The development of cities and Commerce in the Zhou Dynasty

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The economic function of the fief of the Western Zhou Dynasty is mostly to cooperate with the settlement of the fief. The first sentence of the “sanshipan” has the name of the fief, and then it goes on to say “it is the scattered land”. When describing the boundary below, it also refers to the contiguous Meiyi and Xingyi, as well as the “Yitian” of Meixing. It can be seen that the land is unified in the city. Maybe the city has a place to govern the land, and maybe it is the fief where the emperor lives. There are as many as 13 cities involved in “congcongcong”, and every mention of “Qitian” is attached to “Qiyi”. In the “ladle tripod”, it is more clearly said that “it must be located in Jue Yi Tian Jue Tian”. Knowing that the Tian people belong to Jue Yi, the Yi should be equivalent to a village inhabited by Tian people. The cities will not be very large. The newly unearthed “Yihou battery” has 35 cities. The number of farming population that can be tested is that there are onethousand and fifty men in the city, and sixhundred (mouth) and six men in the common people, totaling more than sixhundred people. They are distributed among thirty-five cities, and each city has only about fifty people. [1] According to the Analects of Confucius. Gongyechang, “there must be loyalty in the city of ten rooms”. If you count eight people in one room, there are only eighty people, which is not far from the above estimates. Based on the gold inscriptions “towel corpse” and “Su Ming”, there can be as many records as “200 Xixian county” and “298 Xixian county”. [2] “Zuo Zhuan” in the 28th year of Xianggong, after the rebellion of Cui, Yan Zi and Bei guozuo were awarded 60 cities by Qi Jun. These cities are an extra reward, and their original number of cities is more than this. After “seizing 300 parallel cities of Bo family” in the Analects of Confucius. Constitutional questions, the Bo family who lost the city can only eat sparingly, so the number of 300 cities is all or most of the fiefs of Bo family. [3] Such small settlements cannot be regarded as cities.

Generally, the place where the emperor lived was surrounded by walls as fortifications, and there were also ancestral temples that symbolized the status and authority of patriarchal clan under the feudal patriarchal system. Then this kind of town was called “capital”. According to the Zuo Zhuan, in the 28th year of Duke Zhuang, “every capital has a ancestral temple, and the Lord of the former king calls it capital, no capital, capital, and city.” [4] (“Du” is the trinity of administrative center, religious center and military center, and there may also be a large population. If the above-mentioned feudal monarch has twoorthree fiefs as the estimated base, a “Du” is at least the administrative center that manages the population of twentythousand people on the fief, totaling the feudal monarch’s family, servants, guards, several staff with departments, and the productive population supporting these populations, then this “Du” When there are thousands of residents. In the early spring and Autumn period, in the second year of the Duke of Lu Min, Di people destroyed the guards, and only 730 men and women escaped from the capital, “benefiting a total of 5000 Teng people.” [5] From this calculation, the total population of Teng and Teng is only a little more than 2000, which is about equivalent to the “capital” of Xiaofeng Jun. “Warring States policy”: “the ancient… Although the city is large, there is no one more than 300 feet, although there are many people, there are no more than 3000 families.” [6] The “ancients” mentioned in the Warring States policy often refer to the Western Zhou Dynasty or the early spring and Autumn period. If the length of each side of the city is 300 feet, this kind of city is still slightly smaller than Quwo ancient city (1100 meters from east to west, 600 to 1000 meters from North to South). Quwo ancient city can be divided into internal and external, and there are relics of the Han Dynasty. It can be seen that this ancient city still existed in the Han Dynasty. If the Quwo state initially sealed by Uncle Huan had no outer Guo, its original site might be smaller than the existing ruins of the ancient city of Quwo. The percentage cited in the Warring States policy is not far away. [7] The population of three thousand families is fifteen thousand in five, and twenty-four thousand in eight. About 3000 households have a population of 20000. After being uncle Kang, Wei was not a small country, and its capital population was not far from the number of “ancient” cities listed in the Warring States policy. In the twenty-five years after the restoration of Chu Qiu, Duke Wei Wengong was recuperated by thirty-five leather chariots, and he also had a force of three hundred leather chariots. [8] If 5000 people can maintain 30 times, then 300 times also requires at least 50000 people. Wei Xin moved to Chuqiu, and there may not be many surrounding cities. The capital should be the only big city, but it is difficult to estimate how many of the 50000 people are in Chuqiu city.

The ancient history is remote and difficult to trace. From the above inference, we can only assume that the capital of a feudal state has a population of 10000 or 20000, and the next city under it has a population of 12000 if it is the suzerain or capital of a small feudal monarch. The two capitals of Zhou people, Zongzhou and Chengzhou, may be super cities, but it’s another matter.

2? The distribution of capitals in the Western Zhou Dynasty and the spring and Autumn Period

Paleohistorians are quite a few who try to study the distribution of ancient cities. Mr. Li Ji is an archaeologist who made this attempt for the first time in modern times. According to the historical materials in local chronicles, he found 585 cities in the Zhou Dynasty, and 233 cities that are not easy to determine the age. These ancient cities were distributed in the present Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Hebei provinces in the Western Zhou Dynasty, and were not found in Jianghan HUAIJI (Shandong, Hubei, Jiangsu) until the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. [9] On the other hand, the geographer Zhang Sheng Daoshi made a map of the distribution of ancient cities according to the “spring and autumn calendar” supplemented by Mr. Chen pan, but only 97 ancient cities in the spring and Autumn period were listed. As Paul Wheatley pointed out, Oshima Riichi has found 78 records of building cities in the spring and Autumn period from the spring and Autumn Annals (including Zuo Zhuan, Gong and Gu). If there were only 97 cities in the spring and Autumn period, there would be only 19 cities in the Western Zhou Dynasty. What’s more, the records in jingzhuan may not be all the city building records of various countries at that time. [10]

Paul Wheatley himself made an attempt. Based on the ancient cities seen in the historical records, and referring to the pre Qin documents and the ancient book Bamboo Annals, he assumed the location of 91 cities in the Western Zhou Dynasty. Naturally, the feudal princes of the Western Zhou Dynasty accounted for the majority. [11] Paul Wheatley’s urban distribution map of the Western Zhou Dynasty (Figure 1) is basically consistent with ITO Daozhi’s map (Figure 2). As ITO pointed out, the feudal states of the Western Zhou Dynasty were mainly distributed in seven regions: first, the Wei River Basin, the capital of the dynasty; Second, Fenshui area of the Yellow River; Third, the triangle of Luoyang Kaifeng Anyang, the Kinki of Zhou Dynasty; Fourth, Shandong Peninsula, from zoutangliang mountain to Jishui basin; Fifth, southern Shandong, Northern Jiangsu, Eastern Henan and Northern Anhui; Sixth, South Henan and North Hubei; Seventh, South Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and even Zhejiang. In these seven regions, the distribution of ancient cities in documents is highly consistent with the distribution of archaeological sites. [12]

Ito also found that at least in the above-mentioned second, third, fourth and sixth regions, the vassal states with the surname Ji were distributed along the ancient transportation routes of yin and Zhou dynasties. On the other hand, the states of the Western Zhou Dynasty were also distributed in the main agricultural areas of the Yellow River Basin since Yin Dynasty. The eastward advance of the Western Zhou Dynasty seemed to take mastering the agricultural production areas as the major goal. [13]

The enfeoffment of the Western Zhou Dynasty had significant military functions. The small country in the west corner of Zhou Dynasty conquered the vast eastern plains, and the construction of Cheng Zhou formed the situation that the two cities were interdependent. Therefore, the third region above has the densest distribution points. The distribution points of the second, fourth and sixth districts above are mainly used to extend and defend the third district. The fifth and seventh districts are just the periphery of the periphery, and the distribution points are naturally less. Due to the military function of the cities in the Western Zhou Dynasty, it is also a natural phenomenon that they are distributed on the main traffic roads. On the one hand, it is convenient to echo each other, and on the other hand, it restricts the contact of the opposite side. Zhang Guangzhi specially pointed out that most of the cities in the Zhou Dynasty were located near mountains and plains, close to waterways, and were built and guarded, which could occupy the whole situation. [14]

Paul Wheatley’s distribution map of cities in the spring and Autumn period (Figure 3) is mainly based on the materials of Zuo Zhuan. The city in Figure 3 has 466 distribution points, 375 points more than that in the Western Zhou Dynasty. It reflects the extremely lively urbanization expansion process in the spring and Autumn period. [15]

