The first black sheep in history: Hu Hai, the second of Qin Dynasty, who referred to deer as horses

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deliberately misrepresent

II Hu Hai: call deer a horse

Hu Hai small file


First Emperor of Qin

Mother unknown

The 18th son in the ranking of brothers, the second in the number of sons

Survival time: 230 BC – August 207 BC, 24 years old

Reigning from July, 210 BC to August, 207 BC

The later Prince Qin Ying (to the emperor) reigned for 46 days

Fifteen years of Qin Dynasty



Label: the first black sheep in history, pointing deer to horses

August 1, 207 BC, Xianyang.

The court, which has not had a court meeting for many days, finally has another court meeting today.

A deer, with panicked eyes, looked at the high-ranking officials wearing black imperial uniforms in the public. These people also stared at the animal that was brought to the majestic court for some unknown reason. They didn’t know what medicine was sold in the gourd. Was it a disaster or a blessing?

The court was silent. A dull man in a royal suit


He looked at a tall man stupidly. His voice was neither male nor female. He turned out to be a eunuch. He looked around and everyone’s heads turned.

Seeing that the atmosphere had been brewing enough, he worshipped this fat man: “tell your majesty” it turned out that this stupid man was Qin II Hu Hai! “Wei Chen got a horse. It is said that only the monarch of Weifu could get it. Wei Chen dared not hide it and presented it specially.” Hu Hai was stunned, but he stared again, rubbed his eyes, and asked strangely, “I’m afraid the prime minister was wrong? He said the deer was a horse.” Hu Hai looked at the ministers again and asked everyone, “what kind of animal is this?”

The atmosphere was so strange that the ministers looked at each other and dared not speak.

Hu Hai asked again, and some plucked up their courage and said, “this is a deer.” Some echoed, “this is clearly a horse!” The prime minister looked at everyone with a satisfied and sinister smile, and did not speak. The ministers had fifteen buckets of water in their hearts – seven up and eight down.

After leaving the court, Hu Hai thought he had met a ghost, so he went to Shanglinyuan to fast, while those ministers who said they were deer were all put into prison by the prime minister.

This is the famous allusion of “referring to deer as horses” in history. The prime minister is naturally known as Zhao Gao.

After the first emperor of Qin unified the six countries, he was complacent and arrogant. He thought that the contribution was not comparable to the ancient “Three Emperors and five emperors”, so he invented a new title – “emperor” together with “emperor” and “emperor”. Since then, this autocratic monster has been on the Chinese soil for more than 2000 years.

Qin Shihuang toured the country, granted Zen to Mount Tai, and even sent people overseas to seek immortality out of the desire and longing for immortality. For this reason, he also changed “Zhen”, which represents a lonely family, to “real people”, dreaming that the throne would always be “passed on forever” by his family, and from emperors II and III to all ages, he did not know that he would not stand


The political pattern of not establishing a prince directly led to the overthrow of the second emperor of the Empire.

A sumptuous dinner: the heritage of Emperor Qinshihuang

Qin Shihuang’s life was a great life with great mistakes. In the 37th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (210 BC), he died on the sand dune platform on a cruise with regret that he could not become an immortal. What made him die in peace was not only that he did not become an immortal, but also that the great Qin Dynasty, which he had worked hard to create, was dead! This is really “the greater the hope, the greater the disappointment”.

He should be crying without tears underground, because Hu Hai (who should have been Fusu) left not only his throne, but also an extremely rich heritage.

Politically, Emperor Qinshihuang’s groundbreaking political innovation was praised by later generations as “all generations will follow Qin politics and law”, which is objective. He created a great empire, “the interior of the sea is the prefecture and county, and the laws and regulations are unified”. The territory extends to the sea and North Korea in the East, Lintao and Qiangzhong in the west, Guangzhou in the south, the Yellow River as the fortress in the north, and Yinshan to Liaodong along the Yinshan Mountain. This is an unprecedented unified country. He formally established the imperial system that had a great progressive effect at that time, abolished the enfeoffment system and implemented the county system, implemented the centralized system, unified the writing, weights and measures, currency, and vehicle tracks, and achieved the complete unification of the country for the first time compared with the state era of the Shang and Zhou dynasties. In addition, he also left Hu Hai a division of millions of tigers and wolves and many loyal and unremitting military generals. This “First Empire” is not strong, and there are many talents.

