The end of the “king with different surnames” in the early Han Dynasty

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If we want to weaken the enemy, strengthen ourselves, and finally achieve the strategic goal of defeating Xiang Yu and seizing the world, we must make good friends, unite all forces that can be united, and establish the broadest united front. Liu Bang has a clear and profound understanding of this and fully understands the necessity of sharing achievements with others. In order to win the political and military support of his allies, including Ying Bu, he enfeoffed a total of 8 princes in the early Han Dynasty. Liu Ji’s accession to the throne also adopted the form and procedure of “the king of Chu Han Xin, the king of Han Wang Xin, the king of Huainan Wang yingbu, the king of Liang Peng Yue, the king of guhengshan wurui, the king of Zhao Zhang Ao, and the king of Yan zangda” jointly urging him to advance. Liu Bang, of course, is a loner, but he is still in Weijia; Each of the major princes and princes also crossed States and counties, dominated each side, set up their own officials, led their own army, and enjoyed full powers of administration, economy, military and justice within the feudal state, just like a country within a state, forming a semi independent situation. The respective status and rights of the central and local governments have become a temporary weak balance under specific historical conditions. However, everything is smoke and cloud. In the minds of politicians, there are no eternal enemies and friends, only eternal interests. After the world was settled, the irreconcilable contradiction between the royal family and the princes with different surnames gradually developed into a major social problem, which was becoming increasingly complex, sharp and prominent, and had reached the point that it must be solved. This is determined by the huge contradiction and contrast between the development direction of centralized power and the social reality of local separatism, and is not transferred by human will. Next, I will tell about the experiences and fate of different kings. For example, Han Xin, which has been introduced in detail in the previous article, has little meaning when talking about it. For example, if there is nothing, just say a few words simply. According to the order of the time of establishment, the order of the eight different surnamed princes in the early Han Dynasty is as follows: 1 Hanwangxin. In November of the 2nd year of the Han Dynasty (205 BC), Liu Bangli named hanwangxin as the king of the Han Dynasty, roughly governing duyangzhai (now Yu County, Henan Province), the former hometown of South Korea. Hanwangxin was originally named Hanxin and later was granted the title of Hanwang. In order to distinguish himself from Hanxin, one of the three heroes of Xing Han with the same name and surname, it is common practice to call him “hanwangxin”. Han Wangxin was a grandson of King Han Xiang of South Korea at the end of the Warring States period. He was tall, brave and smart, and had great ambitions since childhood. After Chen Sheng’s uprising and the consolidation of the heroes, Chu, Yan, Qi, Zhao and Wei, the former six states of Shandong, declared their restoration one after another. Only South Korea still failed to restore. Therefore, Xiang Liang made Han, a Korean aristocrat, become the king of Korea to call on him. Hanchengyin is the two main assistants to rely on. The writer is situ Zhang Liang, and the Wu is Taiwei hanwangxin. Zhang Liang and Han Wangxin followed Peigong Liu Bang from Wuguan to Guanzhong, witnessing the annihilation of the Qin Dynasty. When there were sharp contradictions between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, they were all firm supporters of Liu Bang. Hanwangxin actively participated in encouraging the king of Han to take the opportunity to “return the three Qin Dynasties” and then move eastward to fight for the world, and repeatedly made war achievements. Xiangyu killed Han Cheng and made Zheng Chang queen of Han. Liu Bang sent Han Wangxin to lead a troop to fight for the land of Han. Zheng Chang was defeated by Han Wangxin and was forced to surrender. Liu Bang made a favorable gesture and made hanwangxin king of Han. In fact, calling him “hanwangxin” at this time is justified. Han Wangxin was grateful to the Han king for his kindness and gratitude. He took the initiative to lead the Han Army to cooperate with the Han Army in fighting, and pretended to be a ministry. Liu Bang was very satisfied with this. The two cooperated closely. In May of the 3rd year of the Han Dynasty (204 BC), Xingyang was under pressure. Under the cover of Jixin, the king of Han led a small number of trusted followers such as Chen Ping and xiahouying to flee in a hurry, and ordered Han Wangxin and Wei Bao to cooperate with the senior generals Zhou Ke and Zong Gong to stay and stick. Zhou cau and Zong Gong thought that the rebellion of the Wei King leopard was capricious and “it was difficult to defend the city against the king of the state”, so they took drastic measures to prevent it and killed him first. After the city was destroyed, hanwangxin, Zhou Ke and Zong Gong were captured by the Chu army. Zhoujiao and Zonggong were killed unyielding, while hanwangxin surrendered to Xiangyu. Soon, he found a chance to escape from the Chu camp and return to the king of Han again. Liu Bang didn’t care, and he was still king of Han. In this special way, hanwangxin became one of the founding heroes of the Han Dynasty, and ranked first among the few kings with different surnames. After the unification of the world, “hanxincai was used to fight in the upper part of the world. The king was close to Gong and Luo in the north, Wan and ye in the south, and Huaiyang in the East. All of them were powerful soldiers in the world”. With fear, he issued an imperial edict to change hanwangxin’s food city to the north of Taiyuan, Jinyang (now Taiyuan, Shanxi). Nominally, it was a favor to let him guard against the invasion of the Huns. Everyone is not stupid. Hanwangxin knows the emperor’s mind clearly: he will not be happy to change from a rich hinterland to a despicable and desolate place, and to deal with the military attacks of the Huns anytime and anywhere; At the same time, I feel that I should make preparations and leave a way for myself. So he pushed his boat along the river and wrote with a high sounding voice: “the territory has a vast border, and the Huns often invade; but Jinyang is far away from the frontier fortress, so it is too late to take quick measures. Therefore, he requested that the capital of the kingdom be located in Mayi (now Shuo county, Shanxi).” Liu Bang has no doubt about it, and stands by it. This is the story of spring in the 6th year of Han Dynasty (201 BC). In the autumn of that year, Bolden Shan Yu personally proposed a fine ride to besiege hanwangxin. While sticking to his position, hanwangxin repeatedly sent envoys to the imperial court for help and to the Huns for peace. Gaozu sent reinforcements to solve the siege, but heard that Han Wangxin was secretly dealing with the Huns. He was suspicious and deeply dissatisfied. He wrote a letter to accuse him, saying, “you are not brave enough to die, and you are