The miracle of war before the death of Qin Dynasty: 50000 prisoners defeated hundreds of thousands of peasant troops

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From the time Qin unified the world (221 BC) to the death of the first emperor (210 BC), there was no war in the country during the twelve years. He destroyed civilian weapons, removed the defense city of the six kingdoms, unified the written currency, tidied up the weights and measures, prepared the traffic roads, implemented the legal system of registered residence in counties and counties, and the whole country devoted itself to the internal construction of a unified empire. The first emperor went on five tours to offer sacrifices to the gods of mountains and rivers, appease the common people in Qianshou, engrave stones to record meritorious deeds, and highlight the great cause of military unity. The Yishan stone carvings declared that “the present emperor’s family is the world, and the soldiers will never rise again”. The Dongguan stone carvings clearly stated that “the present emperor will unite the world, eliminate all evils, and never stop fighting”. The Langya stone carvings announced that “the present emperor will unite the whole country, thinking that the whole country is peaceful”. All the original emperors came to various places in person to declare that the troops will be peaceful, and that future generations will enjoy peace forever. In such a peaceful and stable environment, it is natural for the counties to reduce their troops and relax their armaments. On the other hand, after the unification of the six kingdoms, Qin did not stop the pace of expansion. The military forces of the Qin Empire gathered from the inner counties to the North-South border and began to prepare for the war against the Huns and South Vietnam. Meng Tian’s family is a famous general of the Qin army of three generations. Meng Ao, my grandfather, and Meng Wu, my father were both famous generals on the unified battlefield. In the 26th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (221 BC), Meng Tian helped Wang Ben and Li Xin to attack and destroy the state of Qi, and then made military contributions. Upon his return from the annihilation of Qi, the first emperor appointed him as an internal historian, commanding the heavy troops stationed in Shangjun, responsible for the defense of Guanzhong region and the capital Xianyang. Shangjun’s administrative office is located in the southeast of Yulin City, Shaanxi Province. Meng Tian led a large number of troops to garrison in Northern Shaanxi to defend the capital, which marked that the military power of the Qin Empire had shifted from the east to the north. The target of attack and defense was no longer the six countries, but the Huns active on the Mongolian Plateau. Mengtian stationed in Shangjun, first of all, to stabilize the north of the capital and prevent the Hun cavalry from going south; At the same time, he was ordered to build fortresses, strengthen border defense, build roads, and stockpile military grain to prepare for the war with the Huns. In the 32nd year of Qin Shihuang (215 BC), the first emperor ordered to attack the Huns. He appointed Meng Tian as a senior general, led 300000 troops to attack and occupied Hetao area. The following year, Meng Tian’s army crossed the Yellow River, captured gaoque (now the northeast of Hangjinhou banner in Inner Mongolia), Yangshan (now Langshan in Inner Mongolia), Beijiao (now the north of the Yellow River loop in Inner Mongolia and the south of Yinshan Mountain range), captured the whole Yinshan area and Helan Mountain highland, forced the Huns to retreat to the north of Yinshan and the west of Helan Mountain, and lost the base for moving south. After the military victory of Mengtian army, the army continued to garrison, set up Jiuyuan County in Henan Province, immigrated for permanent occupation, built large-scale city fortresses and pavilions along the border, and established a fortified border; The military Expressway from Jiuyuan to Xianyang was also built; The straight road directly connects the capital and Northern Xinjiang. Although the Huns were forced to withdraw from the Hetao area for a while, they were still powerful. The areas under their control started from the Altai Mountain in the west to the Liaohe River Basin in the East. The entire northern and western borders of the Qin Empire were almost surrounded by the Huns. At the order of the first emperor, Meng Tian connected all the northern Great Wall of the old Qin, Zhao and Yan States, starting from Lintao in the west to Liaodong in the East, and established a unified northern border defense. The 300000 garrison troops in charge of the northern border defense of the Empire, called