Ideologically, he worshipped Buddhism and carved stones everywhere, leaving the posterity with a hypothesis of “divine power of monarchy”, and the title of “emperor” is a representative. His “burning books and pitching Confucianism” of clamping down on thought is undoubtedly a catastrophe in the history of Chinese thought and culture, and it is also notorious (in fact, many of them are superstitious alchemists), but it also has practical significance in terms of safeguarding national rule and social stability. Throughout history, from Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty’s “deposing a hundred schools of thought and respecting Confucianism alone” to Zhu Xi’s “preserving natural principles and destroying human desires”, are they not all ideological autocracies in one continuous line in order to maintain feudal rule?

Although this “Aftershock” is invisible, when we stand in front of the Terra Cotta Warriors of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, we can still feel this invisible “deterrent” force, which is also a valuable resource and heritage for a new great empire.

However, Emperor Qinshihuang’s severe punishment, no mercy and righteousness, and excessive levies left a huge hidden danger to the dynasty (this was left by Shang Yang during the reform). However, for Qin II, this is not only a burden, but also an opportunity to “spread benevolence and righteousness” and win hearts and minds?

At this time, Qin Dynasty is beginning of the feudal society in ascendant. Its future is infinite, and there is no reason to die. Qin II inherited a very good legacy, although it was not a small crisis. What would he do?

Deception: dune plot

In general, the crown of the Qin Dynasty will not fall on Hu Hai anyway: Fusu, the eldest son, is the official heir to the imperial edict of the first Qin emperor. Hu Hai has so many brothers, and he is the youngest. Even if he presses the wheel of his brother’s final brother, he is afraid that Jiang Ziya is 90 years old when he succeeds to the throne. Moreover, according to the conduct recorded in history, I’m afraid Hu Hai should not have won the jackpot.

Prince Fusu, who is kind-hearted and good-natured, opposes the tyrannical governance thought of Emperor Qin Shihuang. He not only has political foresight, but also sympathizes with the feelings of the people. He also knows that soldiers and books. He is the ideal emperor II. If he advocates the idea that emperor II is the hub of the Empire according to this book, if he inherits the throne, the Qin Dynasty may not be the first Han and Tang Dynasties.

The childe was tall and kind. He saw his brothers and sisters killed one by one by the second Hu Hai. Knowing that he was bound to die, he didn’t want to involve his family, so he wrote Hu Hai that he was willing to be buried for his father in Lishan (Hu Hai was very happy and gave him 100000 money)

What about Hu Hai? In fact, his virtue and ability have been shown very early.

On one occasion, Emperor Qinshihuang held a banquet in honor of the ministers. All the princes and Hu Hai attended the banquet. At the end of the banquet, the other princes retired in accordance with the ceremony. Only Hu Hai saw that the shoes taken off by the ministers in accordance with the ceremony were neatly arranged outside the door of the hall, regardless of the number of thirty-seven or twenty-one. With the strength of wine, the shoes of the ministers were kicked sideways. A small place can see a big one. Later, Hu Hai ruled the world. As a result, he simply kicked the country in a mess like he kicked his shoes, and finally kicked his own life away. At that time, “all the princes heard of his misdeeds” (Jia Yi’s new book, spring and Autumn).

With limited historical data, we don’t know more bad deeds of Hu Hai, but from his subsequent misdeeds, we probably know that he may have “ADHD” when he was a child, and he always couldn’t sit still. He was such a misbehaving “demon king” since childhood. However, although he has no talent and virtue, he has a natural advantage: he is the youngest son of Qinshihuang. And according to the records of the historian, Meng Yi, Meng Tian’s brother, was convicted of trying to prevent the first emperor of Qin from making Hu Hai the crown prince. It can be seen that the first emperor of Qin loved Hu Hai very much, and he was above his son. Even his last tour was with Hu Hai.