not responsible for your students. When the invaders attack the Mayo, the king is not strong enough to hold on to a safe place, so I blame the king for both.” Let him explain. Hanwangxin was originally very dissatisfied with the unjustified relocation of the imperial court. He also resented the court’s lack of understanding and mistrust for himself in times of crisis, and was even more afraid of being punished once a disaster fell from heaven. After pondering over the past and future, he simply did nothing and declared publicly that he had betrayed the Han Dynasty and took refuge in the Huns. He offered Ma Yi with his hands, colluded with the Huns nearby, and formed a infantry and cavalry coalition to attack Taiyuan. For a short time, the situation suddenly changed, the northern Xinjiang was covered with overcast clouds, and the Han Hungary relations entered a wartime state. In the winter of the 7th year of the Han Dynasty (200BC), Liu Bang personally enlisted Han Wangxin, and all the famous Han Army strategist Chen Ping and famous generals Zhou Bo, fan Kuai, xiahouying, Guanying and others joined the army. Fan Kuai, Zhou Bo and others joined forces to defeat the rebels. Wang Xi, a senior general of Han Wangxin, was killed. Han Wangxin fled to the Huns. Han generals manqiuchen and Wang Huang were unwilling to fail. They jointly established Zhao Li, the former aristocrat of Zhao state, as king. They collected stragglers, made contact with Han Wangxin and the Huns, and conspired to attack the Han Dynasty. Madden Shanyu sent more than 10000 cavalry led by Zuo and Youxian kings to join forces with Wang Huang and others in the south of Guangwu (today’s Dai County in Shanxi Province), and entered Jinyang to have a fierce battle with the Han army. The morale of the Han army was high and they won successive battles. The enemy retreated to Loufan (now Ningwu, Shanxi) and gathered, and was defeated by the cavalry troops who gave birth to the baby. Liu Bang was dazzled by the victory. He wanted to take advantage of the victory to clear the way for the Xiongnu once and for all. He took the enemy lightly and rushed forward. As a result, he was surrounded by the conquering Xiongnu cavalry in Baishan Mountain in Pingcheng (now Datong, Shanxi). The situation was very critical. Seven days later, with Chen Ping’s strategy, the main force of the Han army returned to the south. Since then, the Huns were more unscrupulous in their invasion of the border areas. Han Wangxin asked Wang Huang to send people to lobby the Deputy Prime Minister and Yang Xiahou Chen Chen, who led heavy troops to stay in the northern border area, to rebel against the Han, causing more trouble. Liu Bang personally learned the strength of the Huns, and was forced to adopt the suggestions of Liu Jing and others, replace military means with the policy of amity, concentrate on construction and seek development wholeheartedly, so as to win time for the Han court to recuperate. As the saying goes: don’t seek quick results, don’t fight for small profits. After decades of preparation, in the period of Emperor Wu, the internal and external conditions were fully mature, and the time to solve the Hun problem was right to fall into the canal. In September of the 10th year of the Han Dynasty (197 B.C.), Chen Chen collaborated with the Huns to raise troops for rebellion, and Liu Bang led his army to levy. In the spring of the next year, Han Wangxin, together with the first Hun cavalry, settled in the joint venture (today’s Xiyang mountain is high) to coordinate with Chen Chen and Liu Bang to send general chaiwu to meet the attack. At the instigation of emperor Gaozu, chaiwu asked someone to write a sincere letter to hanwangxin, moved with emotion, told with reason, and persuaded him to turn back anyway. The letter said: “Your Majesty is kind and kind. Although some of the princes have defected, they are always treated leniently as long as they know they have lost their way. They often restore their original title and treatment without killing them. This is what you know about your majesty. Now your majesty just fled to Hu because of the defeat. There is no great crime. I hope you can automatically surrender as soon as possible!” After receiving the letter, King Han read it again and again, pondered it over and over again, and wandered around the room, feeling like a tide. On the one hand, he had no intention of treason, and the life of traitors in the world was usually difficult; On the other hand, he clearly saw the general trend of the world and the changes in Liu Bang’s psychology and style of work, and was wary of it. So he wrote a letter and declined it politely. In this famous reply, hanwangxin said: “Your Majesty promoted me from the marketplace and finally became the king in the south. This is my life’s honor. However, in the Xingyang campaign, I couldn’t be as stubborn as Zhou Jiao and Zong Gong. Instead, I became a prisoner of Xiang Ji. This is my first sin. When the Huns Besieged Ma Yi, I couldn’t hold on, but I surrendered to the enemy with the city as a gift. This is my second sin. Now I am fighting for the Huns against the Han Army and the general instead This is my third sin. Wenzhong and Fan Li had made great contributions to the state of Yue. They had not committed any crime, but still had to die and escape; In front of the emperor, however, I have accumulated three major crimes. It is impossible for me to beg for a living in the Han court. Wuzixu offended fuchai, the king of Wu, but he didn’t know how to escape. He finally died in the state of Wu. We can learn from him! Now I am hiding in the barren land of wild mountains and valleys. I beg from barbarians day and night. The desire of tired birds to return home is as strong as the desire of rheumatism patients to stand up and the desire of blind people to see the light again. However, the situation does not permit! ” So the swordsmen met. The Han army won a great victory. General Chai Tu joined forces and killed hanwangxin. At the beginning, when Han Wangxin fled to the Huns, he was not too embarrassed, including the crown prince, because he had made some preparations and had to take care of his family. Later, when we arrived at decadence Town, we unexpectedly added two men: the princess gave birth to a son, which was named Han decadence town according to local conditions; The crown princess also gave birth to a son named Han Ying. In the 14th year of Emperor Wen, Han langdang, Han Ying’s uncle and nephew led their subordinates to return to Han. Emperor Wen, with his Long Yan and great joy, granted Han Liao the title of Gonggao Marquis and Han Ying the title of Xiangcheng marquis. During the reign of King Jing, the seven kingdoms of Wu and Chu rebelled. Han Tuo, as a general, followed the Taiwei zhouyafu to fight the rebellion, and “Gong gaohou was the champion of all generals”. This is the last word. I am quite interested in the relationship between Zhang Liang and Han Wangxin. It’s a pity that I have obtained very little from searching for historical books. Please give me your advice. Liang believes that this should have a direct causal relationship with Zhang Liang’s thought-provoking political attitude after the founding of the Han Dynasty and Liu Bang’s accession to the throne.