the northern army, were headquartered in Shangjun and commanded by Meng Tian. After Qin conquered the state of Chu, he began to carry out military attacks on the vast Baiyue area that was subject to the state of Chu and was autonomous by the local clan leaders and tribal chiefs. After the military occupation, direct rule was carried out in comparison with counties. The so-called Baiyue at that time was an ancient Yue nationality widely distributed from the south of the Yangtze River to Southeast Asia. Those distributed in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province today are called Yu Yue; Those distributed in Wenzhou today are called Dongyue; Those distributed in Fuzhou, Fujian, are called Minyue; Those distributed in today’s Guangdong and its south are called Nanyue; Those distributed in today’s Guangxi and its south are called Luoyue (also known as Xi’ou). In the 26th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, Qin General Wang Jian seized the remaining power of Chu, crossed the river to attack Yue, set up Kuaiji Prefecture, and opened the way for Qin to use his troops in hundreds of Yue. His military power approached East Vietnam and Fujian Vietnam. At the same time, Wang Jian’s other troops went south from Hunan and Jiangxi to destroy Chu. The military front has reached the Lingnan area at the junction of Chu and Vietnam, and clashed with Nanyue and Luoyue. The Qin Empire’s first full-scale military attack on the Yue people began about 30 years ago. At that time, the first emperor of Qin appointed Tu Sui as a general to lead hundreds of thousands of troops southward. The Tu Sui army marched in three directions, five routes and two routes in the southwest, going through the current Yuechengling (between Guangxi resources and Xing’an County) and the current Mengzhu ridge (now Jianghua, Hunan) to attack Luoyue; In the south central direction, the soldiers divided into two routes, i.e. today’s Qitian ridge (between Yizhang and Chenzhou in Hunan Province) and today’s Dayu ridge (between Dayu in Jiangxi Province and Nanxiong in Guangdong Province) to attack South Vietnam; All the way to the southeast, take the Xinjiang River in the south of Yugan, Jiangxi Province, and attack Dongyue and Minyue. The southeast front army marched smoothly, destroyed East Vietnam and Minyue, set up Minzhong Prefecture, and realized the direct rule of Qin. The south central front army and the southwest front army were doggedly resisted by South Vietnam and Luoyue. Tu Sui was killed in the war, and a large number of Qin troops were killed. Qin troops were trapped in the mire of Vietnamese guerrilla warfare for three years, and could not complete the occupation of South Vietnam and Luoyue. In the 33rd year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, the first emperor appointed Ren Xiao as a general and began the second large-scale military attack on Vietnam. During this military operation, more than 500000 people were relocated. A large number of human, material and financial resources were continuously invested in the battlefield of South Vietnam and Luoyue, and finally the Lingnan area was captured. Guilin county was set up in Luoyue area, and Nanhai county and Xiang county were set up in South Vietnam. Troops were stationed for a long time, realizing the direct rule over Baiyue. The army and its auxiliary personnel stationed in Lingnan by the Qin Empire numbered 500000. They were called the southern army. Tu Sui, Ren Xiao and Zhao Tuo led them successively. Their headquarters were located in Panyu, which is today’s Guangzhou. Since the founding of the Qin Dynasty, the Guanzhong region has been the base of the country and the top priority of the military layout. Qin Changnian? During the expansion, the targets of attack and defense are directed at the six countries in Eastern Kanto. Hangu pass, which guards the gateway in the eastern part of the central Kanto pass, is the most important military place, and also has heavy troops stationed throughout the year. With the smooth progress of eastward expansion, Qin’s military center of gravity gradually moved eastward, and Xingyang area became a new military center. After the unification of the six kingdoms, the Central Plains stopped its troops, and the north and South fought against Baiyue and Xiongnu. The military focus of Qin shifted from the Central Plains to the north and South borders. The north of Shangjun and the south of Wuling became important places for heavy troops to garrison. The military deployment of the entire Qin Empire has become a pattern of emphasizing the outside and neglecting the inside. Not only are the internal counties empty, but the Qin Empire is local; Defense in the Guanzhong region has also slackened.

