The responsibility of the subjugation of Shu Han: the late Lord Liu Chan was fatuous and misguided

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Portrait of Liu Chan, the empress of Shu

People say “I cherish my broom”, and I will cherish my own things even a broom, not to mention thousands of miles of rivers and mountains? But since Liu Chan didn’t cherish it himself, he had to be slaughtered. In the later period of Shu Kingdom


, which is closely related to Jiang Wei.

Jiang Wei’s Northern Expedition.


When I was dying, I said, “after I die, I will guard myself and be careful not to come back.” Later, Jiang Wan and Fei Yi basically inherited this self-defense national policy. When Jiang Wei was eager to try, he always suppressed his actions and only gave him no more than 10000 people each time. In the 16th year of Yanxi (AD 253), at the beginning of the new year’s general assembly, the ruling Fei Yi was unfortunately assassinated by Guo Xiu, a general of the state of Wei. Jiang Wei succeeded Da


Later, Shu turned from defensive to offensive again.

Jiang Wei, with the word boyue, was originally from Jixian County, Tianshui County, the state of Wei. He was a well-known dutiful son. When he was young, he hoped to become famous and do things differently from ordinary people. Later, it was engaged by the state and participated in the county


? In the sixth year of Jianxing (AD 228), he was subdued by Zhugeliang, the first northern expedition. In this process, there is an interesting record in the annals of the Three Kingdoms: Jiang Wei and others went out on a tour with Ma Zun, the Tianshui prefect. When Ma Zun heard that the Shu army had arrived and the counties should respond to Shu, he suspected that Jiang Wei and others had different intentions, so he ran up at night alone. Jiang Wei and others chased Shangying. The city gate was closed, so they had no choice but to surrender to Zhugeliang.

Jiang Wei was forced to join Shu at that time, but no one expected that this general would be the most loyal to Shu Han later! Jiang Weichu voted for Zhugeliang, who spoke highly of him as “a person, a staff sergeant of Liangzhou”, and established him as Cang caoxing, a general of Fengyi, and a Marquis of Dangyang Pavilion at the age of 27. Coincidentally, they both came out to help Shu at the age of 27. Grain is the most important part of the army. This appointment shows Jiang Wei’s position and expectations in Zhugeliang’s mind. Jiang Weihou quickly moved to supervise the army and enlisted the general in the west, which can be described as a young success. Compared with the cold reception and suspicion received in the state of Wei, Zhugeliang was so kind, why didn’t Jiang Wei go to hell?

Zhugeliang attached great importance to training Jiang Wei. He sent troops several times and taught Jiang Wei by example. He taught what he had learned all his life, which made Jiang Wei deeply feel the noble quality of Zhugeliang’s loyalty to the country and dedication, and also rapidly improved his ability. It can be said that Zhugeliang treated Jiang Wei with the friendship of teachers and students and the love of father and son – even his own son Zhugeliang, who was only eight years old when he died, did not enjoy such treatment.

Jiang Wei was lucky to meet the favor of Zhugeliang, the “world’s most intelligent”, and history gave him a broad stage so that he could enjoy the talent of a wise and brave general, and finally remain famous in history; Jiang Wei was unfortunate again – just for this last words like Mount Tai, the heavy task of the Northern Expedition gradually pressed on his shoulders, causing him to devote as much effort as Marquis Wu, and he committed the rest of his life to the completion of Zhugeliang’s long cherished wish to recover the Central Plains. His death is still pending, which makes future generations choke.

The romance of the Three Kingdoms said that he was “entering the Central Plains nine times”. In fact, Jiang Wei participated in the Northern Expedition more than eleven times. His greatest achievement was the seventh time, that is, in the 18th year of Yanxi (A.D. 255), the rebellion of Wu Qiujian and Wen Qin in the state of Wei, and the death of Sima Shi. Jiang Wei went out of Di Dao and broke the king’s Sutra of Wei Yongzhou governor in Taoxi. Tens of thousands of people died in the king’s Sutra. In the hands of Zhugeliang, the best was to behead thousands of people. However, the Shu army also suffered a lot of losses, and the hard fighting method was unfavorable to the small country and few people.

