The thunder of Soviet Russia for China!

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Author: Xusheng source: Xusheng (official account ID: lxlong20) has been authorized to reprint

When Gorbachev passed away a few days ago, there was an interesting voice in the media, saying that it was thanks to the Soviet Union for letting China through self explosion.

The so-called “trip to thunder” here is to provide enlightening lessons.

Throughout the past hundred years, Soviet Russia has assisted China in four enlightening trips:

Revolution and thunder

Construction mine

Reform and overcome thunder

Fuxing trip to thunder

Here I would like to stress that this article is not written to make everyone Pro Soviet Russia, but to dig a side of the history of China and Russia. Soviet Russia’s influence on China has both pros and Cons: it has both helped and hurt.

01 revolution

There are many similarities between China and Russia in modern times. In the process of transition from a family empire to a modern country with party politics, people with lofty ideals in both countries chose violent revolution.

The revolution of 1911 led by Sun Yat Sen successfully overthrew the imperial system in 1911, but the Republic he founded fell into endless turbulence later, which made everyone very tired.

It was not until 1917 that the October Revolution led by Lenin overthrew the Russian Empire. However, the Soviet Union soon became strong and became a strong country again.

Under such circumstances, the Soviet Union became an example for Chinese revolutionaries. That is why “the sound of the October Revolution brought Marxism Leninism to China”. It has influenced not only big professors like Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu and Qu Qiubai, but also intellectuals like Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Liu Shaoqi.

The Soviet Union’s influence on China was not limited to Communists, but also deeply influenced Sun Yat Sen and Chiang Kai Shek.

The turmoil of the Republic of China made Sun Yat Sen very upset. With the success of the Soviet Union, Sun Yat Sen began to choose to cooperate with the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union’s help to Dr. Sun Yat Sen was mainly reflected in the two ways of civil and military affairs:

Along the way, Wen promoted the first cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, forming a wave of grand revolution.

Along the way, Wu helped Sun Yat Sen establish the Whampoa Military Academy. Originally, Sun Yat Sen asked Xu Chongzhi to lead a team to the Soviet Union for an inspection, but Xu Chongzhi refused to go because he felt it was too hard, and the job fell to Chiang Kai Shek. As a result, Chiang became the principal of the Whampoa Military Academy and made great achievements.

Unfortunately, due to Sun Yat Sen’s early death, the good revolutionary momentum was interrupted by Chiang Kai Shek and Wang Jingwei’s purge of the party. The perverse actions of Chiang Kai Shek and Wang Kai Shek prompted the transformation of the Communist Party of China.

In the process of the transformation of the Communist Party of China, Chen Duxiu, Qu Qiubai and other out of touch intellectuals were eliminated by history, and Wang Ming and other models based on the Soviet Union were also eliminated. Only when Mao Zedong combined Marxism Leninism with the practice of the Chinese revolution and formed Mao Zedong thought could he guide the Chinese revolution to victory and calm down the turbulent China.

Why did history choose Mao Zedong? According to the three-dimensional view of history and the large cycle law, modern history is essentially the process of the rise of industrial civilization, which destroyed and replaced agricultural civilization, nomadic civilization, slave civilization and fishing and hunting civilization.

Industrial civilization rose from the three British Islands, first destroying the English empire, then the French Empire in Western Europe, then the Ottoman Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire eastward, and then the Qing Empire eastward.

A country that has stepped into industrial civilization needs to combine its matching guiding ideology with mature party politics. There are two main schools of guiding ideology, capitalism and socialism.

Europe and the United States, which enjoyed the first dividend of industrial civilization, chose capitalism. China and Russia in Eurasia are doomed to take the capitalist road because their national capitalists are too weak. Lenin first saw this problem, so he combined Marxism with the practice of the Soviet Union, formed Leninism, and soon armed the Soviet Union. Sun Yat Sen tried to rely on the weak national capitalists, so he met with repeated setbacks.

Mao Zedong saw that the essence of China’s problem was the problem of farmers, and decided to follow the route of Encircling Cities from rural areas. Only in the end did he lead the Chinese revolution to victory and lay the foundation for China’s entry into industrial civilization.

So from the revolutionary level, the Soviet Union really helped China through the thunder. At that time, China called the Soviet Union the big brother.

02 construction mine

After the success of the Chinese revolution, we are faced with a huge historical problem, that is, how to quickly realize industrialization and complete national rejuvenation and rise.

As we all know, China’s modern history is a history of blood and tears. In essence, it is the old agricultural civilization falling behind in the face of the new industrial civilization. In fact, there were attempts at industrialization in China’s modern history.

The first industrialization attempt was the Westernization Movement in the late Qing Dynasty, which was carried out at the same time as the Meiji Restoration in Japan and achieved a series of results, but ended with the defeat of the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895.

The second attempt at industrialization was in the Republic of China and was interrupted by Japan’s war of aggression against China.

In the era of the Republic, after winning the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, finally no country can threaten us from the outside. Then China can go all out to promote industrialization.

However, because the industrial foundation is too weak, it is impossible to re study all the existing things; There is no technology accumulation in reality, and history does not have so much time for China to slowly complete technology accumulation in reality. So the best way is to get assistance.

At that time, China’s war to resist US aggression and aid Korea was tantamount to breaking up with the United States; Therefore, it adopted a one-sided foreign policy (see “the United States and the Soviet Union on Mao Zedong’s chessboard” for why it should turn to the Soviet Union), that is, it tried its best to seek industrial assistance from the Soviet Union.

