sound of drums is equivalent to the starting gun in sports competitions. Only when the gun rings can Xu Chongfeng. We all have a good formation. We should charge together. Otherwise, it’s a snatch. Start over.
— by the way, Cao GUI’s debate was selected in the middle school textbook. In fact, in that battle, the people of the state of Qi were polite. On the contrary, the state of Lu, a state of etiquette, was very rogue under the command of Cao GUI. People in the state of Qi began to beat drums to prepare for the charge. Lord Lu said that we should also rush. Cao GUI said no, let’s wait.
Think about it. At this time, if the people of the state of Qi don’t care, I don’t care if the people of the state of Lu rush, I just rush forward. What should I do? Don’t worry, it won’t happen, because according to the military etiquette of the Western Zhou Dynasty, it’s hard for you not to rush at me, so I have to withdraw. Then I beat the drum again, and you didn’t rush, so I had to shrink back. If you think about it, in the 100 meter race, you’ve run two times. Can you keep your state intact? This is the so-called “one rally, one decline, three exhausts”. The people of the state of Qi are so gloomy – of course, you can also say that Cao GUI’s is called “the rule of rational use”.
Turning back, I said that songxianggong. There have always been different opinions on this practice of songxianggong. Those who denounced him were said to be “stupid pigs of benevolence, righteousness and morality”, but Sima Qian had a good evaluation of him. Up to now, some people still respect him as “the hero of benevolence and righteousness”. I don’t comment on this here. I just say that the people of the Song Dynasty paid more attention to the old tradition.
Let’s look at two more examples.
In the second year of Duke Xuan of Lu, Kuang Xian, a doctor of the state of song, fought with the army of the state of Zheng. When the people of the state of Zheng fell into the well, Kuang Xian turned over his halberd, stretched out the halberd pole to others, and pulled them out. As soon as he came out, the man of Zheng shouted to Kuang Xian, “don’t move!” He captured Kuang cunning and became his own prisoner.
In the 21st year of Duke Zhao of Lu, Huabao of the state of song and gongzicheng of the state of Jin met on the battlefield. At this time, it was faster than anyone else. As a result, the childe city had just “noted”, but Huabao had already “closed”.
Note: the arrow has just been placed, and the bow has been fully drawn. The childe city is too slow, so wait until you get shot. Fortunately, you missed it.
Childe Cheng was about to shoot back. Unexpectedly, Huabao moved too fast, and his bow and arrow were “closed again”. At this time, the childe City shouted: “no sex, despicable.”
This “sex” means change. It’s a fair competition. One arrow per person. If you shoot a string of arrows, it’s very “despicable”. Despicable is not despicable, but remote, which means you are a country bumpkin. As a result, Huabao really put down his bow and arrow. As a result, poof was shot dead by childe city.
At this time, we can see that people in other countries are not kind. If you take advantage of the people of the Song Dynasty, you have to be good. He also likes to put such stupid people and stupid things on the people of the Song Dynasty. Many stories must be familiar to everyone, but the nationality of the protagonist of the story was not noticed.
For example, a farmer saw a rabbit sprang out of the straw and crashed into a tree stump. Well, I will not farm any more. I will squat by the stump every day and wait for rabbits. Wait and see what happens. Who is the farmer from? Song people!
For example, there is another farmer, gee, why does this crop grow so slowly? Let’s help. Just pull up the seedlings one by one. Where are the peasants from? Also from the Song Dynasty!
But it was in the state of song, which was famous for its conservatism, pedantry and superstition, that the most magnificent and novel ideas could be produced. Zhuangzi was born in the Song Dynasty; Mozi was probably from the Song Dynasty; Confucius, although Confucius was from the state of Lu, his family fled from the state of song to the state of Lu.
This is not surprising. Probably the state of song occupied the foundation of Commerce, and its culture was very developed, so there were many intellectuals. Intellectuals are naturally twofold. They are not only the creators (or importers) of new culture, but also the guardians of old culture. The instinct of ordinary people to seek advantages and avoid disadvantages has degenerated. Therefore, they are often the most conservative and innovative people.