Chen Sheng and Wu Guang set up troops in daze Township, Surabaya Prefecture, which is far away from Guanzhong, Xianyang to the East, and North and South Xinjiang to the middle. It is one of the most empty and weak areas in the military structure of the Empire, which emphasizes both outside and inside.

Chensheng uprising in July, 900 people captured daze Township and its Qixian County. In less than a month, it successively conquered several counties, such as Zhi, GUI, Qiao, Ku, Zhe, etc., with sixhundredandsevenhundred chariots, more than onethousand cavalry, and tens of thousands of infantry. Chen Sheng then conquered Chen Prefecture, governed Chen County, became king, and established Zhang Chu regime. The rapid development of chenshengjun is certainly an important factor for the response of the people in the former land of Chu. However, the most critical reason for chenshengjun’s military progress if he enters the no man’s land is that the Qin regime at all levels in neijun, which is loosely armed, cannot organize effective resistance.

After the establishment of Chen County, Zhangchu regime quickly made the military deployment that the main force marched westward into Guanzhong to seize Xianyang and the branches attacked in all directions. The Zhangchu army advancing westward was composed of two troops. The first route army took Wu Guang as the false king and led the main force of Zhangchu army to attack Xingyang, pointing to Hangu pass, the east gate of Guanzhong; Songliu was the general of the first route army. He led the army to attack Nanyang, waiting for an opportunity to seize the South Gate Wuguan pass, which entered Guanzhong. The goal of the two routes was Xianyang in Guanzhong. Xingyang, located in Sanchuan Prefecture, is the first gateway from Guandong region to Guanzhong via the Sanchuan Donghai Road, controlling the East, West, North and south traffic. The Qin Dynasty has a heavy garrison. Close to the northeast of Xingyang, the Qin Empire built a famous grain reserve base &\8211; Aocang stores a large amount of grain for war preparedness. The troops in Xingyang and the grain in aocang constituted the strategic base for the Qin Empire to control the Kanto region.

Wuguangjun defeated the Qin army along the way and surrounded Xingyang. At that time, the prefect of Sanchuan in the Qin Dynasty was Liyou, the eldest son of Lisi. Wuguangjun approached. He arrived in Xingyang from Luoyang, where he was governed by the prefecture, and led the Xingyang garrison. He fought hard and stood firm. Although wuguangjun besieged Xingyang, he was unable to conquer it, and the war situation fell into a stalemate. Although another song Liu army marching westward successfully entered Nanyang County, it was also blocked by the Qin army in Nanyang and could not quickly approach the Wuguan pass. The stalemate of the Western March led the Zhangchu regime to make a new strategic decision: bypass Xingyang and directly attack Hangu pass. Zhou Wen, the hero, stepped onto the stage of history.

Zhouwen, also known as Zhouzhang, is a hero of Chen county. He used to be a disciple of Chunshen, one of the four princes of the Warring States period, and claimed to be familiar with the art of war. During the Qin Chu war, he joined the army to fight against the Qin Dynasty. He once served in the Xiang Yan army and participated in the war. He was a day watcher of the general’s shogunate, which was equivalent to a combat staff officer. He was responsible for weather, terrain and divination prediction. He had considerable military experience and talent. After Chen Shengjun conquered Chen County, he took part in the establishment of Zhang Chu regime as a local hero and won Chen Sheng’s trust. The strategy of bypassing Xingyang was probably Zhou Wen’s suggestion, which was appreciated and approved by Chen Sheng. The Zhangchu regime appointed Zhou Wen as general, and led another army to bypass Xingyang and advance westward to Hangu pass, breaking through the pass and entering the pass by surprise to seize Xianyang. With the support of wuguangjun, who besieged Xingyang, Zhou Wen’s army marched smoothly, breaking through the Qin army’s line of defense in Luoyang, Xin’an and Mianchi, and breaking through Hangu pass in one fell swoop.

Hangu pass is the east gate of Guanzhong. It is an important place and military town for Qin to guard Guanzhong. Since the Warring States period, Qin has fought with the six states in Guanzhong, winning and losing, advancing and retreating. However, there is a basic bottom line for the advance and retreat of the Qin army, that is, Hangu pass has never been lost. It can always stop the vassal troops under Hangu pass and ensure that the local territory in the pass will not be invaded and ravaged by the enemy. Qin was able to defeat the six kingdoms at last. It can be said that it was a very important basic condition for Qin to hold the Hangu pass and maintain a stable Guanzhong base area. Zhou Wen’s breakthrough of Hangu pass was not only a major failure since the founding of Qin Dynasty, but also a decisive victory for Zhang Chujun. The central Shaanxi plain was shaken and terrified, and the anti Qin army was inspired and exulted. After the Hangu pass was broken, there were almost no risks to defend the 800 Li plain in the pass. After entering the pass, Zhou Wen marched westward rapidly along the Avenue on the South Bank of the Wei River, crossing ningqin and Zheng counties, almost without any obstruction, until he reached the eastern suburb of Xianyang, next to the mausoleum of the first emperor at the foot of Lishan Mountain. Zhou Wen’s army is vast, with thousands of chariots and hundreds of thousands of infantry. Looking west at Xianyang, the capital of Qin, Zhou Wen has the momentum to destroy the Qin Empire at one fell swoop.

However, when Zhou Wenjun arrived at the east of Lishan Mountain to play in the water, an elite Qin army was quietly waiting in the West Bank. At the end of the Warring States period, Zhou Wen participated in the battle between Xiang Yan and Wang Jian. He had seen the battle of the Qin and Chu armies. As a general of Zhangchu army, he led his troops westward in the end of Qin Dynasty. He fought with countless Qin troops all the way. It can be said that he broke through the customs and killed the generals. He has been on the battlefield for a long time. However, when he watched the Qin troops deployed on the West Bank of the water, he couldn’t help but take a breath and shudder.

