Author: Xusheng source: Xusheng (official account id:lxlong20) has been reproduced with authorization
In terms of history, Japan is longer than most countries, and the emperor is known as “one system for all ages”, which can be extended infinitely in his own textbooks. It has been less than 250 years since the founding of the United States.
However, in the US Japan relations, the United States is the active party most of the time. It is said that after the unification of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried to land on the mainland, was defeated by Daming, and then ended up depressed; His family was liquidated. When Japan entered the Tokugawa Shogunate era, it was actually a closed island country.
After the founding of the United States, it wanted to flirt with Japan. In 1799 (the term of the second President Adams), it sent a merchant ship to visit Japan as a Dutch merchant ship. Similar hooligans wanted to make an encounter, but the effect was not good.
In 1837, when President andrewjackson was in power, the United States sent merchant ships to return Japanese refugees, hoping to spark a spark with Japan. The result was really fire, but it was Japanese artillery fire.
By 1846, the Americans, too lazy to waste their brain cells, had directly sent three warships to Japan to ask for exchanges with each other, but they were still rejected! The patience of the United States was finally exhausted, and in 1853 it turned out to be a hooligan.
Perry, the commander of the U.S. East India fleet, led four warships into Edo (Tokyo) Bay and forcibly “befriended” and “friendly” Japan, just like a rogue forcibly making love to a flower girl.
When Japan’s performance was slightly unsatisfactory, Perry served with cannons. Because the four warships led by Perry are armored ships, which can be called aircraft carriers of that era and have great power.
The poor shogunate general, domineering over the Japanese, treated the emperor as a vase, but did not resist the rude Americans. The merciless artillery fire was as big as a buffalo, and a few gorgeous slaps on the face fanned Japan full of small stars.
Japan is very realistic. Since you can’t escape the fate of being raped, enjoy it. The Japan US goodwill treaty was born, which was the first unequal treaty in Japanese history. The game between the United States and Japan began in 1853 and has been nearly a century and a half.
In fact, in 1853, the United States also had a difficult time. The North-South Division became more and more serious, and the president changed frequently. The new President Pierce could do nothing in the face of the mess. For example, the situation faced by trump today is still bad. At that time, the United States was still dominated by Southern landlords and had little interest in overseas wars of aggression.
If Japan knows a little about the United States and resists appropriately, it may not fall. The reason why there is no resistance lies in its own variables.
At that time, the shogunate that controlled Japan lived in Edo (Kanto Center) and the nominally supreme leader, the emperor, lived in Kyoto (Kansai Center). There was a deep contradiction between the two. The shogunate didn’t want to waste their money with the United States.
At that time, Japan, like the Qing Dynasty, was in a closed door state and was a bit black to the outside world. Japan has lost the courage to resist when it saw that the Qing Dynasty was in a mess.
But the difference is that the Qing Dynasty did not remember the invaders as heroes, while Japan regarded Perry as a hero.
Later, Britain, Russia and other countries went to friendship, and even the Netherlands stepped in.
When Britain and France were preparing to launch the second Opium War, the United States came to Japan again in spite of its own domestic crisis, saying that the degree of “friendship” last time was not enough. The Shogun had no choice but to enjoy it again.
In 1857, the Japan US agreement was born, and Americans received a series of privileges. In 1858, the United States forced Japan to sign the “Japan US Treaty of mending trade” and again obtained a series of privileges.
After the second Opium War, the Netherlands, Russia, Britain and France queued up again for “friendship”.
After the signing of the foreign power contract, the Japanese island basically became a semi colony.
From the Opium War to the invasion of the Eight Power Allied forces, the Qing Empire became a semi colony for 60 years. Japan’s efficiency was much higher. From 1853 to 1858, in the next five years, it became a semi colony, more than ten times faster than that of the Qing Empire.
But there is another fact: after the fall of the Qing Empire, it took nearly 50 years for the land of China to be integrated; Japan began to count from 1858, and more than 30 years later, it defeated the Qing Dynasty in the Sino Japanese War of 1894 and became the overlord of Asia.
Why should Japan commemorate Perry? This is related to the Japanese way of thinking. When Japan was a student behind China in those days, it commemorated Xufu in China, gave great courtesy to master Jianzhen, and respected Master zhushunshui of Neo Confucianism, because the Japanese thought they were the disseminators of civilization.