There are 78 records of city building in the spring and Autumn period, which can be found in jingzhuan, including 27 times in Lu, 20 times in Chu, 10 times in Jin, 4 times in Zheng, 3 times in Qi, 2 times in song, and 1 time in Chen, Wu and Yue. Oshima Riichi believes that the main reason for the city building activities is military defense. Nineteen times in the first period (722 BC ~ 554 BC) of the 27 records of the state of Lu were for the purpose of fighting against the state of Qi. There was no record of city building in the second period (503 BC ~ 505 BC). Eight times in the third period (504 BC ~ 480 BC) were for the purpose of preventing the invasion of Jin. [16]

According to the historical facts, the city building activities contained in the “Jing Zhuan” were by no means the whole of this move at that time. Not only can the cities built in countries other than Lu be found in the spring and Autumn Annals, but even the cities built by Lu itself are greatly missing. The cities of Sanhuan in the state of Lu: Fei of Ji sun, Ying of Shu sun, and Cheng of Meng sun are called “Sandu”. However, the “city fee” was seen in the summer of the seventh year of Xianggong in Zuo Zhuan, and the “city into a Guo” was seen in the summer of the fifteenth year of Xianggong. [17] At that time, Fei had been the capital of Ji for a long time, and Fei had already had a special governor. Cheng’s construction of the city is also “Cheng Cheng Guo”, that is, the construction of outer Guo, which is not the first time to establish a city. From this point of view, at least two of the three capitals have not been built or repaired in the spring and Autumn Annals. By analogy, the construction of cities and towns in the state of Lu may not be fully recorded. The city buildings of neighboring countries are not necessarily included in the “scriptures”. Just take the state of Zheng as an example. According to the statistics of Masao Kimura, there are 102 capitals in the state of Zheng, and only four mention the construction of cities: once the city tiger prison, once the City Ho, Ge, Xi. [18] Such was the case in the state of Zheng. It was conceivable that there were many cities in other countries that had not been included in the jingzhuan.

In the spring and Autumn period, the number of cities increased by 375 according to Wheatley’s estimation. If it was shared by a dozen larger princes at that time, each country could get 230 cities. In the spring and Autumn period, there were more than ten officials in each country, and each hereditary aristocrat had at least one city, so these 375 cities were probably dominated by aristocratic cities. Gu Donggao’s list of capitals of the spring and autumn dynasties lists 386 capitals: Ji Zhou (40), Lu (40), Qi (38), Zheng (31), song (21), Wei (18), Cao (9), Ying (9), Ju (13), Ji (4), Xu (1), Jin (71), Yu (2), Guo (2), Qin (7), Chen (4), CAI (4), Xu (6), Yong (3), mi (1), Wu (7), Yue (1). [19]

Under the patriarchal system of the spring and Autumn period, clans were constantly divided and derived into large and small clans. The clan members who set up a large number of separate clans can set up their own temples and establish cities. This new city also adequately reflects the population growth. In the newly established cities, there are those whose names are the same as those of the enfeoffment aristocracy, such as Liu, Mao, Gan, Yin of Zhou and Bao, Yan, Cui, Xi of Qi; It can also be different from the aristocratic surnames, such as Fei (Ji surname), Ying (Shu sun), Cheng (Meng surname) of Lu, PU (Ning surname), Qi (Sun surname) of Wei, and the capital of Zheng Qimu. The original place names are still used by Dadui. Xinli manor is naturally likely to be an emerging city; Even if the new feudal monarch still used the existing old ones, the arrival of the new feudal monarch could still make this area develop into a larger settlement. On the other hand, with the settlement, a new aristocrat was enfeoffed there to establish a capital. No matter which of the above three possibilities, it directly reflects the increase of the number of cities.

In the early spring and Autumn period, the Communist uncle Duan of the state of Zheng first requested to be granted the system, and the Duke of Zheng Zhuang resigned from the rock town; When it was renamed in Beijing, Ji Zhong warned of the potential danger: “the capital passed the pheasants, and the damage of the country was also caused by the former king. Most of them were no more than one of the Three Kingdoms, one of the middle five and one of the small nine. Today, the capital is not controlled, and the king will be unbearable if it is not controlled.” [20] Huan Qi of the state of Jin was granted Quwo, and his son, Duke Wu, destroyed his wings in the eighth year of Duke Huan of Lu, and then merged with the state of Jin in the tenth year of Duke Zhuang. [21] Lu Min in AD, the Duke of Jin was the prince Shensheng City Quwo, and scholars believed that this was “the capital of division, and the position of Qing was the first pole, and how could it be established”; [22] Hu Tu quoted Xinbo’s words that “after the internal pet is merged, the external pet has two policies, the son is suitable, most of them are coupled with the country, and the root of chaos” is deeply worried. [23]

It seems that in the early spring and Autumn period, the phenomenon of “mostly coupling countries” has attracted considerable attention. Throughout the spring and Autumn period, there was competition caused by “the last big thing must be broken, and the last big thing must not be lost”. In the 11th year of Duke Zhao in Zuo Zhuan, “Wang said, ‘what about a big state-owned city?’ (Shen Wuyu) said: ‘Zheng Jing and Lishi killed Manbo, song Xiao Bosi killed his son, Qi Quqiu killed ignorance, and Wei Pu and Qi Shi offered their services to the Duke. [24] at the end of the spring and Autumn period, the Sandu finally made the Ji family reign, and the six Qing Dynasties were finally divided into the three Jin Dynasties. The inversion of political power and the coupling of most countries are two manifestations of the same thing. Throughout the spring and Autumn period, there was always the phenomenon of doctors holding the country’s orders, which generally derived from the new capital. Wheatley believes that many of the more than 300 cities that grew up in the spring and Autumn period are emerging political cities.

3? Transportation routes in the spring and Autumn period of the Western Zhou Dynasty

The traffic route of the Western Zhou Dynasty was mostly based on the main road between Zongzhou and Chengzhou, and then radiated from Chengzhou to the princes on the eastern plain. The so-called “Zhou Dao is as straight as a arrow”, which is immediately the main traffic trunk road. The transportation network from Cheng Zhou to Si Zhou is based on the old scale of the king Ji of the Yin Dynasty, and may also be as far away as the vast area between Huai and Ji. Mr. Dong Yantang’s “recruiting Fang RI Pu” shows that the footprints of King Yin went deep into the eastern half of the Huang Huai plain and circled in a large circle. [25] however, the eastern and southern barbarians in the early Zhou Dynasty were often dissatisfied. Bo Maofu in the Chengkang period once led the eighth division of Yin to the East because of the “great rebellion of the eastern barbarians”, reaching the seashore, late to the middle of the reign of King Zhao. Huaiyi still “dare to attack the internal country”, and Lubo must lead “Cheng Zhou Shi Shi” to defend and suppress. At the same time, Bo Pi’s father attacked the southern barbarians with the idea of “becoming a teacher is the East”. Obviously, there is an arc of traffic between the East and the south. [26] the arrow fight of Yi Hou mentioned in the first section of this article was unearthed in Yandun mountain, Dantu, Jiangsu Province in 1954. When King Zhou (possibly King Kang) toured the “Shang Tu” in the East, the tiger Marquis was renamed as Yi Hou. He was given the “King man” and Zheng’s “seven uncles”, and led a group of common people to establish a country in Yi. Tiger Marquis such as the tiger side of the Yin Dynasty, its region should be in the upper reaches of the Huaihe River in Eastern Henan. From the Huaihe River to the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it seems that it is also a route that can be reached from the east to the south. [27]

On the other hand, the scope of southern China includes Hanyang Zhuji. Shenbo’s “Yu Yi Yu Xie” is the most famous example in the southern kingdom. “Er Nan” in the bookofsongs is second only to “Da Xiaoya”. But going further south, the king of Zhao’s southern expedition will not be repeated, and the traffic may not be very frequent. The journey between Jianghan and Hubei ends in the Han Dynasty.

Going north, the important princes are Beiyan and Jin. But in the spring and Autumn period, the state of Yan still only asked about the Central Plains, and the traffic was unknown. “Di Zhiguang is not the capital of Jin”, and Jin guxuan North Road has not had much contact with the Central Plains.

In a word, the traffic situation in the Western Zhou Dynasty was still dominated by the axis between the two capitals. The frequent traffic between regions still needs to be carried out in the spring and Autumn period. The imperial court as the center of the imperial recruitment expedition, shaped like convergence, while the war alliance between the princes in the spring and Autumn period, became a multi center and multi-directional traffic, and the situation was more complicated.