The Qin army on the East Bank of the river has about 50000 people. It is divided into five armies and arranged into two front and back arrays. The front three armies, the right army is arrayed by Lishan Mountain, the left army is arrayed by Weishui River, and the middle army is arrayed between the left and right armies. After the front three services, the back two services are assembled at the joint of the front three services for support. The five Qin armies, each with 10000 troops, have formed an independent regiment. Each regiment has the same array, which is divided into the right square array, the left curve array, the Chinese array and the barrage command post. The right array is arranged in depth in a rectangular shape, with about 6000 people. It is a main force composed of crossbow soldiers, infantry and chariot soldiers. At the front end of the square array are three rows of crossbow soldiers, 68 people in each row, a total of 204 people. The sergeants do not wear armor and hold long-range weapons such as bows and crossbows to form the front of the military array. The forward was followed by the 38th route column, which consisted of vehicles and infantry. The chariot soldiers wore armor and carried long weapons such as GE, spear and halberd. They rode in chariots drawn by four horses. Infantry without armor are light infantry; Who wears armor? It is equipped with infantry and various weapons. On the two wings of the right square array, there is a horizontal line of crossbow soldiers, which are arranged outward respectively. They are the wing guards of the right square array to prevent the enemy from attacking from the two wings. At the end of the right square array, there is a rear row of crossbow soldiers, which is the guard of the right square array to prevent the enemy from attacking from behind. The arrangement of the right square array is based on the array with the long soldier in front and the short soldier in the back. Both attack and defense are taken into account without any leakage.

The left curved array is a square shaped military array composed of four sub arrays, which is composed of 900 crossbow soldiers, infantry, vehicle soldiers and cavalry. The four sub formations are the crossbow, cavalry, hybrid and vehicle formations. The crossbow array protrudes from the front of the left curved array and consists of 332 crossbow soldiers. The table of the crossbow array, that is to say, the four sides of the array are composed of 172 crossbow soldiers who shoot at once, and the heart of the array is composed of 160 crossbow soldiers who shoot at their knees and form an eight route column. At the back and outside of the crossbow formation is a cavalry formation, which is a rectangular military formation composed of six chariots and 108 cavalry. The chariots lead the way and the cavalry follow. The chariots are in a row of three and the cavalry are in a group of four. At the back and inside of the crossbow formation is a mixed formation, which is a rectangular formation composed of chariots, cavalry and infantry. The 19 chariots are arranged into a three-way column, followed by 264 infantry, and there are eight cavalry behind the formation. The side of the chariot formation is connected with a mixed formation, and the forward convergence is in line with the right formation. It is a square formation composed of 64 chariots and 192 armour men. Sixty four chariots are arranged in eight columns. Each column has eight chariots. Each chariot is pulled by four horses. There is an imperial hand and two armor men on the chariot, all wearing heavy armor. The left curved array has a complex shape. It is called a large array with a small array. There is a layout of arrays in the array. The four arrays can be combined and changed freely, especially the cavalry’s mobility is unprecedented.

After the zuoqu formation, there is the Chinese formation. The composition of the Chinese side array is similar to that of the right side array, consisting of 3000 crossbow soldiers, light and heavy infantry and vehicle soldiers. The Chinese side array is also a rectangular military array. Different from the right side array, the Chinese side array is arranged horizontally. The left back array and the right right right array are the support forces of the Legion array. The headquarters, chariot curtains, honor guard drums and flags of the regiment are arranged in the depth of the left and right phalanxes, and behind the whole regiment phalanx.

The main camp of the Qin army is behind the third front corps and moves by relying on the two rear Corps. It has a clear guard of honor and strict security. It orders knights in and out, and the golden drums and flags change orderly. It is like a hand behind the scenes in a lantern show, directing the movements of all corps and formations, just like a shadow.

The elite of the Qin army shocked Zhou Wen; The arrangement of the Qin army confused Zhou Wen. With his rich military experience, Zhou realized that the Qin army in front of him was extraordinary. He thought it was the elite of the Qin army, perhaps one of the legendary guards of the first emperor and the capital Lieutenant army of the imperial capital Xianyang.