The eighth Northern Expedition of the following year was the first after Jiang Weiqian, a general. At this time, he was 54 years old, and his most precious youth had long passed away, but he was still ambitious. This time, he dated with Zhenxi General Hu Ji in Shangying. But Hu Ji lost his time. Jiang Wei was broken by Deng AI, the general of the state of Wei, in duangu, and there were many dead. Jiang Wei demoted himself to the post general and became a senior general. During the 10th Northern Expedition in the fifth year of Jingyao (AD 262), Jiang Wei led the crowd out of Han and Hou he, which was broken by Deng AI who waited for work with ease, so he had to live in Dazhong. At this time, the Shu army repeatedly failed and its strength was reduced; Moreover, eunuch Huang Hao took power, so Jiang Wei had to station troops outside, and the situation turned into strategic defense. However, Jiang Wei’s Northern Expedition generally won more victories and lost less. The loss of the army was also Wei’s heavy and Shu’s light, and the decisive battle was in Wei’s land. Shu Han was not invaded. In terms of the weak comprehensive national strength of Shu Han, the results were excellent. However, Jiang Wei’s northern expedition has always been criticized more than praised, which makes people lament.

Attack Shu in three ways. Once Shu stopped attacking, the Wei army came uninvited. The mountains around Shu are steep, easy to defend but difficult to attack. Even more, although the Wei army was numerous, there had been a “glorious tradition” of fearing Shu like a tiger since Sima Yi for many years, and it had always been in the position of passive defense. It seemed to be a dream to say that the destruction of Shu.

“Sima Zhao’s heart is well known to everyone.”. Sima Zhao had long wanted to emulate Cao Cao as King Wen of Zhou, but his achievements were not obvious, so he planned to destroy Shu. But at this time, the only one who didn’t fight with the Shu army was Zhong Xiaowei, who didn’t know that the powerful Si Li of the Shu army would agree to attack Shu. Sima Zhao was furious, and the sect leader Bo Shizui threatened Deng AI, the general of the western expedition who had been dealing with the Shu army for many years. Deng AI, who was unwilling to go, had no choice but to obey the order. So Sima Zhao sent an army of 180000, of which Deng AI led 30000 troops to attack Jiang Wei in Dazhong from Didao, zhugexu, the governor of Yongzhou, led 30000 troops to juejiang Wei’s return road in Wu street, and more than 100000 general Zhong Hui in Zhenxi attacked Hanzhong from Luogu. At the same time, he also bluffed and pretended to make a model of shipbuilding to attack Dongwu. When the army set out, general Deng Dun said that Shu was not to be punished and was killed by Sima Zhao.

At this time, there were only 100000 people in Shu, and only about 50000 people were on the front line. After Jiang Wei learned the news, Liu Chan sent his troops to protect the Yang’an pass and the Yinping bridge head in the above table to prevent trouble from happening. But Liu Chan had no defense at all when he mistakenly listened to Huang Hao’s nonsense.

Zhong Hui led his army directly to Yang’an pass in Hanzhong. The generals were Fu Jin and Jiang Shu. Jiang Shu, who was originally the governor of Wu Xing, was sent to help Fu Jin defend the pass because of his futility in office. Therefore, he held a grudge and went out of the city to surrender when he saw the Wei army coming. Hu lie took advantage of the weakness to attack the city, and Fu Jin died in the war.

As soon as Jiang Wei heard that the Zhong Hui army had entered Hanzhong, he led the whole army to move to Hanzhong. The 30000 Wei troops of zhugexu had long occupied the vital road of the throat – Yinping bridge, and Jiang Wei’s return road was cut off. Unexpectedly, Jiang Wei was worthy of Zhugeliang’s high feet. He used the trick of luring the tiger away from the mountain to make a look like copying the back of the Wei army. Zhugexu was indeed fooled and retreated thirty Li. In fact, Jiang Wei only entered the North Road for more than 30 miles. As soon as he heard that zhugexu was going north, he immediately returned to the army and crossed the Yinping bridge. By the time zhugexu knew that he had been deceived and stopped, Shuhan had passed Yinping bridge for a day.

Jiang Wei and others withdrew from the Jiange and defended it according to the danger. At this time, the first infighting occurred in the Wei army. Zhugexu didn’t want to listen to Deng AI’s command and approached Zhong Hui. Unexpectedly, Zhong Hui was in the middle of his heart. On the pretext that he was afraid and didn’t go forward, he sent it back in a prison car and annexed his army. Zhong Hui couldn’t persuade Jiang Wei to surrender, so he stormed the natural danger sword Pavilion, but he couldn’t overcome it, and the food was running out, and the soldiers were tired, so he had to prepare to “come happily and return in despair” to retreat.

Surrender without war. However, Deng AI stealthily spent Yinping Jinggu road successfully! He walked more than 700 miles from Yinping Road, where the mountains are high and the valleys are deep, and it is extremely difficult. Deng AI took the lead to roll himself down the valley with felt, and the soldiers filed in. At this time, Ma Miao, the garrison general of Jiangyou, voluntarily surrendered, and the Shu Kingdom ordered the acting capital guard general Zhuge Zhan (the son of Zhugeliang) to resist the enemy, but he did not occupy the danger to resist, but fought hard with the recuperating Wei army, winning first and then losing. Tens of thousands of bodies were buried, and Zhuge Zhan and other soldiers died in the battle. His son Zhuge Shang sighed, “father and son he are very kind, and he didn’t cut Huang Hao early, so he was defeated. What’s the use of life!” Pegasus rushed into the enemy line and died.

