The Han Hun peace agreement has already been reached: Why did the Huns still not release Su Wu and return to the country

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The story of Su Wu shepherd moved Chinese people of ancient and modern generations, and Su Wu’s unyielding hero image also played an exemplary role in many feudal dynasties’ treatment of the northern Diman people later – for Shan Yu and the chiefs to “command with rites” and “scold with integrity”. Although such Han envoys may not be able to complete the diplomatic mission, they will always have extra points in reputation, at least to achieve the effect of making speeches.

In the book of Han Dynasty, Su Wu, Zhang Sheng and Chang Hui, the envoys of the Han Dynasty, were all good people, while the Huns were all villains and traitors. This is the emotional effect easily produced by later generations when reading the biography of Su Wu. Ban Gu, the editor of Han Shu, also dealt with the historical materials about suwu and Xiongnu with this purpose.

In fact, when Su Wu came to the Hun as an envoy, it was just at the end of the first stage of the most intense Han Hun war. The newly ascended Xiongnu wanted to improve the relationship with the Han Dynasty by delaying the war, so he took the initiative to release the diplomatic envoys detained by both sides. At that time, Emperor Hanwu readily agreed. Why? There is a mystery here. Moreover, the timing of sending Su Wu as an envoy was very dangerous from the later results, which was also the most fundamental reason why Su Wu was detained in the Huns for 19 years.

Because Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was planning an attack on the Xiongnu at that time, and it was an attack on an unprecedented scale, with the purpose of completely eliminating the Xiongnu.

The general background of this attack was the Centennial war between Han and Hungary, the largest and longest war in the world at that time.

Xiongnu is a very ancient nationality in Mobei. In the spring and autumn and Warring States periods in the Central Plains, the Xiongnu had not become a major climate, and there was no record of major battles with the Central Plains countries. At that time, Shanxi (later Zhao), Yan and other countries in the north were mainly opposed by Shanrong; Thailand in the west is also in a state of scattered sand in the face of Xirong.

After the Qin Dynasty unified the country, it made great efforts to expand and attack in all directions, among which the North was the most ruthless. Qin Shihuang sent Meng Tian with 300000 elite soldiers, carrying the most advanced composite weapon at that time, the crossbow machine, to drive the Xiongnu tribe out of the area of Erdos, Hetao, where it has lived for generations, and set up counties and towns there.

Having lost their fertile homeland, the Huns had to wander in the prairie. But later, the Huns appeared the tactics of light cavalry and large Legion. The essence of this tactic is the integration of man (wisdom), horse (speed) and bow and arrow (long-range killing), showing strong mobility and lethality.

With this most powerful tactic in the world at that time, the great hero of the Xiongnu, dangdun Chanyu, unified all the riding and shooting nations in the north and formed as many as 300000 main troops of men, horses and arrows.

With this, the Xiongnu quickly reoccupied the hometown of Hetao, stretched out its “right arm”, subdued the countries in the western regions, and drove the Yueshi people who occupied the Hexi Corridor at that time to Central Asia to raise camels; Then he stretched out his “left arm” to destroy Donghu and fight to the south of Xing’an Mountain.

Then the Huns folded their arms, ready to embrace the Central Plains, but found the emerging Han Dynasty very difficult.

In the early Han Dynasty, the people were exhausted because of the Chu Han war. Therefore, the four dynasties of Gao, Lu, Wen and Jing all adopted the policy of amity to the Xiongnu, satisfying the upper class of the Xiongnu with beauty and luxury goods, delaying the end of the war, and at the same time, actively preparing for war at home. The Huns invaded the border and plundered many times, and the Han army was just guarding against fortresses and clearing the wilderness.

Because after decades of operation, by the time of Emperor Wu, the national strength of the Han Dynasty had increased greatly, and the military strength had also developed rapidly. More importantly, at the instigation of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the famous generals Wei Qing and Huo Qubing launched continuous attacks on the Xiongnu, regardless of cost and casualties. Wei Qing captured Erdos in Hetao, and Huo Qubing occupied the Hexi Corridor, opening the door to the western regions. Moreover, from the beginning of Huo Qubing, the Han army began to carry out a sweeping attack on the population in the territory of the Xiongnu, that is, to start the extermination of non combatants. The Huns had no way to gain a foothold in Monan, so they had to flee to Mobei and wait for the opportunity to fight back.

Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent troops to Mobei several times, but as a result, he did not even see the human figure of the Xiongnu. Therefore, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty began to use diplomatic means in an attempt to spy on the reality of the Xiongnu and collect northern climate and geographical information by sending envoys to negotiate. On the eve of Su Wu’s mission, Emperor Wu had mastered the reality and position of the Xiongnu and was ready to start.

There is also a micro background that the Han Dynasty was not only attacking the Xiongnu, but also prompting the Xiongnu people to surrender in batches. Like King kunxie, King XiuTu, and later King Wu’s Tuogu important Minister Jin rizui, in fact, there were also a large number of Han people mixed among the Xiongnu people at that time.