In terms of quantity, the Chu army had an absolute advantage. However, due to the limitations of the terrain, hundreds of thousands of troops could not be deployed. Zhou Wen did not dare to underestimate the enemy. First, he built a temporary bridge to swim in the water with the light and sharp troops of the Chu army, led by chariots and followed by infantry. He tried to attack the joint of the front three regiments of the Qin army. The Qin army let the Chu army cross the river. When some of the Chu army crossed the water, the three armies and regiments marched together, changed the formation, spread out the nine formations, closed the junction and began to attack. The Qin army first fired by crossbow soldiers standing upright, squatting and kneeling in turns. After all the arrows were fired, the crossbow soldiers dodged and retreated to the two wings. The array door was opened, the chariots were sent out, and the infantry followed up. They broke into the Chu army array and directly attacked the Chu army after being shot by the crossbow soldiers. Just as the vehicle battle and halberd battle and infantry fighting started, the accumulated Qin cavalry quickly jumped out from both wings, rushed behind the Chu army at BANDU, burned and damaged the temporary bridge, and cut off the contact between the Chu army on both sides of the river. The soldiers of the Chu army were first shot by the Qin army with powerful crossbows. They were terrified by casualties. Then they were rushed away by the Qin army chariots. The formation was in chaos. When the formation of the Qin army’s infantry arrived in front of them, the rear was shaken by the encirclement of the Qin army’s cavalry, and they were unable to make organized resistance. Most of them became the first level of the Qin army’s soldiers to repay their contributions.

As a result of the first battle, the Chu army was defeated. The Chu army who spent his life playing in the water almost never returned. Zhou Wen held his ground on the East Bank of the river and dared not cross the river to attack easily. He once tried to lure the Qin army to cross the water, preparing to use the number advantage to fight the Qin army in the east of the play. However, although the Qin army won the first battle, it did not pursue the victory. Afterwards, it was not moved by the lure of Zhou Wenjun, but stuck to the West Bank. The Qin and Chu armies are in a stalemate playing in the water.

After arriving in the water, Zhou Wen’s strategic goal was to quickly march westward and conquer Xianyang at one stroke. How could there be any hesitation in stopping the army and delaying the fighters? It is reasonable to assume that the reason why zhouwenjun failed to cross the water and advance westward is not that he did not enter, but that he could not; The reason why we can’t do it is that we are encountering unexpected obstacles that prevent us from moving westward.

Zhouwenjun’s failure to enter Xianyang quickly after staying in the water became a mystery for thousands of years because of the lack of historical records.

From the perspective of later history, Zhou Wenjun’s stay in the water was a major turning point in the military situation between Qin and Chu since the army was launched in daze township. For the Zhang Chu regime, taking advantage of the sudden change of the situation, the possible prospect of invading Xianyang and destroying the Qin Empire at one fell swoop was like an electric mirage. From then on, zhangchujun lost his enterprising power, retreated and was soon wiped out. On the other hand, the Qin Empire gained a respite from the sudden panic. It was able to mobilize and assemble the Qin army, and began to advance eastward to fight back, turning the crisis into safety for a while. Throughout the ages, people who sympathize with Zhang Chu and Chen Sheng have all regretted Zhou Wenjun’s failure to stay. Scholars and historians often criticize Zhou Wen for failing to quickly march westward and making major mistakes in military decision-making. Zhou Wenjun’s mistake is similar to the battle of Dunkirk in World War II, if compared with the established examples in modern war history. In May1940, lightning swept through the German main force in Europe and chased the defeated British and French allied forces to Dunkirk in the Calais Strait. With a dangerous coast 50 kilometers wide, the only hope for the 400000 allied troops to survive was to retreat to Britain by boat. For the coalition forces, their most urgent need is time, even if it is one minute at a time. Strangely, on May 24, the German armored forces, which had already approached Dunkirk and were about to cut off the retreat of the coalition forces, suddenly stopped advancing and did not resume their attack until May 27. In three days, the British and French allied forces calmed down from the chaos, built a defense line to defend the coast, and the withdrawal plan was implemented urgently. On June 4, the German army captured Dunkirk, and 40000 allied guards were captured. However, 330000 allied main forces have successfully retreated to Britain. It was this living force that survived and became the foundation of the subsequent reconstruction of the coalition forces. The battle of Dunkirk was thus regarded as the turning point of the German army from prosperity to decline in the Second World War.

War is art. A once-in-a-lifetime fighter plane is fleeting. During the Dunkirk campaign, why did the German army suddenly stop advancing and thus lose all the fighters of the British and French allied forces? According to the research of historians, on May 24, Hitler issued the order “stop moving forward”. As for why Hitler ordered to “stop moving forward”, it is still an unsolved historical mystery. Some researchers said that it was because the German command was worried about the armored forces that marched too fast; Some researchers also said that it was due to Hitler’s mistake in hoping to make political negotiations with Britain. Whatever the cause, historical mistakes have been made.