Deng AI made another effort to capture Luo County, and “the black tiger stretched out his heart” threatened Chengdu, and Shu had no danger to defend. Liu Chan decided to surrender under the persuasion of the main surrender faction such as Qiao Zhou. Liu Zhen, the king of the north, angrily said, “if Li is poor and weak, disaster and defeat are inevitable, so he will fight back to the city and die together with his father and son, so as to see the former Emperor.” But Liu Chan, who was greedy for life and afraid of death, didn’t accept it. That day, Liu Chen cried in Liu Bei temple, killed his wife and son, and then committed suicide, with tears on both sides.

“The apprentice ordered the general to wave his magic pen and finally saw the king go to the cart.” (Li Shangyin’s “pen preparation post”) Zhang Shao of Liu Chan sect, who is six gods and has no master (Zhang Shao is unexpectedly the second son of Zhang Fei who is powerful! Another tiger father and dog son!) Qiao Zhou and others went to ask for permission with the book. Deng AI was happy to accept the “pie” falling from the sky. As soon as Deng AI arrived in Chengdu, Liu Chan hurriedly led the crown prince Liu Xie and more than 60 ministers to Deng AI’s military gate to surrender with their coffins tied on their faces. Deng AI, in accordance with the story of Deng Yu in the Eastern Han Dynasty, took over and worshipped him as an acting Hussar general, and the Shu Han Dynasty perished. The fall of the Shu Han dynasty laid the foundation for the unification of the Jin Dynasty. In terms of merit, Deng AI is the most meritorious person to destroy Shu.

Liu Chan also sent people to Guanghan Qi county to order Jiang Wei and others to surrender. Jiang Wei and others were ordered to “be salty and angry, draw a knife and draw a stone”, but they had no choice but to surrender in the Zhong Hui army. As a general of subjugation, Jiang Wei still did not lose the demeanor of a real warrior — “(Zhong) would say that Wei said: ‘why is it too late?’ Wei zhengse shed tears and said: ‘it’s too fast to see this today!’ (Gan Bao Jin Ji) Zhong Hui was also surprised at his words and looked at him differently.

Shu aftersound

“Ivory treasure account speechless, since then Qiao Zhou is an old minister.” Shu seems to have perished, but it is still a wonderful struggle.

Great stratagem. The kingdom of Shu was destroyed, but internal strife broke out again within the Wei army, which divided the spoils unevenly. Zhong Hui was the General Commander of the Wei army, but because of Jiang Wei, he was tired and motionless, and almost retreated, while Deng AI won great success. Zhong Hui is the son of Zhong you, a Wei Taifu. He has a noble family background and despises Deng AI, a cow boy; He is also known as the “arsenal”, but he is subordinate to Deng AI. Deng AI is rewarded for his merits. Deng AI became a Tai Wei, and Zhong Hui only became a situ (regrettably, both of them didn’t get the letter of appointment). Although they both rank in the “three gongs”, it is the Tai Wei who oppressed situ, and Zhong Hui will be even more angry. He had the ambition to be the second Liu Bei. His brother Zhong Yu had already told Sima Zhao about his idea. Sima Zhao’s generation of heroes, how can they not know that Zhong Hui is powerful? But everything was under his control. Just in case, he led 100000 soldiers to Chang’an in the name of supporting Zhong Hui.

Jiang Weili used the gap between Zhong Hui and Deng AI to decide to pull the bell into the water. He wanted to use the hand of Zhong Hui to get rid of Deng AI, kill the generals of the state of Wei, and then kill Zhong Hui to pit the Wei soldiers to restore the Shu Han Dynasty. He also gave Liu Chan a secret book: “may your majesty endure the humiliation of several days, and your ministers want to make the country dangerous and safe, and the sun and moon quiet and bright.” We can’t help but speak highly of Jiang Wei’s loyalty, but we can only say that a piece of hot blood flows to the wrong object. It’s OK to flow to Shu, but it’s really worthless to flow to Liu CHAN!