2. King Zhao, Zhang Er.

In November of the 4th year of the Han Dynasty (203 BC), Liu Bang established Zhang Er as king of Zhao, roughly governing the former land of Zhao and Duxiang (now Xingtai, Hebei). In the autumn of the next year, Zhang Er died of illness, and his son Zhang Ao became king of Zhao. Zhang Er’s story has been mentioned above. Here is a single table of Zhang Ao.

Zhang Ao is the son of King Zhao, the son-in-law of emperor Gaozu, the eldest brother-in-law of emperor Hui, and the husband of Princess Lu Yuan. He was cowardly, modest, very satisfied with the reality, and extremely loyal to the Han Dynasty. Even so, he lost his fief and nearly lost his life. The whole story goes like this:

In December of the 7th year of the Han Dynasty (200BC), Liu Bang fought against the Huns in the north and returned to the south. He was very angry. When passing through the state of Zhao, Zhang Ao waited on the emperor and his father-in-law day and night, and took good care of his followers up and down, showing great courtesy. Gaozu looked at him from the left to the right. He was very manic and arrogant. He often jumped up and shouted at him. His words were dirty and obscene, which was unbearable. Zhang Ao has a good temper, but it doesn’t matter; Zhao Xiangguan, Gao, Wu and others can’t bear it. They can’t see it. Guan Gao and Zhao Wu were Zhang Er’s disciples. They have followed Zhang for a long time. Both of them are in their 60s. They are usually very heroic. They said angrily, “the emperor has deceived people too much! Our king of Zhao is too weak!” He said to Zhang Ao, “all heroes in the world rise together, and those with talent will take the throne first. Now the king is so respectful to the emperor, but the emperor lacks the least politeness to you. Please allow us to kill him for the king!” After hearing this, Zhang Ao was shocked. He bit his finger with his teeth and said, “how can you say such treacherous words? The emperor’s strength was the only way to recover from the death of his late father. It’s a great kindness for Deze to flow to his descendants. I hope you won’t talk like this in the future!” Guan Gao and Zhao Wu ostensibly agreed, Privately, he summoned more than ten confidants to discuss: “It’s really our fault. We King Zhao are loyal elders and refuse to betray morality. But we can’t accept anyone’s insult! Now the emperor insults US King Zhao, so he wants to kill him. Who told him to abuse our king so recklessly? Lao Tzu asked him to scold enough! We go our own way. If things succeed, we owe it to the king; if they fail, we will bear it on our own!” Subsequently, this small group of conspirators began to prepare separately.

The next year, after defeating hanwangxin and Yu Dang in Dongyuan (now Shijiazhuang, Hebei), Gaozu returned to the Dynasty and passed through the state of Zhao again. Guan Gao and others believed that the time had come, so they ambushed the assassin in the wall inside the toilet of Xingyuan, a Bai people (now Baixiang, Hebei Province) specially prepared for Gaozu’s lodging, and prepared to assassinate Liu Bang when he slept or went to the toilet.

It is said that all emperors have different natures, especially the founding emperor. When Liu Bang arrived at Biren, it was getting late and he was ready to stay. Suddenly his heart moved and his eyelids jumped. He asked, “what is the name of this county?” The Chamberlain told him, “Bai Ren.” Gaozu said to himself, “Bai people, Bai people, are forced by others!” So I temporarily decided not to stay and left. A well planned murder miscarried.

The next year, Guan Gao’s enemies discovered his plot and immediately reported it. Gaozu immediately ordered the arrest of Zhang Ao, king of Zhao, and the high-level conspirators. Zhao Wu and more than a dozen other people were very depressed when they saw that the matter had been exposed. They rushed to wipe their necks. Only the principal criminal Guan Gao was still calm. He angrily scolded: “who told you to do this? Don’t forget the root! Heaven and earth conscience, the king really didn’t participate in the rebellion. He was innocent! But he was also arrested. You are all dead. Who will clear the wrongs of King Zhao?” People wake up, no longer impulsive. So he volunteered to sit in a sealed prison car and go to Chang’an with Zhang Ao for trial. Liu Bang just wanted to get rid of Zhang Ao. He didn’t want to make things complicated, so he issued an edict: if King Zhao’s ministers and guests go to the capital without permission, they will all be exterminated! Unexpectedly, this move failed. More than a dozen people, including zhaoxiangguan Gao and his guest Meng Shu, shaved their hair, locked their necks with chains, and accompanied them to Beijing as slaves of the king of Zhao.

Guan Gao said to the Tingwei who interrogated him personally, “I planned everything. The king of Zhao really didn’t know about it.” The prison officials tortured and flogged thousands of people, and then burned them with red iron bars until they were covered with flesh and blood. Guan Gao always clenched his teeth and said nothing else. The hard hearted empress Lu made an exception several times to defend her son-in-law. She said, “Zhang Ao married our daughter. He is honest and should have no dissent!” Liu Bang angrily scolded and said, “women’s views! If Zhang Ao takes the world, she is afraid that there are no women! Is it possible that she will lack your daughter?” Ignore.