In the spring and Autumn period, the countries made diplomatic relations, with song, Lu, Wei and Zheng as the center, and gradually entered the situation of song, Qi, Jin and Chu competing for hegemony, involving more and more princes. In particular, it is common for more than a dozen princes to go to the club together, whether with the overlord’s departure, suppression or alliance. The transportation of supplies and money is not enough to promote the development of transportation. In the end, there will inevitably be several common roads.

The Central Plains, where soldiers are deployed, extends in all directions. As for the east-west road across the Central Plains, there is a channel between Qi and Jin at the south foot of Taihang on the North Bank of the Yellow River. After passing the Wei state, it is in the north of Mount Tai and the south of Ji, directly driving Linzi. The passage between Qin and the East should follow the main road on the South Bank of the Yellow River, but between Qin and Jin, the Fen River Basin in the north of Wei River is followed. Qin transports Jin millet, ziyong and Jiang. The so-called boating battle is a waterway, and the battle of food is a dry road for military vehicles to cross the river. On the Dongping plain, the Wu Road crossing between Qilu Song Wei and the royal family still takes song Zheng as the main transportation center.

Between the north and the south, the state of Jin opened its territory to the north, and the state of Qi also fought for Yan. When the Central Plains went north, there were two ways, one in Taihang Shandong and the other in Taihang Shanxi. The more important north-south passage is rather the two roads leading South from the Central Plains to Jianghan. The first line is shenlu and Fangcheng, which reach zhengdu via the Han River, and the first line is the eastern line from Chen and CAI to Handong. The upper end of the above-mentioned western line can also extend into Guanzhong along the valleys of Danjiang River and Hanshui River. In the fifth year of Lu Dinggong’s reign, the Wu division entered Zheng, and Shen Baoxu cried at the Qin court. The Qin division’s fivehundred troops went east, and this road could not help but have a considerable amount of traffic.

At the end of the spring and Autumn period, Wu and Yue emerged. Going north, it must pass through Xu, Huai and sishang. In the ninth year of the Duke of Lu AI, Hangou contacted Jianghuai. One end was today’s Yangzhou, and the other end was in Huaiyin county. For the Huangchi League, a new canal (Huanggou) connects Ji and Si rivers from waihuang (northeast of Qi County in Henan Province) to Pei County in today’s Jiangsu Province through Dingtao. From Wu to the Central Plains, you can follow Hangou and Huanggou, connect the river, Huai River, Ji River and Si River, and take a boat directly. This artificial canal has another branch line, Zhiyi in the north, which can reach Qufu in the north, the so-called line between Shang and Lu. Wu and Chu fought, and the battlefield seemed to be dominated by the Huai River Basin. In the fourth year of Lu Dinggong, Wu defeated Chu. Huaisi, Dabie, xiaobie, Baiju, and a series of place names are all along the Huaihe River. Wu Xu chengshuai’s boatman sailed back to Qi, and Yue people sailed along the coast to cut off fuchai’s return journey. The two events showed that coastal navigation was also a known traffic line. [28]

4? Commerce in the spring and Autumn Period

The frequent traffic among countries is not limited to the traffic of military vehicles and official use. Visionary leaders will also see the usefulness of convenient transportation for trade. In the article “clothing, food, housing and transportation of the Zhou Dynasty”, the author of this article has said that the national highway system of the Zhou Dynasty has its ideal level. There are roadside trees, bridges should be built on time, there are restaurants along the way, and there is a post system. I won’t repeat it now. In the spring and Autumn period, it was conceivable that the government would build roads on the main transportation lines mentioned in the previous section because of more traffic. For example, in the 31st year of Duke Lu Xianggong, the son property of the state of Zheng blamed the ally leader Jin for neglecting the responsibility of receiving guests, and one of the things to do was “Sikong’s road to the times”. Lu Zhao in AD, the empress of Qin passed through Jin, and his car Qiancheng also “built boats on the river”, which made a floating beam between Qin and Jin. [29] in order to participate in the Central Plains League and use troops, the state of Wu can dig Hangou and Huanggou without fear. The land road opening project is more convenient than opening canals. It is supposed that for military and large-scale transportation, there is a more permanent road on the transportation line, which is rather a reasonable assumption.

In this kind of transportation line, the transportation of merchants may be used at the same time as the official use. In the 35th year of the Duke of Lu, the Qin division attacked Zheng and passed through the north gate of Zhou. It was obvious that it was a slippery road, but the army met Xian Gao, a merchant of Zheng who went to Zhou for trade. In a hurry, Xian Gao rewarded the teacher with twelve oxen. If these cows are provided by the team with high string, then this caravan cannot be regarded as small. At the same time, he “made a sudden announcement to Zheng”. Suddenly, it was a courier, which showed that merchants could also use the courier equipment on the road. [30] in the fifth year of Lu Chenggong, the state of Jin collapsed. The Duke of Jin summoned Bo Zong and met a heavy-duty transport vehicle on the road. Bo Zong’s post car asked him to give way. The “heavy man” driving said, “it’s better to be quick than to treat me”. Heavy vehicles on the road are not easy to turn to give way, and the official’s rush to pass around the behavior speed, which shows that private vehicles are also common on the road. [31] even the government has opened a way to facilitate business. Duke Wen of Jin was the new king of Jin, and the economic policy included “light customs, easy roads, trade and wide agriculture”. The road of commonweal is not just for military use. [32]

Convenient transportation can lead to the exchange of goods in various regions. In particular, local specialties can become “export” goods. On the seashore of the state of Qi, fishing salt is a unique resource. Qi has always been rich and strong, with the benefits of fish and salt as the main economic reason. It is because Guan Zhong “connected the fish salt of the state of Qi to Donglai, so that the city was closed for several times without levy, thinking that the vassal was beneficial, and the vassal was called Guangyan”. [33] the textile industry of the state of Lu was probably very unique in China in the spring and Autumn period. In the second year of Duke Cheng of Lu, the Chu army invaded Yangqiao. The state of Lu gave Chu 100 craftsmen, 100 tailors and 100 weavers in exchange for peace. It shows that the handicraft of the state of Lu has its specialty. Another story: in the 26th year of Zhao Gong, the Minister of Ji sun’s family in the state of Lu bribed Gao * [tooth + Qi], a minister of the state of Qi. It was two extremely thin pieces of brocade, wrapped like a feather, only a small one, and its details are known. [34] the state of Chu rose in the south, and Chu was the main enemy in the Central Plains and the Qi and Jin Dynasties. However, whether war or peace, the consequences of the Xia and Chu dynasties were, as Mr. Fu Mengzhen pointed out, the ancient situation of the East and the West Yixia, which turned into a confrontation between the north and the south. However, this situation also makes the specialties of the South used by the north. The employment of Chu talents is not limited to talents, but also includes products. The so-called “Qizi leather from Chu to also”. [35] Duke Wen of Jin was wandering outside for 19 years before he won the country. He talked with the king of Chu in the state of Chu, saying that he would retreat to repay the state of Chu in the future. He also said that “if you have children and women, you will have them, and if you have feather and tooth leather, you will have them. If they affect the state of Jin, you will have more than you”. It can be seen that at least the feather tooth leather of Chu may have been exported to Jin. [36] in fact, during the spring and Autumn period, there were some international businessmen who returned to other countries. In the fourth year of Duke Wen of Lu, Xun Zhe of Jin was captured in Chu. Jia people of Zheng planned to smuggle him out of Chu. Things failed, and Xun zhe was released. Later, when Jia Ren went to Jin, he met Xun Xuan, who had become an important figure, and treated him very kindly. Unwilling to take credit, he went to the state of Qi. Counting his footprints, Zheng Jia, who did not leave a surname in history, apparently moved to and from Zheng Zhu in Chu, Jin and Qi. Chu Xu was not valuable, but it could still be the goods of the interval trade at that time. It was more valuable and easy to transport goods, especially for merchants. [37]

At that time, all countries took Zheng Wei and song Ju as the key points of transportation, so they developed a considerable degree of Commerce. The previous examples of Xiangao and Zheng Jia people all show that Zheng merchants are active internationally. In the state of Zheng, there was also a very close relationship between businessmen and the government. In the 16th year of the reign of Duke Zhao in Zuo Zhuan, an agreement between the government and merchants was recorded: Han Qi, the envoy of the state of Jin, wanted to buy a jade ring in the state of Zheng. The price had been agreed, and Han Qi requested to buy the child property of the state of Zheng, Zichan replied, “in the past, my predecessor Duke Huan and the businessman all came from Zhou, and Yong Cibi coupled them with AI to kill this place. Cut off the Penghao and Chenopodium, and coexist. There is an oath to believe it in the world. He said: ‘you have no betrayal, I have no strong Jia, or seize, you have a profit, treasure and bribe, I don’t want to know.’ relying on this quality alliance, we can keep our hearts together until now.” [38] it can be inferred from this story that the merchants of the state of Zheng had some kind of organization equivalent to a guild before they could become the subject of the oath. In those days, when Duke Huan of Zheng came to the East, the merchants of the state of Zheng may not have been their subordinates, but they still maintained a certain degree of autonomy. Zheng did indeed have a special official to manage the city’s first route, named Chu Shi. Gongsun Hei is dying and hopes that his son can get this position. [39]