Deng AI’s character has great defects. First, he is frightened by difficulties and dare not attack Shu; Second, after the extermination of Shu, he consciously made great contributions, pointing to the Qi and blowing, “Jiang Wei has been a hero for a while, and is worth a certain amount (encounter), so he is poor.” Be laughed at secretly by people of insight. At first, Deng AI was able to restrain his subordinates, but since he got a heavy bribe to avoid death, the Shu people looked at him. He even got so carried away that he didn’t listen to Sima Zhao’s command. In order to stabilize the situation of land surrender, the conquerors always didn’t allow the capitulators to stay where they were, but Deng AI said that it was appropriate for Liu Chan to stay in Shu, and even he decided beyond his authority to “think that Liu Chan could be made king of Fufeng”. Sima Zhao was so angry that he sent guards to warn Deng AI: “things should be reported, and it is not easy to do.” However, Deng AI’s unrepentant death touched Sima Zhao’s most sensitive nerve and killed him.

Zhong you, the father of Zhong Hui, is a great calligrapher. His calligraphy is also very outstanding. Imitating calligraphy is just a small skill. Taking advantage of Sima Zhao’s dissatisfaction with Deng AI, he intercepted Deng AI’s Zhang Biao in the sword Pavilion, and forged a memorial of Deng AI, with arrogant sentences, to anger Sima Zhao. He also destroyed Sima Zhao’s reply and forged it himself to doubt Deng AI. Then, he contacted Hu lie and Shizui, who were incompatible with Deng AI, and falsely accused Deng AI of having an evil intention. Sima Zhao issued an imperial edict to send Wei Peng to arrest Deng AI. Deng AI was dreaming of Duke Zhou when he was caught. The stuttering Deng AI woke up like a dream, “it’s hard to argue”, and looked up to the sky and sighed: “Ai Zhongchen, too, so far! The coolness of Bai Qi can be seen again today.” Alas, Deng AI was a muddle headed ghost until he died. He didn’t know why he died!

When Deng AI was captured and sent to Luoyang, Zhong Hui’s strength and ambition increased greatly. He had taken Jiang Wei, the puppet surrender, as his heart, and the Jiang Wei, who plotted to restore the country, encouraged him to use the national funeral of Empress Dowager Guo to kill the general of the Wei army. Unexpectedly, Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei were all killed by the Wei army. Jiang Wei was dissected after his death and was as bold as a fight. After Zhong Hui died, Deng AI’s Department dismounted and went after his prison car. But Wei Xuan was afraid of being harmful to him, so he ordered Tian Xu to kill Deng AI and his son in Mianzhu. Deng AI’s death is nothing more than adding a story to the eternal famous saying “when birds are exhausted, good bows are hidden; when cunning rabbits die, running dogs are cooked”.

Liu Chan made a fool of himself. After the extermination of Shu, simazhao divided Yizhou into Liang and Yizhou in order to stabilize the situation. In March of the next year, he also moved Liu Chan to Luoyang and named him “Anle county public” (this title is appropriate for Liu Chan). The only people who are willing to follow Liu Chan are Shang Ling Fan Jian, Shi Zhong Zhang Shao, Guanglu doctor Qiao Zhou, Secretary Ling Jiazheng, and Dian Zhongdu Zhang Tong. Qiao Zhou was unable to move forward due to illness when he arrived in Hanzhong.

Ying Zheng has a good relationship with Jiang Wei. He and Huang Hao just deal with each other and don’t attach themselves to each other. After 30 years, Huang Hao has been from micro to expensive and wielding authority. Ying Zheng is neither loved nor hated by him, so he has never been an official of the county magistrate. Fortunately, in Luoyang, Liu Chan had Ying Zhengxiang, who threw away his wife and son. The annals of the Three Kingdoms said that Liu Chan “acted without fail”, but we know from “happy not to think of Shu” that it is not because Liu Chan was Chen Shou’s former monarch at all, so Chen Shou, a good historian, had to resist the grief of the subjugation and whitewash him. At this time, Liu Chan sighed with regret, hating to know that it was too late. Ying Zheng was in the inner court every day. Why did Liu Chan go at that time? So we can’t help scolding Liu Chan for being damned. “It’s too late for the boat to make up for the leak in the river, and it’s too late for the book to be used.” people who complain about heaven and earth deserve only this ending.

Better to live than die. Such an “easy” day “an Le Gong” actually passed seven years, and died in Luoyang in the seventh year of the beginning of Tai Dynasty (AD 271), ending his “unable to support” life.

The story about Liu Chan is not over. His death is completely carefree, but history will tease him. As a descendant of the Huns, Liu Yuan opposed the Jin Dynasty, but respected the Shu Han first, and pursued Liu Chan’s posthumous title as “emperor Xiaohuai” (unfortunately, no one recognized it). The joke of the historical old man is getting bigger and bigger: the Huns are Liu Bang’s sworn enemies, but the Huns changed their surname to Liu to inherit the Han Dynasty; They are also elm headed, who is not good to respect, but Liu Chan, the “second treasure”, is emperor Huaidi of Han Dynasty? No wonder this dynasty is also a short-lived Dynasty with only eleven years of life! This is really the greatest thing in the world!