Tingwei reported Guan Gao’s confession and interrogation to the emperor. Gaozu said with emotion: “no matter what, Guan Gao is a rare hero! See if there is anyone who is close to him at ordinary times. You can borrow private friends to inquire.” Xie Gong, a Chinese doctor, said, “Guan Gao and I are villagers and we always know him well. This man has always been known in the state of Zhao for his integrity, freedom from aggression and humiliation, and his word is true.” Liu Ji sent Xie Gong to visit the bamboo bed where Guan Gao lived. Guan Gao looked up for a long time and said, “isn’t this a public release?” “Yes,” said Xie Gong Therefore, he expressed his condolences to Guan Gao for his injury. The meeting was still as pleasant as usual, and Guan Gao’s mood gradually improved. Taking advantage of the situation, Xie Gong asked: “does King Zhao really know your rebellion plan?” Guan Gao sighed and replied, “people don’t know. Don’t you know me, old friend? As human beings are, who can not love their parents, wives and children? Now my three ethnic groups have been condemned to death. Will I love King Zhao better than my relatives? It’s because King Zhao really doesn’t know! We did all those activities without authorization.” He also described in detail the cause of the original rebellion and the real situation that the king of Zhao had never heard of. Xie Gongru reported the truth of the conversation to Gaozu. This time Liu Bang finally believed it and announced that Zhang Ao would be pardoned; But he still dethroned the throne and made him Duke of Xuanping; In addition, Wang Ruyi, the beloved son of Mrs. Ji Qi, was appointed king of Xinke Zhao, and another family with a different surname was granted the state and returned to the Liu family. Zhang Ao, a young dandy with no ambition, was overjoyed that he still enjoyed honor for the rest of his life. Zhang Ao enjoyed a peaceful life for more than ten years, and died in the sixth year (182 BC) after Gao.

Gaozu appreciated Guan Gao’s behavior, so he sent Xie Gong to tell him, “King Zhang is all right.” At the same time, pardon the penetration height. Guan Gao asked excitedly, “has our king really let him out?” “Don’t you believe what I said?” he replied. “It’s absolutely true.” He also told him: “the emperor attaches great importance to his steps. He has already granted a special pardon, and is likely to be put in an important position. Let’s congratulate him first!” However, Guan Gao said, “I was over 60 years old and was beaten black and blue. The reason why I didn’t die was to exonerate the king of Zhao. Now that my goal has been achieved, I have fulfilled my responsibility and died without regret. Besides, as a minister, I bear the crime of murdering the monarch. What’s the face to serve the emperor? Even if the emperor is merciful and doesn’t investigate, don’t I feel ashamed in my heart!” As soon as he finished speaking, he cut off his carotid artery and committed suicide. The high school is famous all over the world.

Gaozu appreciated Guan Gao very much and regretted his generous suicide. He loved Wu and Wu, so he summoned the guests who accompanied Zhang Ao to Beijing as domestic slaves. After talking, we found that these people were not only loyal to justice, but also quite talented, surpassing many ministers of the imperial court. Liu Bang was overjoyed and immediately appointed uncle Tian, Meng Shu and others as prefects, princes and state ministers. During the period of emperor Hui, empress Gao, Emperor Wen and Emperor Jing, many of Zhang Ao’s guests’ descendants became senior officials with more than 2000 stones.

3. Huainan wangyingbu.

In February of the first year of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.), Xiangyu once granted yingbu the title of king of Jiujiang, one of the 18 princes. In December of the 3rd year of Han Dynasty, yingbu betrayed Chu and returned to Han under the persuasion of Suihe. In July of the 4th year of the Han Dynasty (203 B.C.), Liu Bang renamed him king of Huainan, governing Huainan and Du Liu (now Lu’an, Anhui).

To be fair, Wang yingbu of Huainan had lived for several years at first. But all this ended in the 11th year of Han Dynasty (196 BC).

This spring, empress Lu killed Han Xin, and yingbu began to feel uneasy. In summer, when Peng Yue’s meat sauce arrived in Huainan, Ying Bu was happily hunting. The rabbit died and the fox mourned. Things hurt their kind. His heart was not good. “Wow” made him vomit in a mess. Knowing that he would naturally become the next target of the imperial court, he was not willing to wait for death. So he began to arrange his subordinates, assemble troops, and pay attention to the movements and alarms of neighboring counties and counties, so as to make timely response.

It’s a blessing, not a curse. It can’t be avoided. Those who want to come will come sooner or later. But this time it was a little special that the cause was actually a peach affair.

Yingbu has a pet girl who is ill and goes to see a doctor. The doctor is just opposite Ben he, a doctor in Huainan middle school. For a period of time, Chongji often visited doctors, which attracted Ben he’s attention. This guy is an unwilling and lonely person who flatters and flatters. He thinks this is a good opportunity to get inside and approach the king to pursue progress. He can’t miss it. He pretends to meet her by chance and talks with her. Then he pays great attention, gives her many treasures, and buys wine to talk with her in the doctor’s house. Chong Ji was very happy. When she came back to serve yingbu, she talked about the considerate Chinese doctor and really praised him. Unexpectedly, Ying Bu became suspicious and asked, “how do you know that he is so good?” The woman felt that there was no need to hide, so she told the Huainan king the truth about her contacts. However, yingbu concluded that there must be a hidden relationship between them and imprisoned Chongji. Stealing a chicken is not enough to eat rice. Ben he was very afraid when he got the news, so he called himself ill. Ying Bu thought he had a ghost in his heart and planned to arrest him. Ben he felt wronged and angry, so he threatened that you were unkind and I was unjust. He wanted to sue the imperial court for change, and took a messenger to Chang’an. When Ying Bu learned that, he sent people to chase him. Ben he had gone far and could not catch up.

