Today, China story network Xiaobian brings you the origin and development of fire! I hope it can help you.
As we all know, human beings evolved slowly from ancient apes through natural selection, starting with simple tools made of wood sticks, stones and other materials, marking the successful transition of ancient apes to humans, but in addition, there is another important element – the use of fire. Engels, the German revolutionary, once said, “in terms of the liberation of the world, friction for fire is still more than a steam turbine. Because friction for fire makes people dominate a natural force for the first time, and finally separate from the animal kingdom.”
Because of fire, human beings were completely separated from animals, so they began to use fire for heating, eating cooked food, lighting, etc., and then it was also used for pottery burning, metal smelting, etc. fire played an important role in the development of human history, so many legends and myths were also born.
Origin of fire
Human beings have used fire for tens of thousands of years. First of all, sky fire was used, that is, the fire naturally caused by lightning strikes on dead trees or white phosphorus. At that time, ape people were afraid of and love fire, afraid that it was because fire could not touch or burn their skin, and because fire could expel beasts, and it could also warm and illuminate. Over time, ape man obtained fire in the fire, but this kind of fire needs to be saved patiently, and dry firewood, trees and other combustibles need to be added constantly to keep the fire from going out, and it also needs to be properly preserved, because if it is not properly preserved, it will extinguish the fire, and even cause a fire. Later, after a long time of exploration, the ancestors piled stones next to the fire to prevent the wind from blowing out the fire, and it was also conducive to barbecue food, which was also the prototype of the fire pit.
With the loss of time and the arrival of the Neolithic age, our ancestors invented artificial fire – drilling wood for fire, which became a necessity in life. In Western mythology, regardless of danger, Prometheus stole kindling from Apollo, the sun god, and gave it to mankind, bringing light to mankind.
Primitive man used fire
The three gods of fire in China
The first God of fire, Suiren, was honored as the “Suihuang” and regarded as the “ancestor of fire”. He was the father of Fuxi and Nuwa, and the grandfather of Mi Fei and nudeng (ren SI). He taught human beings to drill wood for fire, teach people to cook, and keep human beings away from Ru Mao and drink blood.
In Chinese books, there are many records of the Suiren surname. The disseminator of the artificial fire is the Suiren surname of the Suiming state (now Shangqiu, Henan Province). The Suiming state and the Suiren surname were recorded in the Taiping imperial survey:
“Shenmi state goes to the capital for thousands of miles, and there is Suiming state, which doesn’t know four hours and nights. People don’t die, and if they are tired of the world, they will rise to the sky. The state-owned fire tree, named Suimu, is bent over thousands of hectares, and the clouds are in the middle. If the branches are broken and drilled, the fire will go out. Later saints become smelly, travel beyond the sun and moon to eat and save all things; and even droop to the south. Looking at this tree table, there are birds, pecking at the tree with their mouths, and bright fire will go out. The saints feel how, because they take twigs to drill fire, they call Suiren.”
It was also recorded in “three graves”: “Suiren taught people to eat by cannons, drill wood for fire, have a missionary platform, and have a policy of tying ropes.” In the Warring States period, Han Fei also recorded in Han Fei Zi Wu Du: “there are saints’ works, drilling flint to get fire, in order to turn fishy and impetuous, and the people say that it makes the world king, and the name is flint people”.
It can be seen that Suiren not only taught human beings to drill wood for fire, but also created a “rope knot Chronicle”. It is precisely because of these contributions of suirenshi that people list him as one of the three vultures.
The second is zhurong, the God of fire widely worshipped in China for a long time. According to Zuo Zhuan, the twenty ninth year of Zhaogong, “therefore, there are five elements of officials, which are called five senses. Mu Zheng says Ju Mang, fire Zheng says zhurong, Jin Zheng says harvest, water Zheng says xuanming, and earth Zheng says Houtu.” It shows that Zhu Rong is actually an official name.
The historical records of Chu family also recorded:
“The ancestor of Chu came from emperor Zhuanxu Gaoyang. Gao Yang, the grandson of the Yellow Emperor, was also the son of Chang Yi. Gao Yang was born, and he was called Juan Zhang. Juan Zhang was born of Chong Li. Chong Li was the emperor, Gao xinju huozheng, who was very meritorious and could light the world. The emperor’s life was called zhurong.”
It roughly means that Chong Li is the descendant of Zhuanxu. Because he “lived in huozheng for emperor Hao Gao Xin”, he was named zhurong by Emperor Hao.
Portrait of Zhu Rong
The third God of fire is the Yan Emperor who “tasted hundreds of herbs personally”, named Shennong.
In the “Zuo Zhuan, the seventeen years of Zhaogong”, it is recorded that “the Yan Emperor’s family was named after the fire division because of the fire period”. It was also recorded in the “Guan Zi Qian Qian Pian” that “Yan Emperor made a fire by drilling flint”, from which it was learned that Yan Emperor invented drilling wood to make fire, so his contribution was listed as one of the three gods of fire by mankind.
Yan Emperor statue
Function of fire
In ancient times, fire played other important roles besides heating, lighting and cooking.
The first is to burn pottery and refine metal. The three elements of firing pottery are: clay, glaze and fire. The production process of pottery is: mud mixing, molding, glazing and calcination, of which calcination is the most important step, and the temperature of fire can directly affect the final result.
Second, fire can also play an important role in war. The twelfth plan in Sun Tzu’s art of war is the fire attack plan, “there are five fire attacks: one is the fire man, two is the fire accumulation, three is the fire baggage, four is the fire depot, and five is the fire team.” But they can’t do without one thing, that is fire.
Tiandan’s fire attack plan
During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the Yan state used a fire attack plan when attacking the Qi state. Tian Dan gathered more than a thousand cows, “with sharp blades tied to their horns, reeds soaked in oil at their tails, and colorful dragon patterns on their coats”, and then lit the reeds on their tails at night. The cows were in pain, so they ran forward and hit the enemy hard, winning the victory.
Burning WuChao during the war of Guandu also belongs to the fire attack plan, which shows that fire occupied multiple positions in ancient times.
Worship of fire
There is worship of fire in all countries of the world. Before the birth of Christianity, the mainstream religion in the Middle East was Zoroastrianism, also known as fire worship. Fire was created by Creator Ahura Mazda. This religion takes the symbol of light “fire” as its worship object, so fire worship is a manifestation of worship of God. This religion has a far-reaching impact on later Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Zoroastrianism in chakcha, northeast of Yazd, Iran
In Hongwan village, Xiyi Town, Maitreya City, Yunnan Province, China, whenever the third day of the second lunar month, the Axi people of the Yi nationality hold a grand Axi Fire Festival, which is a mysterious celebration that regards fire as the spirit of all things.
In addition, there are many fire worship customs all over the world. Disclaimer: the above content originates from the network, and the copyright belongs to the original author. Please inform us if your original copyright is infringed, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.