Responsibility for subjugation

Three thirds of it has become a dream. The demise of Shu is a matter of great sorrow to the fans of the Three Kingdoms. Some even read the romance of the Three Kingdoms until Zhugeliang died. Yes, there are such dangerous countries and such talents. Unexpectedly, Liu Bei died unexpectedly in only six months. At that time, Liu Bei spent 38 years of effort and a lot of money (Fengchu pangtong). Who should be responsible for this?

Liu Chan’s primary responsibility. There is no doubt that Liu Chan was the chief villain of the subjugation. Although Liu Chan was not cruel and did not slaughter innocent people wantonly, it was the king’s duty to govern the country well. But did Liu Chan do it? Not at all. He is a blind king who doesn’t care about his family and country. His governance is a piece of white paper, or a mixture of black and white. There are no oneortwo serious things and many wrong things. Among them, he dotes on Huang Hao, a cunning and insidious eunuch who brings disaster to the country and the people, and Chen Zhi, who is incompetent, which leads to the chaos of the national political situation, to the point that even Jiang Wei, the No. 1 pillar, has to go out to avoid disaster. Under his pro government administration, the fine tradition of honest officials, loving the people and being conscientious left by the Zhugeliang era was completely ruined, resulting in economic decline, hardship of the people, and a large number of fleeing. According to the records in the spring and Autumn Annals of Han and Jin Dynasties: when sun Xiu of the eastern Wu Dynasty, Xue Pei was a general with five facial features and was sent to buy horses in the kingdom of Shu. After returning, sun Xiu asked about the gains and losses of the Shu government, and he replied, “the Lord is dark and doesn’t know his fault. The ministers took shelter in order to avoid guilt. They didn’t hear the right words when entering the court, and the wild people were all vegetables.” It means that the monarchs and ministers of Shu, led by Liu Chan, were happy and did not know that disaster was coming. This has pointed out who is the primary responsible person for the subjugation of the country.

Jiang Wei asked to strengthen defense, but Liu Chan refused to arrange; When Shu could have won the first war in Chengdu, Liu Chan listened to the words of the capitulationist Qiao Zhou and others. He had no fighting spirit and surrendered without fighting. It should be noted that in the 19th year of Jian’an (AD 214), his father Liu Bei attacked Chengdu. Liu Zhang resisted for dozens of days and was forced to surrender when Ma Chao surrendered and Zhugeliang, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun and other super first-class literary ministers and military generals in Chinese history gathered. In contrast, Liu Chan was not even as good as the weak Liu Zhang. I really don’t know his face to see Liu Bei! Therefore, there is no seat for Liu Chan in the Wuhou Temple in Chengdu today, but the position of his son Liu Chen, who committed suicide unyielding. If Liu Chan was determined to fight to the death, it was entirely possible to stick to it for a year and a half. At that time, the eastern Wu had already sent troops to help Shu, and Huo Yi and others were ready to fight for the king; Zhong Hui will also withdraw from the army, and Deng AI will probably be “anti dumpling”. Unfortunately, everything was ruined by Liu Chan.

The responsibility of the capitulationists. In the face of the national subjugation crisis, who played a vicious role in fuelling the flames? It is the capitulationist group headed by Qiao Zhou. Qiao Zhou is very knowledgeable and once advised Liu Chan to reduce the number of harem and music officials, but his mind was not used to protect the country at all.

In the kingdom of Shu, there is a saying “when Liu Bei entered Shu, the people of Jingchu were expensive”, which means that there was a struggle for power and profit among Jingchu people, Dongzhou people and Yizhou people (whose status was lower). At that time, Yizhou was relatively late in civilization, and its culture was not as developed as the Central Plains, so there were naturally few talents. Except for the emperor, the first-class talents in power in Shu were basically “outsiders”, and Yizhou people were very dissatisfied. So their loyalty to Shu became a problem. Among them, Qiao Zhou and Du Qiong jump the most.

Qiao Zhou is the teacher of Chen Shou, the author of the annals of the Three Kingdoms. Although Chen Shou is inevitably a little vague, for example, “Liu Shi is safe, a nation is deceived, (Qiao) Zhou Zhimou is also.” However, his traitorous face is still vividly depicted in the annals of the Three Kingdoms. Liu Chan called an emergency meeting, but he couldn’t figure out what to do. Some thought they could run to the Allied kingdom of Soochow; Some people think that the seven counties in nanzhong can defend themselves. But Qiao Zhou thought, “since ancient times, no other country has been sent as the son of heaven; Wei can merge with Wu, and Wu can’t merge with Wei. Why should it be humiliated in the future? Who can guarantee the small heart of nanzhong group?” Some people think Deng AI is not far away. What if he is afraid of not being surrendered? (God, what they worry about is whether people are willing to accept surrender!) Qiao Zhou said with “awe inspiring righteousness”: “now that the eastern Wu is not served, they have to be surrendered and treated with courtesy. If Wei does not break the soil to seal his majesty, I will go to Kyoto alone and fight for ancient righteousness.” Liu Chan also wanted to enter the south, but Qiao Zhoushang dissuaded him. His article quoted Scriptures for the purpose of “betraying the country”, so let’s not quote it.