Ben he rushed to Kyoto and wrote a letter saying that yingbu’s rebellion had been found. He suggested that the imperial court should start first and kill him before he could send troops. After seeing this, Emperor Gaozu discussed with the prime minister, Xiao He. After all, Xiao Xiangguo is mature and prudent. Ying Bu is no better than Han Xin. He doesn’t have any personal friends. He doesn’t have to worry about the empress. So he said: “yingbu should not be like this. I’m afraid his enemy has falsely accused him. Please arrest Ben he first, and then send someone to Huainan to find out what happened. It’s safer to do so.” Gaozu nodded in agreement.

And inbu. When he saw Ben he absconded, he wrote a letter saying that he would change. He was afraid that he had told the imperial court all about his contingency arrangements; In addition, the emperor sent people to check the decision, and the angels buzzed around like flies, but they were not a seamless egg. He simply crossed his heart and killed Ben he’s family first, and then raised his army to rebel. When the news reached Chang’an, Liu Bang immediately released and comforted Ben he, and appointed him as a general to take part in the counter insurgency.

Emperor Gaozu summoned the generals and asked, “yingbu is rebellious. What do you think we should do?” All the people shouted in unison, “this boy is so insincere that he did such a thing! Send troops to suppress it quickly, catch this boy and bury him alive!” Liu Bang frowned and said nothing. Among the senior generals, xiahouying, the Marquis of Ruyin and the grand servant, is calm and scheming. He is also very close to the royal family. Xiahouying specially found Xue Gong, the former Ling of the state of Chu who had worked with yingbu, and asked him for advice. Xue Gong said, “of course yingbu should revolt.” Duke Teng asked, “the emperor has done him a good job by ceding land to the king. What is the reason why he must revolt?” Xue Gong replied, “the emperor killed Peng Yue not long ago, and Han Xin earlier. The three of them have made great contributions. Han and Peng died miserably, which can be learned from the past. Yingbu is worried that it will be his turn next.” Xiahouying passed these words on to Gaozu, and recommended to him that Xue Gong had seen a lot of people and could be a consultant. So Liu Bang summoned Duke Xue and asked him for advice. Xue Gong said, “it’s no surprise that yingbu rebelled. He had three choices. If he adopted the best policy, things would be very troublesome. The east of Gushan would no longer belong to the Han Dynasty. If he adopted the middle policy, the outcome would be unpredictable. If he adopted the bottom policy, it would soon be over. Your majesty can rest assured.”

Gao Zu was very interested and asked, “what is his best policy?” Duke Xue replied, “if you take Wu from the East and Chu from the west, annex Qilu, call on Yan and Zhao, and stick to the basics, at least the east of Gushan will no longer belong to your majesty.”

“What is his best policy?”

“If we take Wu from the East and Chu from the west, seize Han and Wei, master the grain storage in aocang, and cut off the Confucius channel in Chenggao, the victory or defeat is still uncertain.”

“What was his worst policy?”

“Take Wu from the East and Tsai from the west, put their supplies and troops in Vietnam, and return to Changsha. Then yingbu will be defeated, and the Han Dynasty will be fine.”

Liu Bang asked, “what kind of strategy do you think he will adopt?”

Duke Xue answered with confidence, “there is no doubt that the worst policy will be made.”

Gaozu sighed a sigh of relief and asked, “why did he abandon the best and the middle and adopt the worst?”

Duke Xue said with a smile, “yingbu was originally a criminal in Lishan. When he was married, he would finally climb to the high position of the king of Huainan by virtue of his courage. From his deeds, he was always greedy for his own wealth and immediate interests. He had never had lofty aspirations and Strategies, and lacked the political mind to plan for the people. People like him would inevitably choose the worst policy.”

Gaozu said with satisfaction, “you are right. You have been taught!” Then he rewarded Duke Xue with a thousand food towns.

Inbu certainly has his own wishful thinking. He encouraged the Ministry and said: “the emperor is old and hates military affairs. He will certainly not come. Among the top generals, the only ones I admire are Han Xin and Peng Yue. Now that they are all dead, others are not worth worrying about.” He didn’t expect that, with empress Lu’s planning and insistence, Liu Bang finally changed his original intention of letting the crown prince go to heaven on behalf of him and still led the troops to fight in person.

At the beginning of the war, yingbu was unstoppable and unstoppable. He killed Liu Jia, king of Jing, chased away Liu Jiao, king of Chu, expanded rapidly and occupied a large area. However, just as xuegongzhi expected, he adopted the worst policy and made fundamental mistakes in strategic guidance and direction of March. Therefore, as soon as the main force of the Han Army under commander Gaozu arrived, he quickly attacked and defended against different forces and the situation reversed.

When the two armies faced each other, from a distance, yingbu’s troops were very sharp and tidy. The marching array was like Xiangyu’s army, which had made Liu Ji suffer all the time. Gaozu was both afraid and disgusted. He asked yingbu before the battle: “why do you have to rebel?” Yingbu answered straightforwardly, “I just want to be an emperor!” The two sides fought. Yingbu won first and then lost. Finally, the whole army collapsed. He led more than 100 people to flee to Jiangnan. The Gaozu faction will continue to chase after him. At the end of his life, Changsha wangwuchen sent someone to seduce yingbu, pretending that he wanted to escape to South Vietnam with him. Yingbu didn’t understand the truth that “if you have no money, don’t look for a family in distress”. He believed his brother-in-law’s words. He followed Wu Chen’s emissary to Panyang (now Boyang, Jiangxi). As a result, he was easily found in the farmhouse. His head traveled thousands of miles and he was sent to Chang’an for a reward.

In October of the 12th year of Han Dynasty (195 BC), liubangli’s youngest son, Liuchang, was the king of Huainan.

4. Han Xin, king of Chu.

In February of the 4th year of the Han Dynasty (203 BC), Liu Bang made Hanxin king of Qi. In the first month of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), it was renamed the king of Chu, governing Huaibei and xiapi (now Pizhou, Jiangsu).