According to the records of the historian, Hu Hai was 21 years old when he succeeded to the throne. This stupid prince, who was “absent-minded and did not share grain”, dared to launch a coup and ascend the throne of God, which was beyond the dreams of Qin Shihuang, who was “wise and confused for a while”.

Because there was once a prophecy saying: “those who perish Qin, Hu also.” Qin Shihuang sent General Meng Tian to attack the Huns with 300000 troops in the north, seizing the land south of the Yellow River, and also sent Fusu, who made him angry, to supervise the army. But he never thought that Hu Hai, whom he loved in every way, was the gravedigger of the Empire!

In the 36th year of the first emperor of Qin (211 BC), that is, one year before the death of the first emperor of Qin, a meteorite fell from the sky. Someone engraved on it and said, “the first emperor died and divided.” He heard that he killed the residents beside the stone and burned and sold the meteorite. In the autumn of that year, an emissary passed through Huayin Pingshu road at night in Kanto. Someone stopped the emissary with a jade Bi and said, “give it to” Chi Jun for me. ” This jade Bi sank into the Yangtze River eight years ago when the first emperor of Qin offered sacrifices to the river god. Now it is returned to its original owner. Then he said, “ZuLong will die next year.” Hearing the messenger’s report, Emperor Qin Shihuang remained silent for a long time, and still said, “mountain ghosts can’t know a year old.” He stepped back and said, “ZuLong is the first man.” During the cruise, he once dreamed of fighting with the human like God of the sea. After his dream, he ordered those who entered the sea to take the tools to catch giant fish and shoot them as soon as they came out with a crossbow. To Zhifu, finally shot a giant fish. All these signs indicated that the fate of Qin Shihuang was not good, but he still went his own way, did not take them seriously, and did not put the issue of successors on the important agenda.

When he arrived in pingyuanjin, Qinshihuang fell ill. Because he hated to say “death”, all the ministers dared not say death. Until he was terminally ill, he gave his son Fusu with a seal: “give the army to Meng Tian, and you can quickly go to Xianyang to participate in the funeral.” The posthumous note has been sealed and ordered Zhao Gaogao in the car mansion, but it has not been handed over to the messenger. In July, Emperor Qinshihuang collapsed on the sand dune platform. Considering that the emperor collapsed and feared that the princes and the world would change, the prime minister Lisi did not mourn secretly, which was only known by Hu Hai, Zhao Gao and five or six lucky officials. In order to avoid the smell, the coffin was carried in the cool car, and the original eunuch continued to pretend. As usual, a eunuch answered the outside play from the cool car. At this time, a shocking plot happened.

Zhao Gao served as the commander of CRRC (the captain of the imperial fleet). Once, he committed a great crime, and the first emperor of Qin sent Meng Yizhi to prison to die. It was the first emperor of Qin who pity him to forgive him and restore his official position (so it is more terrible to have talent and no virtue). Zhao Gao is extremely jealous of Meng Yi. In addition, Fusu and Meng Tian jointly garrison the border and have deep feelings. Once Fusu ascends the throne, he will inevitably reuse the Meng Tian brothers, and he is in danger; Hu Hai was his own student. Moreover, according to Hu Hai’s past performance, he was a “problem student” who was more than mischievous and less focused on his work. It was not difficult to control him by himself, so the fearless Zhao Gao first planned to launch a coup.

He secretly found Hu Hai and said that Fusu’s coming to power was not good for him. With Hu Hai’s intelligence, he didn’t think of the coup at first, but just wanted to accept his fate. Zhao Gao encouraged him to say, “now the power of the world lies in you, Zhao Gao and the prime minister Lisi. May you plan it. Is it the same to rule people and be ruled by others, to control people and be controlled by others?” Hu Hai was moved, but pretended to refuse: “it is unjust to abolish your brother and establish your brother; it is unfilial to fear death without obeying your father’s edict; it is not self-knowledge that you are weak but talented, and forcibly rob others’ achievements: the three go against morality, the world refuses to obey, the body is in danger, and the country will die.” Hu Hai was able to say such a truth. It should be said that Hu Hai was still a little sober at this time.