Sun Sheng accused: “(Liu) Zen is a secret advocate, (Qiao) Zhou shinu minister.” Qiao Zhou spared no effort to promote the “theory of national subjugation” because of Du Qiong’s prophecy that “those who represent the Han Dynasty, Dangtu gaoye” (the short-sighted Yuan Shu rashly claimed the throne came from listening to this prophecy by mistake). Du Qiong said that “Wei Que” (a synonym for the imperial court), and the official names of “Cao” (equivalent to the Department under the current ministry) all mean that the destiny belongs to Cao and Wei, and another scholar Zhou Shu also said: “those who represent the Han Dynasty, Wei also.” In fact, this was public opinion propaganda for the surrender. At that time, did the real power of the state of Wei belong to Cao? Since Sima Yi’s coup, real power has belonged to Sima family. Does Sima family have anything to do with Cao? This is actually an absurd statement that is not worth refuting, but it is easy to eat and popular. Because the eunuch Huang Hao took power inside, in the fifth year of Jingyao (the year before the subjugation of the country), the big tree in the palace broke itself for no reason. Qiao Zhou wrote on the column, “many people are large, and the meeting is expected. If there is something, how can we reply?” What’s the meaning of this? He used Liu Bei’s “Bei (JU)” and Liu Chan’s “Chan” (Fu) words as traitorous articles. It is conceivable that such a person will share Liu Chan’s worries? Therefore, Luo Yin of the Tang Dynasty wrote painfully in his “pen gathering post”: “cast Nanyang as the main worry, and march northward to the east to seek all good money; time and again, heaven and earth work together, and it is not free to transport heroes. Thousands of miles of mountains and rivers are light children, and the two dynasties crown swords and hate Qiao Zhou; but the rest of the rock is full of love and water, and it is still clear that they are near the post every year.”

In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, Zhugeliang, a Confucianist with a war of words, criticized some world’s corrupt scholars who were just between pens and inkstones and searched for chapters and sentences: “sitting and talking, no one can reach; being resourceful, no one can do anything. Sincerity laughs at the ears of the world!” It’s just people like Qiao Zhou who “although there are thousands of words in the pen, there is really nothing in his mind” who ate Lumi in Shuhan for so many years in vain.

Responsibilities of Chen Zhi and Huang Hao. Speaking of the evil deeds of Chen Zhi and Huang Hao, Shu people all gnash their teeth. Just as Zhao Gaozhi lured Hu Hai, it was Chen Zhi who lured Liu Chan, who was already intellectually problematic, step by step into the abyss of depravity. It was precisely because of their insidious cunning, their hands were up and down, and the generation of fly camp stayed close to them, which made the Shu state, which was originally the best governed state in the Three Kingdoms, a mess. As the rivers went down, they themselves were also nailed to the pillar of shame in history. The most hateful thing is that for their own sake, they even ignored the safety of the country and wanted to replace Jiang Wei, who was rated by the state of Wei as “Shu depends on, only (Jiang) Wei”, with Yan Yu, the right general. Isn’t this a joke about the fate of the country? According to the annals of Huayang, “Jiang Wei was evil and Huang Hao was reckless, and Liu Chan was about to kill him.” Unexpectedly, Liu Chan made an end for him: “Huang Hao is just chasing away the little minister. In the past, Dong Yun gnawed his teeth. I often regret it. Why do you mind!” Jiang Wei saw that Huang Haozhi was attached to the leaves, and was afraid of being speechless, so he had to resign and asked to plant wheat in the stack to avoid internal disasters.

The emperor’s excessive favor of eunuchs has always brought fatal disasters. Zhao Gao of the Qin Dynasty and Shi Changshi of the Eastern Han Dynasty are living examples of history. Liu Chan does not learn from history, so history will not take care of him.