5? Capital of spring and Autumn Period

The capital cities of various countries are described as follows according to the description seen in Zuo Zhuan:

The capital city of the state of Zheng, integrated by scattered geographical names, seems to have a considerable scale. The South Gate of the city is called the inner gate, which leads to the capital of King Cheng Zhou, the east gate is called the Guo gate, and the east gate is Lu Wei. The west gate is called the teacher’s beam, and the north gate has no alias. On the outer floor, Chu attacked Zheng people at the gate of the orange cone. Then enter from chunmen, and the south gate has at least three levels. There is Kui city within chunmen, which is said to be the city street on Guonei road. There is still Kui road within the imperial gate, which is said to be wide with nine tracks. There is another time gate in the south of the city, which is near the water. I wonder if it is a water gate? When the Song Dynasty attacked Zheng Chuqu and entered Da Kui, the east gate also had a double, and there was also a very broad road. Entering the city from the west can enter the country through the tomb gate, which is about the water gate. There is an old north gate at the north gate. Relatively speaking, when there is a new north gate? Inside, there are closed doors. The southeast gate is called Cangmen, and the name of the road. In addition to the Kui road and Da Kui mentioned above, there is also the Qu of the Zhou family. Zi Chan killed gongsunhei, and the corpses are here “jiamuyan”. It must be a place with many pedestrians. It is suitable to expose the corpses to the public and announce the charges. There is Nanli in the residential area, which is outside the gate of tangerine, so it is a new expansion area that zhibofa Zheng enters the Nanli gate at the gate of tangerine, which should be attached to Guo? The Analects of Confucius is called Dongli Zichan, and Dongli is also a residential area in the east of the city. [40] the city has three gates, but there are still Nanli outside the city. Most likely, due to the expansion of the city, the outer city circle must be built again and again, so that the population outside the city can also be properly protected. Kui City, especially Rao interest, when the avenue gradually developed into a business district. The breadth of the great Kui of the state of Zheng naturally plays a role in transportation. [41]

Wei was also an important capital in the spring and Autumn period. The original capital of Wei was Chaoge, and moved to Chu Qiu because of Di Nan. In the 31st year of Duke Lu, Duke Wei Chenggong moved his capital to Emperor Qiu because he was surrounded by Di people, and the land was above Pu water. Since then, the so-called Wei only refers to this place. Confucius was greatly impressed by the large population of Wei. [42] industry and commerce also play an important role in Wei. The Marquis of Wei planned to betray Jin after being humiliated. In order to anger the defenders, Wang Sunjia declared that “there are difficulties in defending the country, industry and commerce are not in danger, and all can be done later”, which finally aroused the spirit of the defenders to share a common hatred. It can be seen that industry and Commerce account for the majority of the common people, or are sent by the national order. [43] in addition to the four gates in the East, West, North and south, there are reading gates, which seem to be slightly sideways. Guomen has the gate of fuze, the dead Wu near Guan and Guo, and the main road has a thoroughfare of roads. [44]

Shangqiu, the capital of Song Dynasty, has many gates. The east gate is called Yangmen, the South Gate of the east gate is called zemen, the north gate is called Tongmen, the west gate has no alias, the southeast gate is called lumen, and there is Cao gate. If you go to Cao in the northwest, it should be the northwest gate. Mengmen, according to the location of Mengcheng, is also the Northeast gate. The outer gate is called Sanglin gate, and the closing gate is called Zhumen gate. Li names include Nanli, Xinli and km. In julumen of Huashi, if there is rebellion in the south, there is strength or buildings that can be regarded as rebellion in the south, which should not be a very small area. The gate of the whole city is not only in the positive direction, but also in four eccentric angles. The so-called south gate of the east city, according to Mencius, “Lu Jun’s song call at the gate of cuanze at night”, should be the outer city gate. Maybe Dongcheng is the area of Dongguo. This urban area is also quite large. The addition of waiguodang is also to protect the expanding population. [45]

The location of Qufu, the capital of Lu, is not as good as that of Zheng, Wei and song. However, because the spring and Autumn Annals records Lu in detail, the description of Qufu is also very detailed. The mayor of the city is seven or eight miles away. The south of it is called Jimen. In the past 20 years, the tall and new name is gaomen. The west of the south gate is called Yumen, which is the west gate of Nancheng. The left side of the east gate is called the Shiming gate, which is also called the upper east gate. It is the north gate of the east city. In the eighth year of the reign of the Duke, the father of the Duke entered the city and fought with Yang Hu in the south gate. It can be inferred from this that Dongcheng is also a sub city Waiguo. On the right of the east gate, lumen is the South Gate of Dongcheng. In the 23rd year of Xianggong, Zang he cut the pass of lumen and ran away, so there was no other city gate outside, so it can be seen that the east city is an outer city. Shimen in the west, Guimen in the north, also known as zhengmen, Xiguo gate, Tianju gate, and Guomen in the northeast, called laimen. Several high platforms and temples in the palace. Its inner city is called Zhongcheng. Outside the city, there are Dongying, Xiying and Zhongcheng. There are five fathers on the road. Ji Wuzi cursed the people here, which shows that there are many pedestrians. The general situation of Qufu can be understood. [46]

Linzi, the capital of Qi, is a famous big city in the spring and Autumn period, with thirteen gates within ten miles of the city on Friday. According to the known city gate, it is called yongmen in the west, Jimen in the south, Shenmen in the southwest, Yangmen in the northwest, Donglu in the East, lumen in the southeast and Guoguan in the Guomen. The gate outside the palace city is called Humen, and the main road inside the city is called Zhuang Yueyue. Mencius’ so-called “setting between Zhuang and Yue” symbolizes that a place full of Qi accents is a busy street. In the 28th year of the Duke of Lu Xiang, Chen Huanzi obtained the wood of the Qing family, baiche Yuzhuang, and Baicheng wood can be parked on the road. Its breadth is known. [47]

Jin lived in Jiang after Marquis mu. The Marquis of filial piety changed Jiang into Yi. Xian Gong also called Jiang two miles north of the city, and ordered it to be called Jiang. Yi and Jiang were originally two names in the same place, but the newly established beichengzicheng just used the old name. Jin moved its capital to Xintian in the sixth year of Duke Cheng of Lu, also known as Xindu, which was called Jiang. From then on to the end of the spring and Autumn period, Xintian was regarded as Jiang. Its land “is thick and deep, and it is not ill to live in, and there is Fen to flow its evil”. At that time, there was another place that could be moved to be the place of Ying flaw, which is not far from the solution pool where salt is produced. Han Jue thought that “if the country Rao, the people will be arrogant and lost, and if it is near the baogongshi, it will be poor”, and advocated not to move the flaw of thin soil and light water, but to move the capital to Xintian, which is thick and deep soil. [48] it shows that Han Jue originally intended to only develop agriculture near the capital city, and did not advocate giving people the opportunity to pursue “end profits”. Jiang is not only based on agricultural products, but also does not live in the traffic arteries. However, Jiang is the overlord’s capital in the end. It is still inevitable to have a certain degree of business activities. It is said by her uncle: “the rich businessmen of Fu Jiang, Wei Fanmu, are too Korean, and their only contributions are mediocre, but they can be golden and jade cars, interlace their services, and bribe princes, without seeking a foot’s salary, and make great achievements to the people.”. [49] as mentioned above, a “Zheng Zhi Jia Ren” who wanted to smuggle Jin captives away from Chu later met with Xun Xuan, who was already in a prominent position at that time in Jiang. This Jia Ren was immediately a rich businessman who could bribe princes. At the end of the spring and Autumn period, even the lower tier cities of Jin can become considerable sources of wealth. When Yin duo was appointed to govern Jinyang, he asked Zhao Jianzi whether he regarded Jinyang as “cocoon silk? Suppression as security?” For the former, the city can develop into an economic metropolis; For the latter, it can be developed into a military base. [50]

In the southern countries, there is insufficient literature, but it is known that Wucheng Gusu was built by Helu. The big city is forty-two miles and thirty steps around, the small city is twenty-six miles and sixty steps around, and the open land gate and eight water gates are all made by Wu Zixu. The scale is conceivable. [51] Chu Yingdu is the capital of a huge power in the south. Although I don’t know exactly, I think it should also be a large city.