However, “the emperor is not in a hurry, and the eunuch is in a hurry”. How can Zhao Gao give up when his temper is critical? He tried again and again to persuade him by allusions such as Shang Tang and King Wu of Zhou to kill his master, and the world was justified. Hu Hai sighed and said, “now that my father and Emperor are not dead, it is not appropriate to bother the prime minister with this matter!” The subtext is, I will, will Lisi agree? Zhao Gao immediately booked a ticket and said it was not too late to go to Liz immediately.

After hearing this, Lisi was like a thunderclap and was stunned: “peace with the words of subjugation! This is not what human ministers should discuss!” Zhao Gao estimated that he should have studied psychology by himself. He said: “who can you expect to be with Meng Tian? Who is high in achievement with Meng Tian? Who is far away without losing with Meng Tian? Who is blameless in the world with Meng Tian? Who is the eldest son (Fusu) old and trusted with Meng Tian?” Zhao Gao firmly grasped the psychological weakness of Lisi’s desire for wealth and glory. Because when he was young, Liz used to be a petty official. When he saw that the mice in the toilet ate excrement, he had to be afraid, while the mice in the granary enjoyed good food, so he was inspired: “whether people are promising or not, just like this mouse, see where they are.”. From then on, he took becoming famous and making money as his goal.

Li Si, under Zhao Gao’s coercion and inducement, looked up to the sky and sighed, weeping and sighing: “God! It happened that I was alone in the troubled world, since I can’t die, how can I rely on it!” So LISS decided to help the tyrant. The three conspired to falsely claim that Li Si was appointed Prince Hu Hai by the last imperial edict of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, and corrected the edict: “Fusu was unfilial to be the son of man, and he gave himself a sword! Meng Tian could not correct himself, and he was unfaithful to his ministers, and he was sentenced to death.” The emissary sent an edict to the supreme County, and Fusu wept, and gave up to commit suicide. Meng Tian felt that there was fraud and prevented him from dying. He hoped to review the situation, but Fusu was honest and there was no doubt that there was a fake suicide. Meng Tian refused to die and was caught by Yang Zhou.

Hu Hai, Li Si, and Zhao Gao were overjoyed when the great trouble had been eliminated. When he returned to Xianyang, he immediately mourned. Hu Hai was made emperor II, with Zhao Gao as the doctor’s order, and the Chamberlain was in power. The Prime Minister of Lisi has been promoted and cannot be promoted, and he still serves as the prime minister. He only temporarily retained his position, and Hu Hai and Zhao Gao benefited. History has proved that he was just making wedding clothes for others.

When Hu Hai came to power, he basically announced the death of the Qin Dynasty.

Head and beast crowing: a generation of dim witted monarchs

Speaking of Hu Hai’s stupidity, what are the “anecdotes” worth the paparazzi staying up late?

Some people say that Hu Hai’s “head roars”, that is to say, he looks like a man in vain, but his thinking is as stupid as an animal. Looking at what he did, we can see that Hu Hai is worthy of this “title”. We have already told the story of Hu Hai’s sabotage of Chaoyi and his flirtatious mischief, and this is just his retarded “pediatrician”. Even after his accession to the throne, there are many stories about him:

I want to paint the city wall. Hu Hai didn’t suffer. According to historical records, his intelligence is only at the level of grade 6 of primary school. According to the records of “historical records ยท funny biographies”: “when the second emperor set up, he wanted to paint his city”. He had a whimsical idea to paint all the huge walls of Xianyang. I’m afraid only a boy of this age can have such a wonderful idea. No wonder Ban Gu couldn’t help criticizing “Hu Hai is extremely stupid”. Fortunately, there is a kind-hearted, funny dwarf named Youzhan, He deliberately said, “OK. Although the Lord didn’t say it, I also asked him to do it like this. Although lacquer city is worried about its cost for the people, the effect is very good! Lacquer city is oily and slippery, and the enemy won’t be able to climb the wall even if he comes to attack the city. To do this, painting is very easy, but the difficult thing is to find a big house, put the painted wall in and dry it in the shade.” So Hu Hai laughed and canceled the plan.