Although Perry looks like an invader, Japan also understands him as a disseminator of civilization. This is a Japanese characteristic and a big variable.
Japan commemorates Perry and expresses its determination to break away from Asia and enter Europe.
In other words, the U.S. invasion of Japan also gave Japan enlightenment, thus promoting Japan’s industrialization process. The big men who participated in the process of industrialization have great energy in Japanese history.
The enlightener of Meiji restoration was a arrogant scholar named Yoshida Songyin. He was full of blood and knowledge, plus a character who did not know the greatness of heaven and earth. So he offended a lot of people, and soon his head fell to the ground. But at the same time, he also taught a lot of bullish students.
Takasugi jinzuo, one of Yoshida matsuyin’s students, was a promoter of Japan’s military modernization (as Yuan Shikai, who was training the new army), and a flag figure of the curtain down movement. He died young on the eve of the overthrow of the shogunate. Otherwise he will become the first person in Japan.
Yoshida Matsuyama, the second student of Yoshida Matsuyama, was the founder of Japan’s modern army.
Hirofumi ITO, the third of Yoshida’s students, can be called the first person in the Meiji Restoration and one of the most important figures in Japanese history. It was he who pushed forward the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895 that wiped out the achievements of the 30-year westernization movement of the Qing Empire.
These people belong to the Changzhou vassal system and are one of the backbone of the Meiji Restoration. This system controlled the Japanese army until the Second World War was completely defeated by China and the United States. Later, in order to counter the influence of those old guys in the army, Emperor Hirohito began to cultivate a group of young officers and support them to “conquer the upper army”. Only then did he have such things as Ishihara kwan’er and Kazuo shin.
The main force to overthrow the shogunate came from the Chang Zhou fan and Samo fan.
The magnates of choushu fan all came from the underworld of Yoshida pine. Samofan chiefs are mainly sinister and realistic okubuolitong and bold xixianglongsheng. After the death of takasugi jinzuo, the two of them took over the flag of the curtain down movement and overthrew the shogunate.
But then, because of the uneven distribution of stolen goods and inconsistent ideas, Xixiang Longsheng was dragged into the water by the rebellious warrior class, led the warrior to revolt, and committed suicide after failure.
Okubuolitong was assassinated for offending too many people in promoting Japan’s industrialization.
Ito Bowen took over his banner, pushed Japan’s industrialization to a peak, and was finally assassinated.
Samofan forces were purged out of the army system due to the uprising of Xixiang Longsheng; But it promoted the development of the Japanese Navy. The Japanese army and navy have been tied up until the defeat.
The younger brother of Xixiang Longsheng, Xixiang congdao, organized the Japanese Navy; He didn’t know the Navy, so he used his fellow countryman Yamamoto’s military guard.
Yamamoto himself was born in the army system and did not understand the Navy; But he found a naval genius, Higashi Hirao. Yamamoto also has a dry son, Yamamoto 56. In other words, samofan controlled the lifeline of the Japanese Navy.
It was the genius of Dongxiang that enabled Japan to win the battle of Dadonggou in the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895 and the war against the Falklands Strait in the Russo Japanese war. After two key battles, the Japanese Navy has grown into a formidable force in the sea.
However, the victory of these two wars has plunged Japan into a state of infatuation and unrequited love for the “cannon and warship doctrine”, and it has gone all the way to the black, hit the southern wall and never looked back. When looking back, it has nothing left.
At the end of World War I, Mahan’s “sea power theory” swept the world, and all major players in the global village were fascinated by “giant ships and cannons”.
Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, shouted: “Great Britain would rather spend the last penny than maintain its naval superiority over the United States or any other country.” This tone is very similar to trump’s US priorities today.
The United States also declared that it would “build the most powerful and excellent Navy in the world”.
Japan’s plan was more elaborate. In 1920, it formulated an ambitious “8 · 8 fleet plan”. It relies on 8 warships less than 8 years old and 8 cruisers as the backbone to build a large fleet including a number of 5500 ton light cruisers and destroyers. This opportunity is nothing now, but it was very fierce a hundred years ago.