In this context, Su Wu sent an envoy to the Huns, and his deputy envoy Zhang Sheng also planned to kidnap Shan Yu’s mother, which led to a sharp deterioration of the diplomatic situation between the two countries. In front of butcher’s knife, Zhang Sheng surrendered, and Su Wu was unyielding and detained. The two countries launched fierce negotiations on this incident.

Just at this time, Emperor Wu, who did not play according to the card theory, suddenly launched a new round of offensive against the Xiongnu. At that time, Huo Qubing had already died early, and Emperor Wu appointed the new commander liguangli. This man is the brother of Lady Li, the new favorite of Emperor Wu, and the new powerful uncle of the country. Wei Qing was still alive at that time, but because Wei Zifu had fallen out of favor, general Wei Qing could only take charge of the eastern, Western and southern fronts, and no longer participated in the battle against the Xiongnu. Li Guangli’s military level is not inferior to Wei Qing, but his record is far inferior to the latter. Because at that time, Han’s military potential and logistics supply capacity were far inferior to the time when Wei and Huo Tong led their troops.

The new round of offensive troops are divided into two routes; The main force, led by Li Guangli, marched westward, out of the Hexi Corridor, and went straight to the junction of the Huns and the western regions, with the intention of clearing the threat of the Huns to the western regions that the Han Dynasty was ready to occupy; Li Ling, the grandson of Li Guangzhi, led an infantry (all good horses have been allocated to Li Guangli) and went north into the territory of the Huns to contain Shan Yu’s main force.

The Han Dynasty lost this war, Li Guangli lost first, and Li Ling was basically wiped out. After Li Ling himself surrendered, he became a general of the Huns.

Su Wu is therefore more unlikely to return to the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty was defeated in successive years of attacks, and the Xiongnu lost most of the land in the western regions and felt exhausted. Therefore, the core link of the competition between the two countries began to change from direct military confrontation to diplomatic confrontation mainly in the western regions. In the late years of Emperor Wu, the domestic people ran out of money, the upper echelon was in trouble, and the country fell into many crises. The family members of commander Li Guangli were exterminated because of the domestic “evil of witchcraft”. Li Guangli himself surrendered to the Huns and was regarded as a victim of worship by Shan Yu. The Xiongnu also suffered from natural and man-made disasters. It did not improve because of Li Guangli’s sacrifice, but the natural disasters became more severe.

The ancients said that after the war, there must be a bad year. The militaristic Han and Hungary could not escape this law.

It was not until the death of Emperor Wu and the accession of emperor Zhao that the Han Dynasty improved its relations with the Huns and the two countries began diplomatic negotiations. But the Huns always refused to admit that Su Wu was still alive. At that time, the Hun’s Shan Yu had changed for several times, and the peace agreement between the two countries had been reached. Why was he still unwilling to release Su Wu?

Because the place where suwu shepherded in the North Sea (today’s Lake Baikal region of Russia) was the border between the Huns and Ding Ling (later tiele). Our usual understanding is that suwu shepherd’s place is very desolate. There is no human trace, and rabbits don’t shit. In fact, it is not. There are many nomads, including Ding Ling. The water and grass are fertile, the birds are singing and the flowers are fragrant. The grassland is singing, and it is very lively. Later, the Mongols made several expeditions to the west, and the starting point was not far from there.

Su Wu, who lived in Beihai for many years, certainly knew the ecology, climate and reality of the Xiongnu very well. The Huns married Su Wu a daughter-in-law (of course, Huns). Su Wu also had children there, one of whom was called Su Tongguo. Later, he returned home with the Han envoy and continued the incense for Su Wu. In the view of the Xiongnu, men were soldiers, and the reproductive population was certainly a part of national defense construction. From this point of view, it was Su Wu who made a disguised contribution to the Xiongnu.

At this time, the last thing the Huns wanted to see was the Han envoys who had mastered the reality and laws of the Huns, returned to the Han Dynasty, and then took the Han Army to attack them. In particular, Su Wu, such an outstanding figure, returned to the Han Dynasty, he was another Bo Wang Hou Zhang Qian. This is the main reason why Su Wu and his party continued to be detained in the later period of the Xiongnu, and the former enemies of the two countries came second.

However, Chang Hui, a subordinate of Su Wu, secretly informed the Han envoy of Su Wu’s situation (this meeting was able to be realized, which showed that Han had planted an effective “internal ghost” in the Xiongnu), so Shan Yu had to release Su Wu.

Su Wu, after Chang Hui returned to China, naturally became a high-level participant in the formulation of Han’s strategy towards Hungary. Chang Hui later set up a Xiongnu encirclement network, including Wusun in the west, Xianbei in the East, Dingling in the north, and the Han Dynasty in the south. Taking advantage of the internal decline of the Xiongnu, he launched a joint military operation against Hungary. Among them, Chang Hui himself, as the chief of staff of the Wu sun army, commanded the Wu sun army to inflict heavy losses on the Huns. This war directly led to the civil strife and division of the Huns, and Hu hanyeshan surrendered to the South (this is the man Wang Zhaojun married).

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