The disparity of national strength. The death of Shu is also due to the disparity in comprehensive national strength and the withering of talents, which is beyond the power of one person. Jiang Wei can’t be blamed for the difficulty of building a single tree. At the height of the Three Kingdoms, the state of Wei had Kyushu established in the Eastern Han Dynasty, with a population of about 10000; At the time of the extinction of Wu, there were three prefectures with a population of about 2.3 million, while at the time of the extinction of Shu, there was only one Prefecture with a population of about 990000. The population ratio of Shu and Wei Dynasties was about 1:5. As for talents, they are closely related to the total population. Shu is far inferior to Wei. The cruel and immoral monarch and his subordinates, such as SUN Hao of the eastern Wu Dynasty, are naturally the monarchs of the subjugation. However, if there is little difference between their monarchs and ministers, it is a contest of comprehensive national strength and talents. Wei had the largest population and the strongest comprehensive strength among the three countries. At that time, under the situation of the Three Kingdoms, Wei was also the most qualified to unify the country, but this does not mean that unification is the patent of Wei. How many historical cases are there that a few are better than many?

Jiang Wei’s responsibility. Jiang Wei was the only pillar of the late Shu Kingdom. Since he joined Zhugeliang, he has been in the northern expedition for 34 years! You can imagine how much effort he made for Shu. Jiang Wei was very simple. He waved his money to his subordinates. It can be said that he was very similar to Zhugeliang in many aspects, such as loyalty, simplicity, and diligence. Li zhuowu, a famous thinker in the Ming Dynasty, once commented, “how can Jiang boyue be like Kongming? Answer: another Kongming.”

Jiang Wei returned to Shu with death, but he couldn’t help but bear great responsibility for the subjugation of the country.

First, the army has been launched year after year. He used troops 11 times before and 11 times, and he labored heavily. Moreover, under the situation that Shu was weak and Wei was strong at that time, it was a typical “Northern Expedition for the sake of Northern Expedition”, which wasted national strength and manpower, so that “Shu people have been fighting for years, and they all have grievances.” Chen Shou commented, “Jiang weirough was civil and military, and he was determined to make a name for himself. He played with the crowd and made a bad decision, which eventually led to his death.” The words are not fierce. Chen Shou praises Zhugeliang, but he is not optimistic about Jiang Wei, who inherits his mantle, which is worth pondering.

Second, strategic mistakes. His biggest mistake was to design a “technique of defeating the enemy”, abandon all encirclement and defense, and gather troops in the two cities of Han and le, trying to lure the enemy into “closing the door and beating the dog”. Without Deng AI’s sneak attack, Zhong Hui would have been desirable when he was ready to withdraw. However, the battlefield was changing rapidly, and the war situation did not develop according to Jiang Wei’s vision. As a result, Zhong Hui and others quickly arrived at Han, le’ercheng and Yang’an pass, and were almost unable to return to the natural danger of Jiange. “Zizhi Tongjian” Hu Sansheng notes: “Jiang Wei abandoned the danger and opened the heart of the territory with cunning. This is the book of the death of Shu.” Its comments are not unreasonable.

But generally speaking, Jiang Wei’s responsibility is secondary, but many people in history regard Jiang Wei as the “culprit” of the death of Shu. In fact, Jiang Wei is just Liu Chan’s scapegoat. The reason is very simple. As Han Feizi said, “if you have made meritorious contributions, you will have your merits; if you have made mistakes, you will be responsible for (assume) your faults”.

At the same time, Jiang Wei was Sima’s mortal enemy. Chen Shou was not only a student of Qiao Zhou who opposed Jiang Wei’s Northern Expedition, but also the leader of Jiang Wei, who served as general Wei. Liu Xianxin believed that it was for this reason that Chen Shou, who was under the ruthless and suspicious Sima family, did not record Jiang Wei’s false surrender to the restoration of the country and died, but only recorded him “abusing his soldiers and playing with the masses and engaging in aggression”. There are also many positive comments on Jiang Wei in history, and the higher one stands, the higher the evaluation. Zhugeliang’s not to mention, Zhong Hui also said to Long Shi Duyu, “with boyoubi, a famous man in Middle Earth, he can’t win in public holidays and Taichu.” Public holiday is the word of Zhuge birthday in the state of Wei, one of the “four CONGs”, and the word of xiahouxuan, one of the “Bada” in the beginning. They are all famous celebrities in the world. This evaluation cannot be said to be low.

Why was Jiang Wei so loyal as the general of Wei? It’s Zhugeliang’s understanding of him, plus Liu Bei’s understanding of Zhugeliang. We can’t help sighing that “a scholar dies for a bosom friend”, which is a rare opportunity that makes people cry. Life is full of a confidant, what can a man do!

Tiger father and dog son

Liu Bei and Liu Chan are extremely interesting father and son.