In April of the first year of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.), Han Xin abandoned Chu for Han. He began to serve as Lian Ao, and was later promoted to the position of governor of millet after being recommended by xiahouying. In July, with the strong recommendation of Xiao He, Liu Bangbai became a general and the commander of the Han army. After the successful implementation of Sanqin, Hanxin was ordered to open up the northern battlefield. “Even millions of troops will win the war and take the attack”, showing excellent military talent. In December of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), he commanded the battle at cuxia to wipe out the main force of the Chu army commanded by the invincible Xiang Yu at one fell swoop, making a decisive contribution to the extermination of Chu and the rejuvenation of Han, and was one of the three heroes of the rejuvenation of Han.

In December of the 6th year of the Han Dynasty (201 BC), Liu Bang removed Han Xin from his title as king of Chu on the charge of “conspiracy” and granted him the title of Marquis of Huaiyin. From then on, he ate with the capital, did nothing and was treated unfairly. In the first month of the 11th year of the Han Dynasty (196 BC), the prime minister and old friend Xiaohe, who was coerced by Empress Lu, tricked him into killing the three ethnic groups in the Changle palace again for the crime of “conspiracy”, which staged an extremely ugly and cruel scene in Chinese traditional political culture.

In the first month of the 6th year of the Han Dynasty (201 BC), Liu Bang divided the state of Chu into two: Liu Jiao, his brother, was king of Chu and Liu Jia, his cousin, was king of Jing. After Liu Jia, king of Jing, was killed by yingbu, king of Huainan, who led the army to rebel, in October of the 12th year of the Han Dynasty (195 BC), Liu Bang changed the state of Jing to the state of Wu and made his nephew Liu Bi king of Wu.

5. Liang Wang, Peng Yue.

In the first month of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.), Liu Bang established Peng Yue as the king of the Liang Dynasty, roughly governing the former land of the state of Wei and the capital Dingtao (now Dingtao in Shandong).

Peng Yue was a native of Changyi (now Juye, Shandong Province). He was a fisherman and once was a robber. In the third year of the Qin Dynasty (207 BC), when the battle of the giant deer was in full swing in winter, he just pulled up a small army of more than a thousand people and moved to battle on the spot. On the eve of the Chu Han war, Peng Yue’s headquarters had grown to more than 10000 people, and there was no place to return. In June of the first year of the Han Dynasty (206 BC), he accepted the general’s seal granted by Tianrong, king of Qi, to help Tian stabilize the three Qi dynasties. The following winter, he went south to help Qi attack Chu, but was defeated by Xiangyu. In April, Liu Bang, the king of Han Dynasty, was appointed as the Prime Minister of Wei and became a feudal marquis. Since then, Peng Yue, whose subordinates grew to 30000, has been fighting in Liangdi for a long time, which has caused great damage to the logistics supplies and rear bases of the Chu army. He has repeatedly forced Xiangyu to fight back in Liangdi, greatly alleviating the huge pressure Liu Bang bears on the front battlefield of Xingyang and Chenggao. In the autumn of the fourth year of the Han Dynasty (203 BC), Peng Yue once again captured more than 20 cities in Liangdi, cut off the grain road of the Chu army, and effectively cooperated with the Han Army in other aspects. In November of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), Peng Yue led his troops to meet with Liu Bang, Han Xin, yingbu, Liu Jia and Zhou Yin in Cuan to encircle and annihilate the main force of the Chu army, forcing his concubine to bid farewell to her and commit suicide in the Wujiang river.

After being granted the title of Queen of Liang, Peng Yue had a good time for several years. However, the good times did not last long.

In September of the 10th year of the Han Dynasty (198 B.C.), Chen Chen rebelled, and Liu Bang led his army. After arriving in Handan, he felt that his troops were insufficient, so he called Peng Yue to lead Liang’s army to join the war. Peng Yue has lost his fighting spirit. He repeated yingbu’s mistakes and said that he was ill. He sent some of his men to Handan to see Gaozu obey his orders. Liu Bang was so angry that he sent people to scold him. Peng Yue knew that the power of heaven was unpredictable. He was afraid. He wanted to see the emperor in person and apologize face to face. “If you don’t go at the beginning, you will only go if you are reprimanded. If you go, you will be captured. It doesn’t help. In my opinion, you might as well send troops and pull them down!” Peng Yue didn’t listen. He still called himself ill and perfunctory.

At that time, Peng Yue was about to punish the eunuch of the state of Liang for his guilt. This man fled to Chang’an and accused Peng Yue, the king of Liang Dynasty, of conspiring with Hu Tuo. Liu Bang sent people to arrest Peng Yue and imprison him in Luoyang. Peng Yue was unprepared because he didn’t have any plans, so he was caught at a loss. After the joint trial of the third division, the result of the trial was: “there are signs of rebellion. It should be beheaded according to the law.” Liu Bang was only too generous for himself. He pardoned Peng Yue, removed his title as king, demoted him to common people, and sent someone to escort him to Qingyi (now Linqiong, Sichuan) in Shu County for surveillance. Peng yuezong’s fault is nothing more than that he did not personally lead the army to enlist. This is really the same as the problem of Ying Bu in those years. The reason why he suffered such severe punishment so quickly and had no choice was that the world had been settled and there was no overlord of Chu. Peng Yue was full of grievances and walked forward with tears in his eyes. He was so lucky, and he didn’t have long eyes. When he was passing through Zheng county (now Huaxian County, Shaanxi Province), he happened to meet empress Lu who was traveling from Chang’an to Luoyang. The Lost Prince wept like a child and told his grievances to the most powerful woman in the world. He had no extravagant hopes, but asked the queen to help intercede, so that Gaozu could change his fate and allow himself to return to his hometown Changyi to die.