Archaeological data has accumulated a lot bit by bit. Some of these ancient cities may never have had the function of a commercial city, but they are still cities. Most of the sites continued to be used from the spring and Autumn period to the Warring States period, and most of them were Warring States period sites. However, the ancient city of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in the west of Luoyang should be the former site of the King City of the spring and Autumn period. About 12 kilometers around the city wall of this city site, it is much larger than the ancient city of Han Dynasty. Linzi ancient city is about four kilometers from east to west and more than four kilometers from north to south. Qufu ancient city is about 3.5 kilometers from east to west and 2.5 kilometers from north to south. The smaller princes’ cities include Xue and Teng. The former is 2.8 kilometers from east to west and 3.6 kilometers from north to south. The latter’s inner city is 900 meters from east to west and 600 meters from north to south. It is estimated that the outer city is 1.5 kilometers from east to west and about 1 kilometer from north to south. [52]

Almost without exception, there are a large number of earth platforms scattered in the central part of the urban area. Judging from its architectural remains, it is considered to be a temple. [53] after checking the literature, there are also many such earthen terraces in the spring and autumn capitals. For example, Lu Zhao attacked Ji’s family, and Ji Pingzi “stepped on the stage and invited”, which was the last place Ji could defend. [54] Qufu also has Quantai, Guantai, Dangshi Tai and Wuzi Tai. The latter was to fall into the Sandu. Duke Lu and his ministers defended the place where they resisted uncle and sun. It can be seen that Gaotai has its strategic importance, and it is also sufficient to show the political nature of the capital of the spring and Autumn period. [55]

However, the noble houses in the spring and autumn cities are not necessarily concentrated in the inner city or on the high earth platform. Perhaps due to the rapid growth of the city, perhaps due to the intrusion of the market into the residential area, in short, there is a market near the noble residence. For example, the Yan family is quite high in Qi, but its residence is close to the urban area. In the third year of Duke Zhao in Zuo Zhuan, Duke Jing of Qi wanted to change a better residence for Yan Zi, for the reason that “the son’s residence is close to the city, and it is narrow and noisy, so you can’t live, please be more refreshing”, Yan Zi thanked and said, “your predecessor is tolerant, and your ministers are not enough to inherit it. You waste money on your ministers. Moreover, the villain is close to the market, and you can get what you want day and night. The villain’s profit also dares to bother traveling.” [56] you family is also a big family in Zheng, and its temple is in the south of the road, its dormitory is in the north of the road, and the courtyard is very narrow. [57] the temples and dormitories are usually connected, but they are blocked by roads, so they have no choice. About the city is already crowded, and it’s not right.

According to the Qi and Jin Dynasties, some cities in the spring and Autumn period have gradually changed from purely political and military functions to both economic functions.

6? Commerce in the Warring States Period

The changes that had taken place in the spring and Autumn period continued and accelerated in the Warring States period. The merger of many small countries into the seven strong countries and several sub strong countries will unify the larger regions under the same government, which will have a great impact on improving roads and reducing the restrictions on passes between counties and countries

A considerable degree of influence. The round-trip travel in the Warring States period can illustrate this point. Mencius, a scholar with no special position, could travel in dozens of carriages and spread food among countries, while Yu Qing could also travel alone with a burden. Daliangze living in the Central Plains

People can drive around day and night like the people of the armed forces. [58]

Another related problem of interval trade is the interdependence of local specialties. If Yu Gong is a work of the Warring States period, the local tribute of each state is enough to represent the specialties of various countries during the Warring States period. Such as Yanzhou lacquer silk; Qingzhou’s salt, sea, silk, * (* wood + disgusting) silk, Xuzhou’s Pearl, fish, black fiber chimera; Yangzhou’s jinsanpin, Yaokun, computer, bamboo, bamboo, tooth, leather, feather, wool, wood, textile, orange pomelo; Feather, hair, tooth and leather of Jingzhou, three grades of gold, quince, dry, quince, cypress, Li Di, Dan, Dan, quince, JINGMAO, Xuanyi, Ji group, lacquer, quince, quince, silk and fiber of Yuzhou; Liangzhou’s iron and silver inlays, bears and foxes, and woven skins; Yongzhou has a wide range of balls. There are natural products and artificial products. [59] the specialties of each state listed in Zhou Li. Zhi Fang’s surname are also consistent with this: fish products in Bingzhou and Qingzhou, tin copper bamboo arrows in Yangzhou, Danxi tooth leather in Jingzhou, Lin Qisi in Yuzhou, fish salt in Youzhou, pine and cypress in Jizhou, cloth and silk in Bingzhou, jade and stone in Yanzhou. [60] to put it bluntly, the fish salt of the eastern Yanqi, the metal wood of the southern Jingchu, and the silk and hemp textiles of the central plains are all local specialties endowed by natural conditions. They have a Chinese market, but they can not be produced everywhere.

In terms of technology, all regions have their own characteristics. For example, the Warring States lacquerware often found in archaeology seems to be produced in the state of Chu. The beauty of its art is well known, so we don’t need to introduce it here. [61] another example is the fine carving of the Song Dynasty, which is about unique in the field. Han Feizi gives an example of the Song Dynasty’s depiction art. It is said that “the people of the Song Dynasty have served their monarchs and used elephants as Chu leaves, which were formed in three years. The stems and branches were abundant, and the flowers were numerous and bright, and the chaos of Chu leaves was inseparable”. [62] until the Han Dynasty, it was still known as Song painting and Wu Ye. [63] many local specialties can be enjoyed by consumers everywhere. Li Si’s book of remonstrating and chasing guests pointed out that all kinds of treasures used by the emperor in the palace of the Qin Dynasty came from all parts of the country, such as the jade of Kunshan, the amiable treasure, the Pearl of the moon, the sword of tai’a, the flag of Cuifeng, the drum of Linglian, the wall of the night light, the instrument of rhinoceros elephant, Jun Liang Yun, Jiangnan gold and tin, Western Sichuan Danqing, Wan Zhu Fu Ji, a chime’s clothes, splendid decorations,… All of them are not native products of the Qin State and radiate in the court of the Qin Dynasty. [64]

The most lively commercial activity is the emergence of money. In the spring and Autumn period, goods and bribes still seemed to be mainly in kind, while in the Warring States period, there were a large number of copper coins circulating all over the country. There are numerous references to the use of money in the literature. [65]

There are many kinds of Warring States currency handed down from generation to generation. It can be divided into knife, cloth, yuan money and Chu fine. Knife coins are mainly popular in Qi Yan and Zhao dynasties. Qi Dao is larger and pointed, and Yan Zhao Dao is ten types. Square head or round head. Cloth money is the currency of the three Jin Dynasties, including square shoulder, round shoulder, square foot, pointed foot, square and round. The Zhou and Qin Dynasties used round coins, and the Chu Dynasty used copper coins similar to shell shaped coins. At the same time, they were also divided into small Gejin versions, with “Ying” or “Chen” written on them as coins. Many of these coins have casting sites, monetary units and values, such as “Liang Zhengshang, Quan Shang, Yuan Shang”, “Qi Xiaohua”, “Qi Jianbang made Xiaohua”, Qin yuan coin “weighing one, two, twelve Zhu”, and so on. [66]

The appearance of the currency of one country in another country can show that there is economic exchange between the two places. Examples of various currencies in the same container unearthed in the ancient hoard can further illustrate that currencies have no national boundaries, and it is for the sake of economy that China has become a interconnected whole. In a special case, the Dao coin originated from the state of Qi can invade the state of Yan. It can be seen that the economic power of the state of Qi has affected its northern neighbors, and the state of Zhao also uses Dao coin, which is enough to know that the power of Dao coin has invaded the three Jin Dynasties where cloth coins circulate. [67]

In short, the development of the above monetary economy and the lively interval trade are interdependent, and both of them promote the development of the city to a considerable extent.