Fanatical plans soon triggered a financial crisis. In a sense, the world economic crisis in 1929 was actually the result of the arms race among countries. In Japan, in particular, naval appropriations have accounted for one third of the national budget.
Therefore, the study of World War II will find that Japan was the first to enter the economic crisis.
As early as 1929, Japan was very short of money and accelerated its invasion of China. The year before the outbreak of the world economic crisis (1928), the Japanese army assassinated zhangzuolin to prepare for the invasion of Northeast China; In 1931, after the outbreak of the economic crisis, the September 18th Incident was directly created and the Northeast was forcibly occupied.
In fact, as early as after the Sino Japanese War, the Japanese fleet had no rivals in Asia.
The reason why Japan wants to follow Mahan’s sea power theory to madly develop “artillery giant ships” is that it regards Britain and the United States as an imaginary enemy.
At that time, there was a popular theory in Japan that the highest level war was a race duel, that is, a decisive battle in the Pacific between Japan representing the yellow people and the United States representing the white people.
However, after the end of the economic crisis in 1929, Japan continued to indulge in the “cannon ship”; The United States began to look for new ways to seek speed and air superiority, and initially had the rudiment of aircraft carrier operations.
In the end, Japan’s artillery ships were eliminated by aircraft carriers.
The confrontation between Japan and the United States began with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan was still pretending to negotiate with the United States, using strategic fraud to the extreme.
In the process of attacking Pearl Harbor, the Japanese army concealed the whole process and used military fraud to the extreme.
In addition, on the covert front, Japan used espionage to the extreme.
That is to say, at the beginning of the showdown between Japan and the United States, Japan has used various routines to the extreme. But in the battle of Midway Island on june4,1942, Japan suffered a fatal five minute defeat.
The fatal five minutes occurred at 10:20 a.m. on the 4th. Due to the attack of the U.S. Army, the deck of the Japanese ship began to refuel and reload the escorted Zero fighter, and was unable to prepare for a counterattack.
The squadron of 33 US “fearless” dive bombers took off from the enterprise and divided into two squadrons to attack the Japanese aircraft carriers Akagi and Kaga respectively.
Major McCluskey, the captain of the US Bomber Squadron, was a fighter pilot. According to the combat procedure, he should lead a leading formation to attack the distant aircraft carrier Kaga. As a result, all the planes followed the Kaga and ignored the nearby Akagi.
Captain best recalled two planes to bomb the Chicheng with him as soon as he saw that everyone wanted to stay close and far away.
So the most brilliant classic battle example in the history of naval warfare was born: Captain best and other three people dropped three heavy bombs on the Chicheng, the first and third bombs were nearly lost, and the second bomb dropped by best hit the flight deck of the Chicheng!
It was an ordinary hit, but the ammunition piled on the deck of the Akagi was detonated and the Akagi sank. Best thus created a war example of killing an aircraft carrier with a bomb!
Such achievements have never been made before and will be difficult to repeat in the future. In addition, the Canglong and the Kaga sank because the deck ammunition was detonated. In just five minutes, the three aircraft carriers of the Japanese army turned into three fireballs in an instant, and the flames went straight into the sky.
Why is this result? The reason is very simple: the failure of the Japanese army’s strategic concept – artillery giant ship.
Afraid of failure, afraid of the failure of ideas. In the strategic design of the Japanese army in this battle, the aircraft carrier formation of Nanyun Zhongyi belongs to the force supporting landing operations, and the main formation of the Japanese army is the giant battleship led by Yamamoto.
According to the traditional concept of “sea power theory”, sea warfare means that everyone puts aside their battleships and heavy cruisers to bomb. Japan faithfully implemented Mahan’s theory and won the Sino Japanese War and the Russo Japanese war.
Mahan is also an American. The era he lived in was a glorious era for battleships. Radar technology was not mature, and the main function of the aircraft was for reconnaissance. Therefore, insufficient attention is paid to air control.
In view of its own learning ability, Japan has thoroughly understood Mahan’s sea power theory, but it is also bound by it.
The United States did not abandon Mahan’s sea power theory, but iteratively updated Mahan’s sea war concept, built a war machine around aircraft carriers, and paid more attention to air control.