I have investigated the history of the late Qin Dynasty to play with the water and Zhou Wen, associating ancient and modern times. I am filled with emotion and often have doubts. Zhou Wen was a rare military talent in Chen Sheng’s regime. At the end of the Warring States period, he served as a day watchman in Xiangyan army and participated in the Qin Chu war as a combat staff officer; Wuguangjun was blocked in Xingyang. He made strange plans and led strange soldiers to attack Hangu pass in one fell swoop, and gathered hundreds of thousands of troops to reach the East Bank of the water, which fully demonstrated his outstanding military talent. After arriving in the water, Zhou Wen’s strategic goal was to quickly march westward and conquer Xianyang at one stroke. How could there be any hesitation in stopping the army and delaying the fighters? It is reasonable to assume that the reason why zhouwenjun failed to cross the water and advance westward is not that he did not enter, but that he could not; The reason why we can’t do it is that we are encountering unexpected obstacles that prevent us from moving westward.

Sima Qian recorded Zhou Wenjun’s stay in the water, which is mainly found in historical records – chenshearistocratic family. Sima Qian said that Zhou Wen “drew troops from the army, rode thousands of chariots, and died hundreds of thousands of people, and played a military game.”. For this important historical fact, only 16 words were used. According to these 16 words, Zhou Wen expanded his army as he marched and reached Hangu pass. He had thousands of chariots and hundreds of thousands of soldiers. Then he arrived at the water and stationed here. Zhou Wenjun didn’t explain why he stayed at Lishan Mountain. Then he said that Zhang Han asked Zhun II to pardon the prisoners and slaves of Lishan Mountain, enlisted in the army to defeat Zhou Wen, and Zhou Wenjun withdrew from Hangu pass.

It was in September of the first year of the second year that Zhou Wen broke through Hangu pass and arrived to play with the Qin army. After the defeat in the water battle, he withdrew from Hangu pass and fought again with the Qin army in Caoyang (now the southwest of Shaanxi county, Henan Province). He was defeated in November of the second year. It was more than ten days after Cao Yangzhi’s war that he retreated to Mianchi (now the west of Mianchi in Henan Province) and fought with the Qin army. He was defeated and killed himself. In three months, hundreds of thousands of troops fought three wars between Qin and Chu, the intensity of which can be imagined; However, the historical records only used more than 80 words to record the process of this historical event. There was no mention of the specific war situation, especially about the Qin army. Except for the name of commander Zhang Han and his words of proposing to pardon the prisoners and integrate the slaves into the army, none of them were mentioned. I have lamented for many times that ancient history is often a matter of forgetting everything, and often vague due to the limitations of classical Chinese style; The absence of details is a common practice. In connection with this, it is impossible to solve the eternal mystery of why hundreds of thousands of Zhou Wen’s army stopped playing in the water and lost the aircraft that captured Xianyang in one fell swoop by relying on the existing historical documents. To clarify the historical truth, we must find another way out.

In March of 1974, the Terra Cotta Warriors pit was discovered in the east of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Lishan. 1? In the pits No. 2, 3 and 4, there are more than 8000 Terra Cotta Warriors, which faithfully reproduce the original appearance of the imperial Qin army according to the array of combat soldiers. According to the research of historians, the style of the Terra Cotta Warriors is completely realistic: the arrangement of the four terracotta pits is the actual battle arrangement of the Qin army; The Terra Cotta Warriors are modeled on the actual Qin army; The regiment composed of more than 8000 Terra Cotta Warriors faithfully reproduces the organization and lineup of the Qin army. The Terra Cotta Warriors were placed underground to protect the first emperor? Elite troops of the Qin army; Its prototype should be the capital garrison of Qin Dynasty, that is, one of the so-called capital armies.

The capital army of the Qin Empire consists of three troops: the doctor’s command army, the guard army and the lieutenant army. The doctor’s order army was the emperor’s military attache group. It was composed of three kinds of officials: doctors, visitors and lang. it was in charge of the guard around the emperor and was led by the doctor’s order. The doctor’s order was the emperor’s Chamberlain and chief security officer of the inner court. The doctor was the emperor’s inner court counsellor. The audience was mainly responsible for the emperor’s protocol master. The number of doctors and audience was small, about dozens of people each. The main subordinate part of the doctor’s order is the Lang officials, who are the most numerous and play the most important role. They are not only the emperor’s bodyguards, but also the reserve team of the officials. The number of them is not certain. When there are many, the total number can reach about 1000. Among the three subordinate officials under the doctor’s order, the Lang officer who is in charge of the guard is a small and skilled military officer group, which is led by the five sense Lang generals, the left Lang generals, the right Lang generals, the Che Lang generals, the Hu Lang generals, and the Qi Lang generals under the doctor’s order. The Wei Wei army is the Imperial Palace garrison. It is led by the Wei Wei, one of the ministers of Jiuqing. It is responsible for the security of the gates of the palace cities inside and outside the capital and the security of the city. The emperor also has to undertake the work of security guards when he travels. The troops under the guard are composed of guards. The guards are soldiers who serve regularly. They rotate every year, and the number is about 20000. They garrison each important place in the palace city, set up tents along the inner walls of the palace city, and garrison them scattered. There is no unified camp.