7? Cities in the Warring States Period

According to the “theory of salt and iron, general chapters” of the Han Dynasty, the metropolis of the Warring States period is recounted: “Yan Zhizhuo, Ji, Zhao Handan, Wei Wenfu, Han Xingyang, Qi Linzi, Chu wanqiu, Zheng Zhiyang Zhai, Sanchuan two weeks, Fuguan sea, are all famous capitals in the world. Those who are not helpful to cultivate their fields and their lands, live on the thoroughfare of the five princes, and cross the street. [68] All the above places have become famous capitals because they are transportation centers, and only a small part of them also have political functions. For example, Linzi is the capital of Qi. If the latter category is added, the metropolis must also include Anyi, Daliang, Zheng, Henan, Luoyang, Yan Ying, Shouchun, Chen, Puyang, Yong and Xianyang, which used to be the capital of the country. Together with Dingtao, Deng, Wan, Yiyang and Wu Hui, there were about 20 or 30 first-class metropolises in China during the Warring States period. If the cities that once cast coins are added, another batch can be added: for example, PuHan, Shanyang, Jinyang, Gong, Yu, Chui, yuan, Pingzhou, PI, Gaodu, Zhaiyang, Changyuan of Wei; Bo Ren, Lin, Lishi, Jinyang, Wu’an, Zhongyang, Wuping, Anping, Zhongdu of Zhao; Han’s Pingyang, Gaodu, Anliu, eldest son, Nie, Lu; Qi Jimo… The total number should be about 50 or 60. [69]

In the administrative cities of the Warring States period, due to the establishment of the county system, the county, city and county governments had the conditions to form cities. There may be tens of thousands of people in the county and city, and thousands of people in the county. 30000 households were the standard of feudal prefectures, and thousands of households were the standard of county magistrate. [70] therefore, there is a saying that “today’s city of thousands of feet, the cities of thousands of families face each other”. [7l] Shangdang county. Even if there are seventeen cities facing each other, it is not necessarily an exaggeration. [72] a number of cities that live in the traffic arteries can certainly have more people. Yiyang is just a county government, but because it lives between Nanyang and Shangdang, it has a strategic position. The savings of the two counties are concentrated in Yiyang, so that it can be called “county, actually county”. The city of Yiyang can be eight miles around, the army can be stationed at 100000, and the accumulation of millet can last for several years, which can be imagined. [73]

Cities in the Warring States period developed simply because of economic conditions. The best example is Tao Hewei. Tao was near Dingtao in Shandong Province today. In the spring and Autumn period, he was a Caodi and had no native place. At the end of the spring and Autumn period, Tao suddenly became a prosperous city. Tao Zhu Gong lived in Tao Bu’s house, that is, to “make Tao the world”, and he made three achievements. According to the study of history and geography, modern history Nianhai believed that Wu had dug Hangou and Huanggou, so that the rivers of Jiang, Huai, Ji and Si could connect traffic. Taoju, the hub of the new waterway network, and the area from Jisi to the Yellow River Plain in the West are important agricultural production areas in ancient times, which is dominated by taoju. The excavation of the chasm makes Tao live in the center of the road network of Ji, Ru, Huai and Surabaya. Close to Han and Wei in the west, Qilu in the East, and from the waterway to Jianghuai in the far. The prosperity of this economic city made Wei Ran, the powerful minister of the Qin Dynasty, seize Tao as his fief. [74]

Another economic city is Puyang, which was only a small country in the Warring States period. However, Puyang can be connected with Tao by economic water, and the North Road from qinjinganyi to Dingtao must pass through Puyang. Wei moved to Daliang, and the traffic between Daliang and Handan should also pass through Puyang. The rich agricultural products between Henan and Jinan also make Puyang qualified as an economic metropolis. Due to the vertical and horizontal waterways, the emerging economic cities still have Suiyang between Huoshui and suishui, Pengcheng between Huoshui and Surabaya, and Shouchun between Chu and Xia. [75]

In addition, the North-South Avenue on the eastern side of the Taihang Mountains connects Ji and Handan, “Jia Shangdang in the West and Zhao Zhongshan in the north”, Luoyang in the East, Qilu in the East and Liang Chu in the south, “Wan in the west, Wuguan in the East and Jianghuai in the East”, Guanzhong “borders Bashu in the South and Huyuan in the north”, and Liyang is “Rongzhai in the north and Sanjin in the East”, Xianyang is the center of Guanzhong, Zheng in Jianghan, Bashu in the upper and Wu Hui in the lower. All this is the status of a transportation hub. [76]

Archaeologists have excavated a large number of Warring States city sites. Zhang Guangzhi listed the following places and their profiles (see Figure 4, but the examples of sites in the spring and Autumn Period cited by Zhang family are excluded):

(1) Zhouwang City, located in Luoyang, Henan Province, is roughly square. The north city wall is 2890 meters long. It is an important building in the center and the south. There are pottery kilns and bone ware workshops in the northwest of the city, and ditch sites are scattered in the city.

(2) Wei Anyi, in Xia County, Shanxi Province, has three floors in the city. The middle city is located in the northwest corner. The north wall is 4500 meters long and the south end is 100 meters wide. The inner city seems to be the place of the palace, which is in the center of the big city circle.

(3) Weicheng, in Ruicheng, Shanxi Province, has not been fully excavated. The square is not very neat, each side is about 1500 meters long, and there are bricks and tiles left.

(4) Hanyiyang, in Yiyang, Henan Province, excavated rammed earth walls, square, 1400 meters long on each side, with bricks scattered on the surface of the site.

(5) Zhao Handan, in Handan, Hebei Province, the site has two connected cities, and there may be a third city site next to it. The city is roughly square, with each side 1400 meters long. The east city has a sub City, with the east wall of the city as the west wall, and the north and south walls extend about half the length of the city. The north city also has a wall extending northward, which may be another sub City. There is a series of earth platform foundation sites on the North-South middle line of the city, with bricks and tiles scattered. It is the location of the palace and ancestral temple, and the city is like a tomb.

(6) Zhaowu City, in Hebei Wu City, is slightly square, each side is 1100 meters long, and there are ditches along the north wall. Bricks, tiles, cloth money, and copper arrowheads were unearthed in the city.

(7) Zhao Wuji, in Wu’an, Hebei Province, has two ancient city sites. The west city is about rectangular, 889 meters from east to west, 768 meters from north to south. There are roads in each of the four city gates, and there are water wells and pottery kiln sites in the city.

(8) Yanxiadu, in Yixian County, Hebei Province, has been excavated many times since 1930. The unearthed sites and relics in the city are extremely rich. The city is rectangular, eight kilometers long from east to west and four kilometers long from north to south. There is another wall and ditch in the middle line to divide the city into East and west areas. The north area of the east city is separated by a wall, accounting for about one-third of the east city. The west city is relatively backward, and there are several earthen foundation sites of palace sites in the north area of the east city. In the south area of Dongcheng, there are iron smelting workshops, weapons workshops, money casting, pottery burning, bone making and other factories. The palaces and workshops are surrounded by residential sites, and tombs are located in the northwest corner of the east city. There are several ditches in the city.

(9) Qi Linzi, in Linzi, Shandong Province, is four kilometers long in the East and west of the city, and slightly longer in the north and South than four kilometers. The southwest corner is separated by a small town, with an area of about 1350 square meters. The unearthed relics include bricks and tiles, pottery plates, knives and coins, money molds, copper arrowheads, pottery mirror molds, and pottery seals. It is estimated that there should be 20000 households in the city

(10) Yingying City, in Zou County, Shandong Province, the city wall is built along the mountain, with two mountains sandwiched. The valley in the middle is about 1200 meters wide, which is the urban area. The earth platform in the city is 500 meters long and 250 meters wide. Local residents call it Huangtai. There are bricks and tiles in the city.

(11) Teng and Xue are two cities. In Teng County, Shandong Province, Teng city is about 800 meters from east to west, and about 600 meters from north to south. Xue City is irregular. The south wall and the east wall are slightly straight, and the northwest is a tortuous arc. The south wall is about two kilometers long, and the east wall is slightly short.

(12) Qinliyang is located in Lintong, Shaanxi Province. The city is rectangular, 2500 meters long from north to South and 1800 meters long from east to west. There is a straight street running through the north and south, and two cross streets running through the East and West. Bricks and tiles, well circles, pottery kilns, sewers, relics are unearthed in the city. Outside the northern wall are irrigation canals and HaoGou relics.

(13) Qinxianyang, in Xianyang, Shaanxi Province, lives on the Weibin. The outline of the city is unknown because it has not been fully excavated. In the city, there are houses built on the foundation, bronze, bone and iron nails. There are many tile pipes, which may be relics of ancient sewers, including water wells, pottery kilns and pits.

(14) Qin Yong City, located in Fengxiang, Shaanxi Province, is a rectangular City, 4.5 kilometers from east to west and 2 kilometers from north to south. Bricks and tiles and pottery pipes were unearthed. [77]

Niucun and Pingwang ancient cities in Houma, Shanxi Province are the ruins of the spring and Autumn period, but they also continued after the Warring States period. Pingwang city is rectangular. The longest part in the north and south is about 1700 meters, and the widest part in the East and West is about 1400 meters. Outside the wall is HaoGou, which is parallel to the city wall, and inside the wall is a driveway along the wall. The earthen base site with palace ruins in the city. In the southern suburbs of the city, there are many workshops for copper casting, pottery burning and bone making, which should be considered as handicraft areas.