Yamamoto is not conservative. He also emphasizes the role of aerial bombing, but does not raise it to the strategic level.
At the moment when life and death were decided, Yamamoto chose the traditional method of warfare, a method of warfare in which Yamamoto’s Quan Bing Wei and Toshiba Hirako made brilliant achievements, and chose conservatism. So he was defeated and ruined the future of the Japanese Navy.
Japan’s failure in the Pacific battlefield, to some extent, represents the sadness of a late developing country. It can not be better than the blue through innovation. In the end, it is always strangled by others. So is the battlefield, so is the shopping mall.
Through the Pacific War, the United States completely defeated Japan. After the Second World War, the relationship between the United States and Japan turned into knife and fish, and the game became control and anti control.
The American routine of controlling Japan is stick and carrot.
In terms of carrots, the United States is also very generous to Japan.
Japan’s post-war economic reconstruction, the United States is indispensable, in terms of funding and market support, so that Japan has become dependent on the United States. Japanese products are especially inseparable from the American market. American carrots are very successful.
In the big stick, the United States is more successful.
After the war, the US military took control of Japan’s strategic areas. Tokyo’s airspace management is still in the hands of the US military.
MacArthur reformed the Japanese system in an all-round way and formulated the peace constitution; Japan was deprived of the qualification to form an army and declare war on foreign countries.
The most successful thing about the United States is that Japan and its neighboring countries will never do well politically.
At the end of World War II, in exchange for the Soviet Union’s declaration of war against Japan, the United States and Britain agreed at the Yalta conference to allocate Japan’s “four northern islands” to the Soviet Union as booty.
However, when the Korean War broke out in 1951, the United States and Britain signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty with Japan, refusing to recognize the sovereignty of the Soviet Union over the “four northern islands”. As a result, Japan and the Soviet Union (Russia) have been wrangling over the ownership of the four northern islands.
For the same reason, the United States transferred the “administrative jurisdiction” of the Diaoyu Islands and Ryukyu to Japan and planted mines between China and Japan. Japan and South Korea also have territorial disputes. In this way, China, Japan and the ROK will end their talks on East Asian integration due to the island dispute.
In this way, Japan, Russia and China will always stumble and be forced to be under the “protection” of the United States.
There are two main ways of anti control in Japan.
At the economic level, Japan was once close to the top of the world. The world bought it, and there was a trend to buy the United States. However, under the coercion and inducement of the United States, Japan signed a “Plaza Agreement”, the economy fell into a high shock (some say it was lost for 20 years), and sun Xingxing failed to escape from the five finger mountain of the Tathagata after all.
At the political level, Japan tried to improve relations with China and promote East Asian integration.
However, Japan’s pro China politicians have not achieved good results.
Because Japan has a special search Department (formerly known as MacArthur’s “Rangers”), just like the Ming Dynasty Royal Guards (played by prosecutors in South Korea), it has great power and can independently investigate the corners of Japanese politics.
These members of the special search department have studied in the CIA of the United States, are independently guided by the United States, and agree with the American way of thinking and values. For politicians who are close to China, the special search department will spare no effort to investigate them, magnify their small stains, and make stains even if there are no stains.
Take Shinzo Abe for example. When he became Prime Minister for the first time, he tried to be pro China. After 366 days, he was forced to step down (because of colitis). When he was Prime Minister for the second time, he was hard on China and smoothly broke a series of governing records in Japanese politics.
At the key time point of the game between China and the United States, Abe once again retired on the grounds of colitis. Global village observers believe that this is a routine for Abe to avoid the storm.
In short, the carrots and sticks given by the United States to Japan were successful.
Nevertheless, Japan’s independent space is also gradually expanding, which is gradually affecting the pattern of the Asia Pacific region.
In conclusion, the international community is more concerned with the law of the jungle.
Land power countries should learn how to use carrots and sticks from Anglo American and sea power countries.
In those days, the British Empire waved carrots to India.
The United States’ routine of Japanese carrots and sticks is also vigorous.
In contrast, land power countries tend to be good people. When the Soviet Union helped so many countries, few of them remember it well.
With the development of economy, China’s foreign aid is increasing day by day. We should fully absorb the experience and lessons of history.