The lieutenant army is named for being led by a lieutenant. The lieutenant is in charge of military affairs and public security in the inner history area of the capital. Because the internal history is the capital and has a special nature, the lieutenant, as the military chief in the internal history area, has the dual identities of central official and local official. He ranks among the ministers of state and becomes one of the nine secretaries of state. The duties of a lieutenant can be divided into two parts: one is to be responsible for guarding, maintaining public security and managing the local army in the areas of internal history. This position is roughly equivalent to that of a county lieutenant in the local counties of the Empire. The second is to command the capital garrison, responsible for the defense of the capital Xianyang, the security of the central government offices, and the management of the central Arsenal. When the emperor went out, he led the troops to lead the guards and clear the roads. Such a post is equivalent to the functions of a senior member of the central military. The army under the command of the lieutenant can be divided into two parts. One is the local army scattered in the NEISHI counties of the capital; One is the capital garrison stationed outside Xianyang palace. The capital garrison, with about 50000 people, is mainly composed of soldiers enlisted in the areas of internal history. They received military training in their native areas every winter, and were selected to serve in the Garrison for one year. They were rotated at the end of the term.

In general, the Qin capital army, composed of the doctor’s order army, the guard army and the lieutenant army, was distributed inside and outside the palace, the palace city and the capital city respectively. With the emperor as the center, it formed a strict multi-layer defense system in the Guanzhong area. The security of the capital region depends on the existence of the capital army. The archetypal army of the Terra Cotta Warriors is indeed a reasonable assumption to seek among the troops in the capital. Inspired by this, I further infer that in the multi-layer defense system of the capital army, the doctor’s order army is the emperor’s guard, and the guard army is the palace city garrison. They are stationed inside and outside the palace city and generally do not go out for field operations. Only the lieutenant army is stationed in the suburbs of the capital Xianyang and can be dispatched at any time.

The lieutenant army is one of the elite of the imperial Qin army. It not only serves as the garrison of the capital Xianyang, but also dispatches the lieutenant army for major ceremonies and ceremonies. The Qin and Han emperors were buried. The lieutenant soldiers wore black armor and black clothes. The xuanming army array was arranged from the imperial palace to the mausoleum for burial, which should be the original of the Terra Cotta Warriors army array.

From this, it can be inferred that the power to play on the shore and stop Zhou Wenjun’s westward March should be the capital Lieutenant army of the Qin Empire.

When I stood in front of the majestic Terra Cotta Warriors army again, I saw war chariots rolling in front of me, the light of swords and the sound of drums and horses roaring in my ears. At the foot of Lishan Mountain and beside the water, the main force of the Qin Empire’s capital Lieutenant army is lining up to meet the attack of Zhou Wenjun.

At the end of July, 2004, the Sixth Symposium on the study of Terra Cotta Warriors was held in the Terra Cotta Warriors Museum. Thanks to the kindness of the host of the meeting, I stayed at the foot of Lishan Mountain for a week, and was able to fulfill my long cherished wish to visit the ruins of the Terra Cotta Warriors of the first imperial mausoleum, the former site of Hongmen in Bashang, the former site of Afang palace in Xianyang City, the tomb of King Qin of the eastern mausoleum, and the ancient city of Chang’an.

The leisurely Weihe River comes from Weiyuan in West Gansu, passes through Tianshui, enters Shaanxi from Gansu, crosses Baoji, crosses Guanzhong Plain, passes through Xianyang, the capital of Qin, receives the Fenghe River and Ba water in the south, gathers the Jinghe River and flows in the north. The water potential is surging, and the river channel is broad. It enters the current Lintong District of Xi’an city. The river channel suddenly turns to the southeast and rushes straight to Lishan, then flows several miles to the East, and then flows to the north, A narrow channel is formed between Lishan Mountain and Weishui River, just like the bottleneck guarding the road from Hangu pass to Xianyang. Playing in the water, it flows into the Weihe River from the east of Lishan Mountain to the north, just across the east entrance of the bottleneck channel from the north to the south, just like a trench defending the channel. The bashui river flows from the west of Lishan Mountain to the Weihe River in the north, just across the west of the bottleneck channel, just like a trench of another opening and closing channel. Enter the South Road of Guanzhong &\8211; Lantian road in Wuguan, along the bashui River Valley, also enters the Weihe plain from here. As a result, the area with the water playing as the gully in the East, the Bahe River as the defense in the west, the Weihe River in the north and the Lishan Mountain in the South became the last barrier to defend Xianyang after Hangu pass and Nanyang Wuguan Road, and an important place for the Qin army to garrison troops. The main force of the lieutenant army guarding the capital of the Qin Empire should be stationed in this area.