In addition, there are some smaller ruins, the ancient city of Han, Wei, Zhao, Yan and Chu. They are generally located near the river, or square or rectangular, or built according to the terrain, with an area of 0.25 square kilometers to 1 square kilometers. There are one or two city gates and roads from there on each side. The east-west street of the above-mentioned Wuji ancient city is about six meters wide, passing through the city, and there are several small streets perpendicular to the street. ” [78]

In a word, although some ancient cities of the Warring States period seen in archaeology have not yet developed into commercial cities, most ancient cities, in addition to still having administrative and military functions, have widespread handicraft workshops. The city is convenient and tidy, and the streets are straight. All this shows that the city has a considerable degree of industrial production and commercial trade functions. In particular, the former, from its scale, Houma copper casting workshop has tens of thousands of inner models, and the agricultural tool casting model of Xinglong iron smelting workshop weighs hundreds of kilograms, which can be seen that the number of production is quite large. Moreover, Houma copper foundry has more than three specialized products, which shows that the production has a trend of specialization. [79]

The flourishing of Commerce in the Warring States period can be seen from the circulation of currency in the former Syria. “Historical records. Biographies of goods colonization” has a very vivid description. Wood, bamboo, grain (the skin of grain trees), bamboo (wild in the mountains), bamboo and jade in the west of Taihang Mountain; Fish salt to the east of the mountain; Ganzi, jianggui, Jin, Xi, dansha, rhinoceros, Qiaomao, Zhuji and toothed leather in Jiangnan; The horses, cattle, sheep and Zhan Qiu Jinjiao in the north have been trafficked by merchants. [80] industries that become rich include animal husbandry, pig breeding, fish farming, forest planting, orchard, bamboo breeding, paint making, hemp making, mulberry planting, cultivation of pigment plants and spice plants. In the city, thousands of units can be produced and sold to make and sell wine pulp, sauce, slaughtering, grain selling, fuel, transportation, building materials, wood, smelting and casting, textiles, clothing materials, lacquer, and even salty and dry goods, resulting in a huge wealth. [81]

Other pre-Qin literature, of course, only fragmentary references to urban life. In summary, some interesting news can still be obtained. Many of the industries mentioned in the historical records can be confirmed bit by bit. In a city, there are government offices, palaces and pavilions. However, there are artisan workshops that rely on craftsmanship to survive nearby. [82] the markets gather in the morning and disperse in the evening. The so-called “the city is full in the morning, empty in the evening, not loving the city in the morning but hating it in the evening, seeking to survive and die”. This kind of trade zone is about a market for all industries. [83] above the market, there are large jewelry and silver houses and small divination stalls. [84] people in the marketplace can even linger with their friends in restaurants and casinos, and compete for wine and sex. [85] the city attracts swordsmen and villains, as well as eloquent scholars and celebrities. [86]

Due to the large population, craftsmen can also get decent wages. It is said that they can “work in one day and have five eclipses.” [87] even disabled people can make a living as long as they have skills, such as washing and sewing, or sifting refined rice. [88] there are many people who make a living in the city, so not only will there be “Tang gardens” of fruits and vegetables in the suburbs, but also poor households who weave straw sandals and straw mats, [89] and the vehicles that enter and leave the city gate every day are enough to press out two tracks. [90]

Information describing the first-class metropolis in the Warring States period, The most vivid passage in “historical records: biographies of Suqin”: “Among the 70000 households in Linzi, the ministers stole it. There were no less than three men in the household, 37.21 million, waiting to be sent to the far county, and the death of Linzi was already 210000 years old. Linzi was very rich and solid, and its people all played Yu drums and harps, played the piano and built, fought cocks and ran dogs, and six Bowers. The painting of Linzi, hit the hub of the car, rubbed the shoulders of people, lapped into curtains, raised the clothes into curtains, sweat into rain, abundant families, and high aspirations.” [9l]

Scholars have different opinions on whether there is such a large population in Linzi. [92] even if only one-third of the population mentioned in the “historical records” is calculated, Linzi still has more than 100000 people. If there are 60 important cities in the country, ten of them have a similar number, and the rest are based on the “city of 10000 families”, then more than 200000 households live in first-class cities and 500000 households live in medium-sized cities. The total urban population can reach threeorfour million, and the number is still very large.

After the development of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, ancient China had many large cities. Among them, tens of thousands of people are concentrated in various industries. The cities in the Warring States period were very much in line with the multi-functional urban character. The straightness and orthogonality of the streets, and even the drainage system, are sufficient to show that the standard of urban life has been very high. With the Warring States period, the Middle East and the Mediterranean also have a high degree of urban civilization and busy economic activities. However, in terms of scale, total population and urban figures, urban development in ancient China is still rare.

(originally published in the Journal of the Institute of historical languages, Vol. 48, No. 2, Taipei)