Through the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, China won large-scale industrial assistance from the Soviet Union. That may be the largest industrial assistance from one country to another in the history of mankind, covering all industrial fields at that time; Specifically, it can be summarized as one hundred and fifty-six projects, that is, the three major symbols of industry, mining, factory building and engineering.

To develop industry, we must have resources. Old industrial countries can steal and rob from all over the world; China has lagged behind, and obviously we must rely on ourselves. Fortunately, China is large and rich in resources. However, China itself has no ability to dig out the resources. So the Soviet Union came to help, helping China to exploit resources. ?

The symbol of industry is the factory.

The blood of industry, power plants and petrochemical plants.

The skeleton of industry, steel mill.

There are also bearing factories, automobile factories, aircraft manufacturers and so on.

The Soviet Union came to help and helped China build many factories.

As for engineering, the Soviet Union has helped in everything from building bridges and reservoirs to building two bombs and one satellite. Thanks to the great assistance of the Soviet Union, China’s industry quickly took shape.

As Premier Zhou Enlai said at the Chengdu conference in 1958, “only socialist countries like the Soviet Union can give us the whole blueprint at no cost in the world. They are willing to give us anything that is stereotyped, including atomic bombs and missiles. This is the greatest trust! The greatest mutual assistance!”

At that time, the Soviet Union was a real big brother.

However, the Soviet Union also had its own selfishness in helping China. Khrushchev, in particular, although he gave China a lot of assistance, actually wanted to impose the chauvinism of great powers on China. Of course, Mao Zedong was not used to Khrushchev and flatly rejected his request.

Enraged by his shame, Khrushchev withdrew all the experts who supported China and stationed troops on the Sino Soviet border, threatening the security of northern China. Sino Soviet relations have fallen into a trough, and the former big brother of the Soviet Union has become Su Xiu.

Although Sino Soviet relations have experienced great ups and downs, in terms of construction, the Soviet Union has indeed helped China go through a lot of mines.

03 reform and anti thunder

History has proved that the pure planned economy (note the attribute “pure”) is not far away, and both China and the Soviet Union are facing reform and transformation.

After the designer came back, he carried out reform and opening up in a bold and decisive way. China’s economy has rapidly recovered from a decade of turmoil and is booming.

However, there have always been voices that China’s reform is not strong enough, and the system should be changed to be the same as that of the West. Against this background, Gorbachev began to carry out reforms in the Soviet Union, transforming the Soviet Union from top to bottom and from inside to outside.

Koch——

Abandoning the guiding ideology of Marxism Leninism and the one party dictatorship of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,

Changing the Soviet system into a parliamentary system,

Change the Soviet Union’s public ownership economy into an oligopoly economy,

Even the commissar system of the Soviet Red Army was abandoned

The operation was as fierce as a tiger, which directly disintegrated the Soviet Union.

The key is that after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia has experienced all-round political, economic and military decline. The starting point of Gore’s reform was originally to let people lead a good life. As a result, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the total GDP of Russia is no longer as large as that of Guangdong Province of China.

Most importantly, Gore originally wanted to achieve reconciliation with the west through reform. As a result, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, NATO ushered in another round of eastward expansion. Now NATO has pushed its influence directly to Ukraine and pushed Russia into a corner. You should know that Ukraine is the Longxing place of the East Slavic (Kiev RUS), and now it has become the sphere of influence of the West.

The Soviet Union told China with its own blood and tears that some bottom lines need to be adhered to in the process of reform.

China adheres to the road of reform and opening up with its own characteristics, ushers in decades of high-speed development, and now walks on the road of national rise and rejuvenation. The Soviet Union used its own incorrect reform to prove the correctness of China’s reform.

04 Fuxing touring thunder

Today, China has reached the critical moment of national rejuvenation and rise, and Russia is also looking for its own way of rejuvenation and rise, but the two countries have adopted different ways.

China’s road to rejuvenation and rise is to adhere to economic construction as the center, work hard to improve its internal strength and improve people’s livelihood.

But Russia is not. It has chosen territory and war. From Georgia to Ukraine, Russia is still fighting for its territory.

Of course, Russia has its own reasons for fighting. For example, NATO’s eastward expansion has cornered Russia.

If Russia can recover the core assets (the East Ukraine great plain, the black sea resource belt, and the Caspian Sea energy belt) lost in the disintegration of the Soviet Union through war, its strength will expand rapidly. But obviously, it’s hard. At least the war in Ukraine has lasted until now, and Russia has not fought smoothly.

Because of the war, Russia fell into the quagmire of consumption. Never in history has any country been able to rely solely on war consumption to complete its rejuvenation and rise, and Russia certainly cannot. In fact, if Russia had more political wisdom, the war in Ukraine could be continued by supporting the agents of East Ukraine, rather than entering in person.

Russia once again tells the world with its own practice: in the world of great competition, big players should not enter first. The United States has more experience in this respect. In the two world wars, the initiators of the war suffered defeat, and the United States, which entered later, realized the maximization of interests.

In contrast, China has continued to unswervingly strengthen its own strength, avoided the uncertainty brought about by Russia’s reckless behavior, and is steadily on the road of rejuvenation and rise. China’s strategic decision-making still clearly retains the strategic thinking of the Mao Zedong era.

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