I went to Hongmen first from Lishan. The former site of Hongmen banquet where Xiangyu entertained Liu Bang still exists today. Reciting the famous saying “XiangZhuang’s sword dance is intended to serve the public”, I think the reason why Xiangyu’s 400000 troops were stationed here in those days was precisely because they used the barracks of the old Qin capital army. Playing in the water is near the east of Hongmen. Sending out the garrison of Hongmen can just set up an array on the West Bank of playing in the water to intercept the enemy advancing westward from Hangu pass. The Xianyang Hanguguan road in the Qin and Han Dynasties was roughly the same as the current Xi’an Tongguan road. I have come and gone many times. This time, I made a special trip along the path at the south foot of Lishan Mountain, took Han Yu to visit Dongling, crossed the diaokengru valley of Hongqing plateau, went down the plateau to the Bahe River Valley, went west along the river embankment, and looked at Lantian in the distance. The road at the foot of the mountain on the plateau is the path that Liu Bang, the Hongmen banquet, got out of the tiger’s mouth, walked with fankuai and others with swords and shields, walked from the foot of Lishan Mountain to Zhiyang, and returned to the Bashang military camp. The Bashang military camp, where the 100000 Liubang troops were stationed, is located near the mouth of the Bahe valley. Presumably, it is also the barracks of the Qin capital army. The first lieutenant army of the Qin capital division stationed in the Bashang military camp and controlled Wuguan Lantian road; Another division of the Qin capital’s lieutenant army was stationed in Hongmen military camp and controlled Hangu pass Xianyang Road. Between Bashang and Hongmen, it is the garrison of the main force of the capital’s lieutenant army.

At this point of field investigation, and then back to the books on paper, the past and present are converging, and the thoughts of the past are far away. The history that has disappeared is like an inverted replay of the image, which is just in front of us. The Terra Cotta Warriors are modeled on the capital’s lieutenant army. The Hongmen Lieutenant army is stationed near the Lishan mausoleum. The lieutenant army officers and men stationed in Hongmen are just models of the Terra Cotta Warriors. The military array they are exercising is the array of Terra Cotta Warriors pits; Their equipment line is the armed line of the soldiers of the Terra Cotta Warriors army. The officers and men of the lieutenant army are not only well-trained, well-equipped and highly effective, but also strictly selected, loyal and reliable. They are highly valued by the Imperial Army and shoulder the important task of defending the last gateway of the capital. In August of the first year of the Second World War, when hundreds of thousands of Zhou Wen’s army arrived to play in the water, the lieutenant army stationed in hongmenba went out, prevented Zhou Wen’s army from advancing westward in the area of playing in the water, and saved the Qin Empire at a critical moment.

What is history? Is it the dialogue between the present and the past, the reflection of the past, or the weakening of the distant information? The most incredible is the historical relics, which belong to both history and the present; Only when you see them can you be sure that history once existed; As long as you see them, you can’t help falling into the temptation to know the past.

On the evening of the last day of the Symposium on the study of the terracotta warriors, when I stood in front of the majestic Terra Cotta Warriors army again, I saw the rolling chariots, the light of swords, the sound of drums and the roaring of horses. At the foot of Lishan Mountain and beside the water, the main force of the Qin Empire’s capital Lieutenant army is lining up to meet the attack of Zhou Wenjun. Zhuang and Zhou Dream of butterflies, and butterflies dream of Zhuang and Zhou. Suddenly, things and I blend, which is an illusion of literature and thought; It is a clear understanding of historiography to research historical materials and recall the past, search for relics and reverse time and space, and connect ancient and modern times with associative reasoning. The truth transcends illusions, and the clear lesson surpasses the mystery. The Terra Cotta Warriors are sweeping in. I actually drove the Terra Cotta Warriors to fight. Ghosts and gods sent me to revive history. I wrote about Zhou Wenjun’s westward March and the battle of playing in the water.

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