[1] For the inscriptions on the utensils of Sanshi pan, pangcong, and bailing tripod, see Guo Moruo’s textual research and interpretation of the great system of Jin CI in the two weeks. Yi Hou Yanyin, then see Guo Moruo’s textual research and interpretation of arrow like inscriptions, Journal of archaeology, issue 1, 1956. And Tang Lan’s textual research and interpretation of Yi Hou ya, ibid., 1956, issue 2. [2] Rong Geng, (general examination of Yi ware in Shang and Zhou dynasties), pp. 502, 509. [3] “Spring and autumn Zuo Zhuan justice” (four prepared versions), Volume 38, page 15 &\8211; One six. The Analects of Confucius (four prepared Editions), volume one, four, page three. [4] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 1 o, page 8. [5] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 11, page 5. [6] “Warring States policy” (four prepared Editions), Volume 20, page 1. [7] Refer to Shanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Management Committee, “the total harvest of Houma workstation”, archaeology, 1959, issue 5, page 22. [8] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 11, page 8. [9]Chi Li, The Formation of the Chinese People(Harvard University Press,1928)?pp?94—104? [10]Sen-dou Chang“The Historical Trend of Chinese Urbanization?”Annals of the Association of American Geographers 53(2)?1963?p?113? Riichi Oshima, ancient Chinese cities (Oriental journal [Kyoto] Vol. 30), page 53 & \8211; May fourth; Paul Wheatley?The Privot of the Four Quarters (Chicago?A1dine?1971?)[11]Paul Wheatley pp.op?cit??164– 167?fig 13. [12] Daozhi ITO, “the formation of ancient Chinese imperial dynasties – unearthed materials in the center of the study of the history of yin and Zhou”, Tokyo, Chuang Wen she, 1975, pp. 248 or less. [13] Itoh Daozhi, “the formation of ancient Chinese imperial dynasties – the study of unearthed materials in the center of yin and Zhou history”, Tokyo, Chuangwen agency, 1975, page 276 & \8211; Two seven eight. [14] Kwang Chih Chang, early Chinese Civilization: Anthropological Perspective (Harvard Universit press, 1976.) Masao Kimura believes that ancient Chinese cities were mostly on hills, which seems to be based on Zhang Binglin’s old theory. See Masao Kimura, “the composition of ancient Chinese empires”, Dongjing, fujitang, 1965, pp. 74-76, but archaeological sites in Western Zhou cities are rarely located on hills, k.c.chang, cited previously, Page 67, note 5, and page 66, figure 4. [15] Paul Wheatley, front citation, page 168 &\8211; 173, and Figure 14. [16] Riichi Oshima, previous citation. Page 55. [17] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 30, page 5; Volume 32, page 12. [18] Masao Kimura, front citation, June 8th. Zuo Zhuan, volume one or two, page one or two; Volume 59, page 3. [19] Gu Donggao, the major events of the spring and Autumn period (the sequel to the interpretation of the classics of the emperor and the Qing Dynasty), tables 7-1 to 7-4. [20] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 2, page 1. [21] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 7, pages 1 and 2; Volume 9, page 7. [22] Zuo Zhuan, volume one, page one. [23] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 11, page 8. Banbo’s own words were found in the 18th year of Duke Huan, but they are more concise, Volume 7, page 14. [24] Zuo Zhuan, Volume IV and V, page 12. [25] Dong Zuobin, Yin calendar (Lizhuang, Academia Sinica, 1945), Volume 9, page 48 or less. [26] see “Xiaochen * Yin”, “Lu * you” and “Jingyou”, Shirakawa Jing, Jinwen world, Tokyo, ordinary, 1971, page 83, 110 ~ 111, 115. [27] Yi houya * source, see note [1], [2], Shirakawa Jing, cited above. Page 97. [28] the above description of transportation routes is based on the general idea of the study of Shi Nianhai, Shi Nianhai, the collection of rivers and mountains (also known as the draft of Chinese history and Geography), 1962, page 67 &\8211; August day. [29] Zuo Zhuan, Vol. 4 o, page 9; Volume 41, page 9. [30] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 17, page 7 &\8211; VIII. [31] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 2, page 6, page 5. [32] Mandarin (four prepared Editions), Volume 1, page 17. [33] Mandarin, Vol. 6, 14. [34] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 2, page 12; Volume 52, page 1. [35] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 37, page 7. [36] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 15, page 6. [37] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 2, page 6, page 3. [38] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 4 and 7, page 1. [39] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 4, page 2, page 3. In other countries, those who hold the post of Chu division are song and Wei, who are also world officials. Similar to this is Jia Zheng of the state of Lu. Gu Donggao, list of events in the spring and Autumn period, table 1 0, page 31, 37. [40] Gu Donggao, front citation, table 7-2, page 1 &\8211; One 0. [41] on the issue of city walls, those who discussed that ancient cities had double walls and their functions were Miyazaki shiding, “feudal system in ancient China plus metropolitan country plus,” historical forest, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1900. However, the population in the city does not have to be dominated by agricultural producers, as Miyazaki said. [42] Analects of Confucius, Volume 1, page 3. [43] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 5, page 8. [44] Gu Donggao, front citation, table 7-2, page 2 0&\8211; Two three. [45] Gu Donggao, front citation, table 7-2, page 12 &\8211; Fifteen. [46] Gu Donggao, front citation, page 1 0&\8211; 20. [47] Gu Donggao, front citation, page 22 &\8211; 25. [48] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 2, page 6, page 7. In recent years, archaeological excavations have found two sites in the ancient city of Houma, which may be Xintian sites, including the ruins of palaces, copper and bone workshops and pottery kilns. Neither of the two ancient cities is big. Niucun ancient city is about 1340 to 1740 meters north and south. It is 1100 to 1400 meters long from east to west, and the northwest corner is connected with Pingwang ancient city, which is the relationship between Yi and Jiang? See Shanxi Cultural Relics Management Committee, general harvest of Houma workstation work, archaeology, 1959, issue 5, page 122 &\8211; Two two eight. [49] Mandarin, Volume 14, page 11. [50] Mandarin, Vol. 15, page 4. [51] Gu Donggao, front citation, table 7-4, page 32. [52] Luoyang excavation team of the Institute of archaeology, “report on the excavation of the Eastern Zhou City site in Luoyang Jianbin”, Journal of archaeology, 1959, issue 2, Oshima Liyi, previous citation, page 60; For more information, please refer to Guan Yexiong, archaeological research in China, Tokyo, 1956, page 281, and the investigation of famous cities. [53]Kwang-chih Chans?Early Chinese Civilization?pp?67– 68? Guan Yexiong, the site of Lingguang hall in the former Han Dynasty, cited previously in Chinese archaeological research. [54] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 51, page 1. [55] Gu Donggao, previous citation, page one of seven, page one four &\8211; One six. Zuo Zhuan, Volume 56, page 5. [56] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 4, page 6 &\8211; IX. [57] Zuo Zhuan, Volume 48, page 10. [58]Cho-yun Hsu?Ancient China in Transition(Stanford University Press,1965)?pp?116– 118. Diplomatic envoys of the Warring States period were frequently dispatched by hundreds of times, and “Warring States policy” can be seen everywhere, such as “Warring States policy” (four prepared Editions), Volume 2, page 6, Mencius (four prepared Editions), Volume 6, page 4. Warring States policy, Vol. 2, page 3. [59] “Shang Shu Jin Gu Wen Zhu Shu” (four prepared copies), Volume 3, page 7; Volume III, page 12. [60] Zhou Li and justice (four prepared Editions), volume 63, page 3; Volume 64, page 4. [61] Shang chengzuo, preface to the catalogue of Chu lacquerware unearthed in Changsha (Shanghai, 1955), page 4. See also Hunan Provincial Cultural Relics Administration Commission, “three large wooden coffin tombs unearthed in Changsha”, Journal of archaeology, 1957, issue 1, page 99. [62] Han Feizi (four prepared Editions), Volume 7, page 4. [63] “Huainanzi” (four prepared Editions), Volume 19, page 7. [64] textual research on the notes of the Historical Records Association (Taipei, art and culture photocopy), Volume 87, page 8 &\8211; IX. [65] for example, according to Mo Zi Jing Shuo, “buying a knife is like buying a Jia. If the knife is light, it is not expensive to buy, and if the knife is heavy, it is not easy to buy. The king’s knife has not changed, but buying has changed. If the knife changes year by year, the knife changes year by year.” Mozi (four important books), Volume 10, page 12; This is to discuss the relationship between price and currency value. [66] works on Pre-Qin coins, Wang Yuquan, origin and development of ancient Chinese coins (Shanghai, 1957) and Tongshi’s English works, Wang Y ü Chuan, early Chinese coinage (New York, American Numismatic Society, 1951.) [67] Cho Yun Hsu, previous citation, page 121; Wang Yuquan, former citation; Cheng Te-kum,Archaeology in China(Cambridge?Heffer?1963)?vo1???p?70? Xia Nai, archaeological harvest of new China, Beijing, 1961, page 67. [68] on salt and iron (four prepared Editions), Volume 1, page 6 &\8211; VII. [69] Yang Kuan, the history of the Warring States period, Shanghai, 1955, page 47 &\8211; Four eight, five three &\8211; May fourth. [70] Warring States policy, Volume 18, page 9. [71] Warring States policy, Vol. 20, page 1. [72] Warring States policy, Volume 18, page 9; “Han CE” also said that Zhang Cui was sick and went to one county in Japan (Volume 27, page 1). It is known that she was sick and went to one county in Japan. [73] Warring States policy, Volume 1, page 2; Volume 4, page 4. [74] Shi Nianhai, cited previously. Page 11 0&\8211; One two zero. [75] Shi Nianhai, front citation, page 121 &\8211; One, two, four. [76] Shi Nianhai, page 124 &\8211; One three zero. [77]Kwang-Chih Chang?Archaeology of Ancient China(Yale University Press?revised edition?1968)?pp?280– 305.[78] Xia Nai, front citation, page 68. [79] Shanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Management Committee, “total harvest of Houma workstation”, page 22 &\8211; Two two eight. Zheng shaozong, “casting models of production tools of the Warring States period discovered in Rehe Xinglong”, archaeological newsletter, issue 1, 1956. [80] historical records, Vol. 129, page 45. [81] historical records, Vol. 129, page 31 &\8211; Three seven, four three &\8211; Four four. [82] the spring and Autumn Annals of Lu recorded that the workers made in the Song Dynasty lived in the southern neighbor of the aristocratic City Zihan. Lu’s spring and Autumn Annals (four important Editions), Volume 2 0, page 1 o. [83] Warring States policy, volume one, page three. [84] for the story of jewelry stores, such as Chu people selling pearls and Zheng people buying pearls, see Han Feizi (four important books), volume one, page three; For the story of Qi people who went to the silver tower to win gold, see “Lu spring and Autumn”, Volume 16, page 16; For divination, see Warring States policy, Vol. 8, page 4. [85] for restaurants, see Han Feizi, Volume 13, page 8; For gambling and advocating excellence, see historical records, Vol. 129, pp. 29, 43. [86] Lord mengchang led the world into Xue as a Xia and villain. It is said that there are as many as 60000 families, “records of the historian”, Volume 75, page 26. Another example is xinlingjun, who also took the butcher of Jianmen as his guest. Records of history, Vol. 77, page 4 & \8211; 5? King Xuan of Qi gathered hundreds of thousands of literary lobbyists in Jixia, “records of history”, Volume 46, page 31. [87] Guan Zi (four important books), Volume 15, page 14. [88] Zhuangzi (four prepared Editions), Volume II, page 14. [89] pipe, Volume II, III, page 15. [90] Mencius, Volume 14, page 6. [91] historical records, volume 69, page 27. [92] Wheatley, for example, is extremely suspicious of the exaggeration of this number, pauld Wheatley, Op. cit., P. 19 o. Guan Yexiong believes that it is quite reasonable to calculate 20000 or 30000 households based on the area of Linzi ancient city. Archaeological research in China, Tokyo, 1956, pp. 141 or less. Chinese scholars have not yet doubted this figure.

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