Empress Lu smiled treacherously and promised to let Peng Yue return to Luoyang with her. Peng Yue listened happily. However, empress Lu turned pale as soon as she returned to Luoyang. She tried her best to persuade Liu Bang to kill Peng Yue and avoid future troubles. After a long test, Liu Bang finally nodded. Poor Peng Yue looked at the clear moonlight outside the window before going to bed that night. He thought that he could finally return to his hometown. He was greatly relieved. He was very grateful to empress Lu.

Empress Lu sent someone to report Peng Yue’s rebellion again. Tingwei Wang Tian asked Liu Bang to kill the family. In March of the 11th year of the Han Dynasty (196 B.C.), Peng Yue was killed for the crime of “conspiracy”, and the owls made public their heads and annihilated the three ethnic groups. Its limbs were chopped into meat sauce and distributed to various princes as a reminder.

After Peng Yue’s tragic death, Luan Bu, a doctor of the state of Liang, returned from his official duties in the state of Qi and asked for the burial of Peng Yue’s head. He was almost killed by Liu Bang. Luan Bu said he would like to make a statement and die without regret. With permission, He said: “At that time, the emperor was trapped in Pengcheng and repeatedly defeated between Xingyang and Chenggao. However, King Xiang was not allowed to move westward because Peng Yue was guerrilla in Liangdi, which held him back. At that time, Peng Yue was defeated by Chu and Han, and he was defeated by Han. His performance was worthy of his majesty! He also contributed to the defeat and death of King Xiang. Now the world has already been settled. Peng Yue accepted the talisman and honored the king, just like his Majesty’s imperial career Want to pass it on to future generations. However, his majesty suspected that Peng Yue was going to rebel because he failed to do what you wanted because of his illness; Without any persuasive evidence, he deliberately insisted on making people miserable with trivial matters. There is no reason! I’m afraid that meritorious people will be in danger. Now Peng Yue is dead. I don’t have much meaning to live. If I want to kill or cut, your majesty is at your disposal! ” Luan Bu said it methodically, and Gaozu always appreciated the debaters and tough men, so he pardoned him and appointed him as the lieutenant. During the reign of Emperor Wen, Luan bu “was the Prime Minister of Yan and the most important general”. His motto is: “poverty does not humiliate one’s ambition, which is not human; wealth does not gratify, which is not virtuous.” It just means that a big husband should be able to bend and express his gratitude and hatred. During the period of King Jing, Liu Zhen, king of Wu, initiated the rebellion of the seven kingdoms, and Luan Bu served as the general of the Han court. “Yu Hou was sealed with military achievements, and Yan Xiang was restored.”.

In March of the 11th year of the Han Dynasty (196 BC), liubangli’s son Liuhui became king of the Liang Dynasty.

6. zangda, king of Yan.

Zangda belongs to the relic of the old seal under Xiangyu opera, which was originally sealed as king Yan. In the first month of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), Liu Bang once again granted Zang TA the title of king of Yan, roughly governing the former land of Yan state and the territory of Liaodong, capital Ji (now Daxing in Beijing). In July, Zang TA raised his army to rebel, and Gaozu led the army to suppress it. In September, zangda was defeated and captured, and Liu Bang replaced Taiwei and Chang’an houluwan as king of Yan.

Lu Wan is Liu Ji’s little fellow townsman. They were born on the same day in the same year. Since childhood, they have been very good playmates. When they grow up, they study together and have a closer relationship. They have been spread among the villagers’ party. Lu Wan was one of the core members of Liu Bang’s army. After entering Hanzhong, he was promoted to general and often served around the king of Han. During the Chu Han war, he followed Liu Bang to attack Xiang Yu and rose to the highest rank of military attache; Taiwei. After Xiangyu’s death, Wang Gongwei of Linjiang refused to surrender to the Han Dynasty. Lu Wan and Liu Jia led their troops to destroy Gong Wei. According to the history, “when (Lu Wan) went in and out of the bedroom, he was rewarded with clothes, clothing and food. The ministers dared not look at him. Although Xiao, Cao and others were especially polite, Lu Wan was not as lucky as his relatives. Wan was granted the Marquis of Chang’an. Chang’an, therefore, is also Xianyang.” It is said that only his younger brother, Liu Jiao, can compare Gaozu’s favor and trust to this old friend. After the world was pacified, there were 7 princes with different surnames. Gaozu wanted to make Lu Wan king at that time, but he gave up because of the dissatisfaction of the ministers. Zhang Ao, the Marquis of Xuanping, who ranked No. 3 in the list of meritorious officials, was probably Lu Wan. After zangda, the king of Yan, was captured, Liu Bang seized the opportunity to change Lu Wan, an old man who was recruited by the army, to the king of Yan, and finally realized his long cherished wish. In the following years, the monarchs and ministers were happy and peaceful.

In the autumn of the 11th year of the Han Dynasty (196 BC), Chen Chen, the prime minister, rebelled. Gao Zu led his army and entered Handan. Lu Wan led the Yan army to attack the rebels from the northeast and cooperated with the main force of the Han army. Chen Chen sent Wang Huang to the Xiongnu for help. At that time, Lu Wan also sent Zhang Sheng as an envoy to the Xiongnu, claiming that Chen Chen was about to lose the war, and tried to keep the Xiongnu neutral and not to intervene in the war. After arriving at the Huns, Zhang Sheng saw Zang Yan, the son of zangda, the former Yan king, who had fled here. Zangyan instigated that King Yan valued Zhang Sheng because he was familiar with the affairs of the Huns; The reason why the state of Yan has been safe for many years is that the princes have started to fight against the Han Dynasty; If Chen Chen fails, his lips will die and his teeth will be cold. The next step will be the fate of Yan; If something happens to Lu Wan, the skin will not exist. How can Mao attach it? Including Zhang Sheng, they will lose their future and become prisoners of the rank; At present, it is better for the state of Yan to let Chen Chen fight against the Han Dynasty and make friends with the Huns. Zhang Sheng was fooled by this big story and actually violated his mission. In turn, he encouraged the Huns to rescue Chen Chen.