Liu Bei had great ambitions since childhood, but Liu Chan had no ambitions. When Liu Bei was a child, there was a mulberry tree on the fence in the southeast corner of his home, which was more than five feet tall. Looking from a distance, it was like a car cover. All the passers-by blamed the extraordinary tree. Liu Bei played under the tree with the children of Zongzhong and said, “I must take this Yubao cover car.” In those years when Liu Bei lived in Liubiao, Jingzhou, he once went to Liubiao as a guest. When he got up and went to the toilet, he saw the meat in his legs and “shed tears with regret”. After returning to his seat, Liu Biao asked the reason strangely. He said, “I often keep my body from the saddle, and my legs are gone. Now I don’t ride anymore, and my legs are alive. If the sun and moon gallop, the old general will die, and my achievements are not built, it’s sad.” It can be seen that he is determined to make contributions all his life. However, Liu Chan had no sense of responsibility for the mountains and rivers laid down by his parents’ hard work. Zhugeliang worked on major and minor matters. “Liang also used Zen to be busy (skilled) in politics, so he was always inside and outside.” (Wei Lue) in short, it is the standard “playing the son of heaven”, without enterprising spirit.

Liu Bei was never afraid of failure, but Liu Chan had no fighting spirit and fell at the touch. Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei have just started to fight. Unlike Yuan Shao, Cao Cao and sun CE, who have been laid down by their predecessors, they are typical “starting from scratch”, and their strength is very weak. In his life, he did not know how many times he had failed helplessly, how many times he had abandoned his family and children, how many times he had suffered from homelessness, and how many bitter tears he had left before he achieved success. Liu Bei had been attached to gongsunzan, Yuan Shao and many others before and after, and everyone respected him. If it weren’t for Liu Bei’s heroic spirit of long-standing faith, how could it be so? While Liu Chan listened to the opinion of surrender and had no resistance when there were tens of thousands of Jiang Wei’s army outside and Chengdu’s armed forces inside. He was despised and despised by later generations, which was also his own fault.

Liu Bei is wise and Liu Chan is fatuous. Liu Bei fought all his life, relying on indomitable fighting spirit and the full support of talents. In terms of achievements, he is inferior to Cao Cao; Liu Bei was polite to the corporal, knew people well, and asked Zhugeliang and Hanzhong to unexpectedly promote Wei Yan to Zhenyuan general, lead Hanzhong prefect, and knew that Ma Su could not be reused. His understanding and employment of people were vicious and accurate, and he could get the death force of five tiger generals and other generals, which was inferior to Cao Cao. Like Liu Bang, he is a peerless master who is good at “generals” rather than “generals”. Liu Chan, who did not distinguish between right and wrong, became the emperor for 41 years, and appreciated Huang Hao and others who brought disaster to the country and the people. As expected, the opposite that Zhu Geliang worried about in his “leaving the army” appeared – “Pro Lilliputian, far virtuous ministers”, leading to the decline of the court.

Liu Bei values love and Liu Chan has no righteousness. Liu Bei, Cao Cao and Sun Quan have their own advantages in employing people. Wang Fuzhi commented that the masters of the Three Kingdoms employed different people: “Cao Cao controlled with power, Liu Bei with temperament, and the sun brothers with congeniality.” Liu Bei was born deficient and the day after tomorrow was disadvantageous. However, he stood out in the war of princes, and his “human harmony” accounted for a lot of factors. Liu Bei liked to make friends with heroes when he was young. He was kind and deeply loved by the people. Someone sent someone to assassinate Liu Bei, but the assassin couldn’t bear to start, and said it. It won the hearts of the people, so “many return to Yan.” Liu Guanzhang was so affectionate that he said that “Taoyuan was sworn to justice”. As for him not to want Jiangshan to avenge Guan Yu, it all showed his great love, and everyone was also happy to die. Liu Chan, on the other hand, was “heartless” as mentioned above. Therefore, later generations sneered, “if you can’t lift up, Wolong sighs; if you don’t miss Shu, Sima Chang shush.”

“Have a son like sun Zhongmou, and Liu Jingsheng’s son like a porpoise’s ear!” Cao Cao once sighed at the boundless Yangtze River, but Liu Chan was worse than Liu Jingsheng’s sons (Liu Qi, Liu Cong). In the late Western Jin Dynasty, Li te followed the flow into Shu. When he first arrived at the sword Pavilion, he looked at thousands of obstacles and sighed, “isn’t it Yong Cai Xie that Liu Chan has such a place and his face is bound to people!” With an emperor like Liu Chan, what country can’t die?

Shu Xianwu Temple

Tang, Liu Yuxi

The heroic spirit of heaven and earth is still awe inspiring for thousands of years.

The potential is divided into three tripods, and the industry is restored to five baht.

Having a good wife can start a country, but having children is not like having a good wife.

The desolate old Shu opera comes to dance in front of the Wei palace.

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