plug one ‘s ears while stealing a bell. Due to tyranny, in July of the first year of the second Emperor (209 BC), Chen Sheng and Wu Guang were delayed in guarding the border, so they should die according to the law. Anyway, it’s also death to go, rebellion is also death, and it’s also death. It’s better to fight hard and have a chance of life. So the two people with lofty aspirations together, using the superstitious psychology of the Chu people, stuffed a white silk into the belly of a fish and wrote three scarlet characters “King Chen Sheng”. Wu Guang installed a fox beside the shrine at night and called, “great Chu Xing, King Chen Sheng”, killed the lieutenant who sent the soldiers in daze Township, and revolted in the name of the childe Fusu and Xiang Yan. For a time, the wind and clouds surged, and all parts of the country responded to Chen Sheng. One of Hu Hai’s followers returned from an envoy to the East and told Hu Hai about the rebellion in the East. Generally speaking, these information are valuable. Who knows, Hu Hai is a guy who likes to “report good news but not bad news”. As soon as he heard it, he was furious and handed over the audience to the court officials for investigation. Life is precious. In the future, in order to protect your life, if you go to the diplomatic mission, the second asked again, and all replied, “those are some petty thieves, and the local officials are chasing them, and they will soon be finished, which is not enough to worry about.” The second was very happy to hear it. With a little thought, he will understand that there are so many thieves in the world at the same time?

Willing to live in prohibition. In the winter of the second year of the Second World War (208 BC), when the uprising was in full swing everywhere, Zhao Gao, because he had many grievances, in order to isolate Hu Hai, so that he would not hear the wind against him, He persuaded Hu Hai: “the former Emperor ruled the world for a long time, so the ministers dare not do evil and enter into crooked theories and heresies. Now that your majesty is young and has just ascended the throne, why should you make a decision with the Duke in the imperial court? If something is wrong, it will be exposed to the shortcomings of the ministers themselves. The son of heaven said that I was originally not heard.” Probably Hu Hai believed in Zhao Gao to the point of superstition and obedience. Therefore, Hu Hai often lived in prohibition, had fun every day, and only decided everything with Zhao Gao. The civil and military affairs of the Manchu Dynasty were rarely seen in court, and even Lisi couldn’t easily see Hu Hai, and Hu Hai couldn’t hear any news. Zhao Gao was so autocratic that he opened up a bad example of the dictatorship and chaos of imperial eunuchs.

deliberately misrepresent. In August of the third year of the second Emperor (207 BC), when Hu Hai was betrayed, the famous general Zhang Han was beaten repeatedly by Xiang Yu and reported to Zhao Gao. Zhao Gao lost sight of him for three days, and he had a heart of disbelief. Seeing Zhao Gao’s meritorious and reactive deeds, Zhang Han had to surrender to Xiang Yu and was crowned king Yong. Seeing that the situation was very bad, Zhao Gao wanted to murder the second, afraid that the ministers would not comply, so he thought of a way to “point out deer as a horse” to test the hearts of the people. Have you ever eaten pork or seen a pig run? At least Hu Hai often followed Qin Shihuang on a cruise. How could he not even know the horse pulling the cart? No matter how stupid he was, he couldn’t help laughing: “the prime minister made a mistake and took the deer as a horse.”. Zhao Gao asked the ministers. Some pandered to say that it was a deer, some knew that Zhao Gao had a bad heart, so they had to keep silent, and some Ah Fu said it was a horse. Zhao Gao quickly put those who said they were deer into prison, and the ministers were even more afraid of Zhao Gao.

Hu Hai is such a foolish so-called emperor. It’s strange that such a stupid king is not played with by Zhao Gao as a puppet. There are several such emperors in later generations, such as Liu Chan, the “helpless ah Dou”, Sima Zhong, the “idiot emperor”, and so on. However, with the assistance of Zhugeliang and other sages, Liu Chan can keep the country safe. Hu Hai is not without a name and appearance, but the ready-made Lisi is, but he “I choose, I like” and blindly listens to Zhao Gao. Since he is so paranoid that he can’t even pull back nine cows, he has to let the Qin Empire fall down.

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