Lu Wan couldn’t help but arouse suspicion after the informant reported Zhang Sheng’s strange practices. He thought that Zhang Sheng secretly colluded with the Huns and had a different heart, so he played the imperial court and asked Zhang Sheng to be exterminated. Soon after Zhang Sheng returned to Yan state and presented everything, Lu Wan understood and confirmed that he had done well. So he found a scapegoat to defend Zhang Sheng. Since then, Lu Wan has followed the imperial court in public but not in private. On the one hand, he maintained good relations with the Huns, on the other hand, he secretly supported Chen Chen and sent fan Qi to get in touch with him. He wanted to keep an isolation zone between himself and the Han court for security.

In October of the 12th year of the Han Dynasty (195 BC), Chen Chen was defeated and killed. The tree fell, the monkeys scattered, the wall fell, and the crowd pushed. Lu Wan’s secret of having an affair with him was also revealed, which greatly angered Gaozu. However, Liu Bang was only half convinced at first. He summoned Lu Wan to the court for confrontation. Lu Wan had a ghost in his heart and could not come because he was ill. Liu Bang then sent Marquis PI Yang, Shen Shiqi (also Lu Wan’s good friend in the hometown), and the imperial historian Zhaoyao to the state of Yan to urge them to meet him and conduct investigation and evidence collection. Lu Wan was more frightened and hid behind closed doors. He did not see the angel. He said to his confidants: “I am the only one left in the kingdom of Liu. Last spring, the imperial court exterminated Han Xin and chopped Peng Yue into meat sauce in the summer. This is the idea of empress Lu. Now that the emperor is ill, empress Lu is in charge of everything. Empress Lu is a cruel and ruthless woman. She likes to quarrel with kings with different surnames and great heroes. She would like to kill them all!” So he continued to complain of illness and refused to answer the call.

Seeing that the situation was bad, Lu Wan’s subordinates hid one after another. These words also reached the ears of marquis Biyang. When shenshiqi and his party returned to the capital and reported the truth, Liu Bang became even more angry. At this time, he learned from the surrendered Huns that Zhang Sheng, who had been killed, was not dead, but fled to the Huns to act as the contact representative for Lu Wan, king of Yan. So Gaozu finally came to the conclusion: “Lu Wan really dares to live up to Lao Tzu, his mother!” Then he sent General fankuai to command the Han Army to conquer Yan state. Lu Wan, the king of Yan, specially transferred all the palace people and their families to the foot of the great wall and protected them with thousands of trusted cavalry. He hoped that when the emperor recovered from his illness, he would automatically enter the court to apologize. As soon as the war started, Gaozu died. Lu Wan died when he heard the news, so he led his subordinates to escape to the Huns, who made him king of Donghu.

The wild geese at the edge of the cloud cut off Hu Tianyue, and the sheep on the long river returned to the grass and smoke. Like Han Wangxin, Lu Wan was not happy in Xiongnu. He didn’t know the language, was not acclimatized, and had been invaded and looted by barbarians. He was always looking forward to seeing the authority of the Han Dynasty again. In this gloomy mood of self pity, Lu Wan died after only a year.

During the post Gao period, Lu Wan’s wife escaped from the Huns, returned to the Han Dynasty, and returned to Chang’an after a long absence. Unfortunately, empress Lu fell ill and was unable to meet her. She asked her to live in Lu Wan’s old official residence in the capital, where art was still preserved. She planned to have a banquet after she recovered from her illness. Unexpectedly, empress Lu died of illness. They were so close that they could not meet. Lu Wan’s wife soon died of illness.

During the period of emperor Jing, lutazhi, the grandson of Lu Wan, surrendered to the Great Han Dynasty as the king of Donghu, the Hun. Emperor Jing was overjoyed and made him the Marquis of Asia valley.

In February of the 12th year of the Han Dynasty (195 BC), Liu Bangli’s son Liu Jian became king of Yan.

7. Changsha Wang wurui.

Xiangyu made wurui king of Hengshan Mountain under the drama. In February of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), Liu Bang was renamed king of Changsha, governing Changsha, Yuzhang, Xiangjun, Guilin, Nanhai and other counties, all of which are near Hunan (now Changsha, Hunan). A few months later, wurui died of illness, and his son Wuchen was appointed king of Changsha. The Wu family passed down the name of the country for five generations. When Emperor Wen arrived, the country was eliminated because there was no heir. In the early Han Dynasty, under the established national policy of eliminating Wang with different surnames, the Wu family, the king of Changsha, was able to survive for several generations and finally died unharmed, which can be called a rare exception. This is mainly because Changsha is weak and has always been obedient to the imperial court. It can be used to strengthen the rule over remote areas, and there is no need to add crimes and go to war.

8. the king of Fujian and Guangdong had none.

In February of the 5th year of the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.), Liu Bangli became the king of Fujian and Guangdong, governing the land of Bamin and the capital of Minye (now the Marquis of Fujian). The imperial edict said: “therefore, the king of Guangdong killed Zhu (i.e. no Zhu and Yao) and was worshiped by Guangdong. Qin invaded his land and made his country unable to eat blood. The princes attacked Qin, killed Zhu and led the troops in central Fujian to help destroy Qin. Xiang Yu was abolished and made a great success. Now, I think that the king of Fujian and Guangdong, king of central Fujian, should not neglect his duty.” Wuzhu is a descendant of Goujian, the king of Yue. His surname is GUI. The inheritance mode of the king of Fujian and Guangdong is similar to that of the king of Changsha, and it is more ancient. It was not until the reign of Emperor Wu that the state enfeoffment was abolished and replaced with prefectures and counties, which were returned to the direct rule of the central government.

In the last years of emperor Gaozu, the established policy of surnamed Liu was generally realized. However, is it safe and peaceful?

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